Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with proteinuria and could be a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, few studies have examined the significance of vitamin D insufficiency as a contributing factor for the development of ESRD in the Asian chronic kidney disease (CKD) population.
Authors examined the relationship between vitamin D status and the staging of CKD using data from an outpatient clinic-based screening in 2,895 Thai CKD patients. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were analyzed according to CKD stages. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration < 10 ng/mL and 10–30 ng/mL, respectively.
The mean (SD) 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower according to severity of renal impairment (CKD stage 3a: 27.84±14.03 ng/mL, CKD stage 3b: 25.86±11.14 ng/mL, CKD stage 4: 24.09±11.65 and CKD stage 5: 20.82±9.86 ng/mL, p<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was from CKD stage 3a, 3b, 4 to 5, 66.6%, 70.9%, 74.6%, and 84.7% (p<0.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≤ 30 ng/mL) and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 10 ng/mL) for developing ESRD, after adjustment for age, gender, hemoglobin, serum albumin, calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were 2.19 (95% CI 1.07 to 4.48) and 16.76 (95% CI 4.89 to 57.49), respectively.
This study demonstrates that 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are more common and associated with the level of kidney function in the Thai CKD population especially advanced stage of CKD.