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1.  Low-Dose Aspirin for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104179.
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous trials have investigated the effects of low-dose aspirin on CVD prevention in patients with diabetes; however, patients with CKD were not examined. The role of aspirin in diabetics is controversial, and the available literature is contradictory. Therefore, we studied whether low-dose aspirin would be beneficial for patients with CKD, a group that is at high risk for CVD.
Method
From a total of 25340 patients with CKD, 1884 recipients of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day) were paired 1∶1 with non-recipients for analysis using propensity score matching. The primary endpoint was the development of atherosclerotic CVD, including coronary arterial disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Secondary endpoints included death from any cause, bleeding events, doubling of serum creatinine, and renal death.
Results
The incidence of a primary endpoint of any atherosclerotic CVD was significantly higher in the aspirin users than in the non-users (P<0.001). Secondary endpoints, including all-cause mortality and composite bleeding events, were not significantly different between the aspirin users and the non-users. However, the doubling of serum creatinine levels (P = 0.001) and renal death (P = 0.042) were significantly associated with the use of aspirin.
Conclusion
These results suggest that the use of low-dose aspirin in patients with CKD may have harmful consequences related to the development of CVD and renal progression.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104179
PMCID: PMC4122498  PMID: 25093403
2.  KNOW-KT (KoreaN cohort study for outcome in patients with kidney transplantation: a 9-year longitudinal cohort study): study rationale and methodology 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:77.
Background
Asian patients undergoing kidney transplantation (KT) generally have better renal allograft survival and a lower burden of cardiovascular disease than those of other racial groups. The KNOW-KT aims to explore allograft survival rate, cardiovascular events, and metabolic profiles and to elucidate the risk factors in Korean KT patients.
Methods
KNOW-KT is a multicenter, observational cohort study encompassing 8 transplant centers in the Republic of Korea. KNOW-KT will enroll 1,000 KT recipients between 2012 and 2015 and follow them up to 9 years. At the time of KT and at pre-specified intervals, clinical information, laboratory test results, and functional and imaging studies on cardiovascular disease and metabolic complications will be recorded. Comorbid status will be assessed by the age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index. Medication adherence and information on quality of life (QoL) will be monitored periodically. The QoL will be assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Donors will include both living donors and deceased donors whose status will be assessed by the Kidney Donor Risk Index. Primary endpoints include graft loss and patient mortality. Secondary endpoints include renal functional deterioration (a decrease in eGFR to <30 mL/min/1.73 m2), acute rejection, cardiovascular event, albuminuria, new-onset diabetes after transplant, and QoL. Data on other adverse outcomes including episodes of infection, malignancy, recurrence of original renal disease, fracture, and hospitalization will also be collected. A bio-bank has been established for the acquisition of DNA, RNA, and protein from serum and urine samples of recipients at regular intervals. Bio-samples from donors will also be collected at the time of KT. KNOW-KT was registered in an international clinical trial registry (NCT02042963 at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) on January 20th, 2014.
Conclusion
The KNOW-KT, the first large-scale cohort study in Asian KT patients, is expected to represent the Asian KT population and provide information on their natural course, complications, and risk factors for complications.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-77
PMCID: PMC4022441  PMID: 24884405
Cohort study; Complication; Kidney transplantation; KNOW-KT; Risk factor
3.  The EF-hand calcium-binding protein tescalcin is a potential oncotarget in colorectal cancer 
Oncotarget  2014;5(8):2149-2160.
Tescalcin (TESC) is an EF-hand calcium binding protein that is differentially expressed in several tissues, however it is not reported that the expression and functional roles of TESC in colorectal cancer. Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of TESC in colorectal cancer tissues were assessed using RT-PCR, real time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and clinicopathologic analyses. Quantitative analysis of TESC levels in serum specimens was performed using sandwich ELISA. Colorectal cancer cells transfected with TESC small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA were examined in cell proliferation assays, phospho-MAPK array, and mouse xenograft models. Here we demonstrated that TESC is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC), but was not expressed in normal mucosa and premalignant dysplastic lesions. Furthermore, serum TESC levels were elevated in patients with CRC. Knockdown of TESC inhibited the Akt-dependent NF-κB pathway and decreased cell survival in vitro. Depletion of TESC reduced tumor growth in a CRC xenograft model. Thus, TESC is a potential diagnostic marker and oncotarget in colorectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC4039152  PMID: 24811141
Tescalcin; colorectal cancer; cell growth; tumor growth, NF-κB
4.  Generation and Characterization of Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Transgenic Pigs 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e46646.
Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046646
PMCID: PMC3465346  PMID: 23071605
5.  Urinary N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase as a surrogate marker for renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: 1 year prospective cohort study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:93.
Background
Renal failure is one of the most serious complications associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). To date, early markers have failed to predict renal function deterioration at the early stages. This 1-year prospective study evaluated N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a new surrogate marker for renal function in ADPKD.
Methods
A total of 270 patients were enrolled in the study, and we measured urinary NAG, β2-microglobulin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) prospectively for 1 year to compare their predictive values for renal function.
Results
Baseline urinary NAG/Cr was negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r2 = 0.153, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with total kidney volume (TKV) (r2 = 0.113, P < 0.001). Among other biomarkers, urinary NAG/Cr better discriminated patients with decreased renal function from those with conserved renal function, showing the largest area under the curve (AUC 0.794). Immunohistochemical study revealed strong staining along the cyst-lining epithelial cells as well as the nearby compressed tubular epithelial cells. However, both single and repeated measurements of urinary NAG/Cr failed to predict renal function decline in 1 year.
Conclusions
Urinary NAG/Cr may be a useful surrogate marker for renal function in ADPKD patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-93
PMCID: PMC3465238  PMID: 22935351
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Biomarkers; Renal function
6.  Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Ceftazidime after Intravenous Administration in Patients Undergoing Automated Peritoneal Dialysis▿ 
The pharmacokinetics (PK) of ceftazidime after intravenous (i.v.) administration during automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and their dependence on peritoneal membrane transport are the targets of the present study. Eleven patients receiving a single i.v. dose of ceftazidime (15 mg/kg of body weight) (seven males, median [interquatile] age, 59 [36 to 62]) were recruited. Serum and dialysate samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of each of the five dwells during a 24-h period, with dwells 1, 2, and 3 using an automated cycler (designated on-cycler) and dwells 4 and 5 being manual exchanges (designated off-cycler), together with urine collection during the same period. Population PK analysis was employed to estimate the PK parameters. Peritoneal equilibration tests were performed for all patients, and correlations between peritoneal clearance (CLPD) for ceftazidime and dialysate-to-plasma ratios for creatinine (D/Pcr) were obtained using the Spearman's product correlation coefficient (ρ). Ceftazidime renal clearance (CLrenal) was 0.052 ml/min/kg, and CLPD was 0.063 ± 0.050 ml/min/kg. CLPD for on- and off-cycler were 0.071 and 0.058 ml/min/kg (P = 0.164), respectively. A significant correlation between CLPD and D/Pcr was observed, with one outlier excluded, suggesting that CLPD for ceftazidime during APD is dependent upon the peritoneal small-solute transport rate. A model prediction yielded adequate serum and dialysate concentrations of ceftazidime throughout a 24-h period for sensitive organisms (MIC, 8 μg/ml) by either i.v. (at 15 mg/kg) or intraperitoneal (i.p.; at 20 mg/kg) administration during off-cycler dwells. The present study suggests that the i.v. administration of ceftazidime at 15 mg/kg or i.p. administration of ceftazidime at 20 mg/kg during a long dwell every 24 h can be recommended for treating systemic or intraperitoneal infections of APD patients.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01543-10
PMCID: PMC3101436  PMID: 21402833
7.  Cardiovascular Diseases after Kidney Transplantation in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(11):1589-1594.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in renal allograft recipients with functioning graft. Our study aimed to determine the incidence and the risk factors of cardiovascular disease after renal transplantation in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed 430 adult recipients who underwent kidney transplantation between January 1997 and February 2007. CVD was defined as a composite outcome of ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular accident and peripheral vascular disease. Mean age of recipients was 40.0±11.8 yr. Mean duration of follow-up was 72±39 months. The cumulative incidence of CVD after renal transplantation was 2.4% at 5 yr, 5.4% at 10 yr and 11.4% at 12 yr. Multivariate analysis revealed that recipient's age, diabetes mellitus and duration of dialysis before transplantation were associated with post-transplant CVD (hazard ratio 1.843 [95% CI, 1.005-3.381], 3.846 [95% CI, 1.025-14.432] and 3.394 [95% CI, 1.728-6.665] respectively). In conclusion, old age, duration of dialysis and diabetes mellitus are important risk factors for post-transplant CVD, although the incidence of post-renal transplant CVD is lower in Korea than that in western countries.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.11.1589
PMCID: PMC2966995  PMID: 21060747
Cardiovascular Diseases; Incidence; Kidney Transplantation; Risk Factors; Diabetes Mellitus; Koreans
8.  Assessment of Deceased Donor Kidneys Using a Donor Scoring System 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(6):870-876.
Purpose
Marginal grafts should be used more actively in Asian countries where deceased donor transplantation is unpopular. We modified a quantitative donor scoring system proposed by Nyberg and his colleagues and developed a donor scoring system in order to assess the quality of deceased donor grafts and their prognostic value as an initial effort to promote usage of marginal donors.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 337 patients.
Results
A scoring system was derived from six donor variables [age, 0-25; renal function, 0-4; history of hypertension, 0-4; Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) mismatch, 0-3; body weight, 0-1; cause of death, 0-3 points]. Donor grafts were stratified by scores: grade A, 0-10; grade B, 11-20; grade C, 21-30; and grade D, 31-40 points. Donor grades significantly correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 6 months (A, 64.0 mL/min/1.73 m2; B, 57.0 mL/min/1.73 m2; C, 46.8 mL/min/1.73 m2; p < 0.001). The five-year graft survival rate was also lower in grade C than grade A (74% vs. 93%, p = 0.002). Donors in grade C and D were regarded as marginal donors. The proportion of marginal donors was much lower in Korea, compared with data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (15.2% vs. 29%).
Conclusion
Considering the scarcity of deceased donor kidneys and the relatively better graft outcome with lower grade-donors in Korea, it is worth increasing the usage of marginal grafts.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.6.870
PMCID: PMC2995966  PMID: 20879053
Kidney transplantation; cadaver; donor selection
9.  Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Therapy for a Massive Polycystic Liver in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients 
Polycystic liver is the most common extra-renal manifestation associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), comprising up to 80% of all features. Patients with polycystic liver often suffer from abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, or dyspnea; however, there have been few ways to relieve their symptoms effectively and safely. Therefore, we tried transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), which has been used in treating hepatocellular carcinoma. We enrolled four patients with ADPKD in Seoul National University Hospital, suffering from enlarged polycystic liver. We embolized the hepatic arteries supplying the dominant hepatic segments replaced by cysts using polyvinyl alcohol particles and micro-coils. The patients were evaluated 12 months after embolization for the change in both liver and cyst volumes. Among four patients, one patient was lost in follow up and 3 patients were included in the analysis. Both liver (33%; 10%) and cyst volume (47.7%; 11.4%) substantially decreased in two patients. Common adverse events were fever, epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. We suggest that TAE is effective and safe in treating symptomatic polycystic liver in selected ADPKD patients.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.1.57
PMCID: PMC2650978  PMID: 19270814
Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant; Embolization, Therapeutic

Results 1-9 (9)