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1.  Incomplete Reversibility of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Decline Following Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Exposure 
Jose, Sophie | Hamzah, Lisa | Campbell, Lucy J. | Hill, Teresa | Fisher, Martin | Leen, Clifford | Gilson, Richard | Walsh, John | Nelson, Mark | Hay, Phillip | Johnson, Margaret | Chadwick, David | Nitsch, Dorothea | Jones, Rachael | Sabin, Caroline A. | Post, Frank A. | Ainsworth, Jonathan | Anderson, Jane | Babiker, Abdel | Chadwick, David | Delpech, Valerie | Dunn, David | Fisher, Martin | Gazzard, Brian | Gilson, Richard | Gompels, Mark | Hay, Phillip | Hill, Teresa | Johnson, Margaret | Kegg, Stephen | Leen, Clifford | Nelson, Mark | Orkin, Chloe | Palfreeman, Adrian | Phillips, Andrew | Pillay, Deenan | Post, Frank | Sabin, Caroline | Sachikonye, Memory | Schwenk, Achim | Walsh, John | Hill, Teresa | Huntington, Susie | Josie, Sophie | Phillips, Andrew | Sabin, Caroline | Thornton, Alicia | Dunn, David | Glabay, Adam | Orkin, C. | Garrett, N. | Lynch, J. | Hand, J. | de Souza, C. | Fisher, M. | Perry, N. | Tilbury, S. | Churchill, D. | Gazzard, B. | Nelson, M. | Waxman, M. | Asboe, D. | Mandalia, S. | Delpech, V. | Anderson, J. | Munshi, S. | Korat, H. | Poulton, M. | Taylor, C. | Gleisner, Z. | Campbell, L. | Babiker, Abdel | Dunn, David | Glabay, Adam | Gilson, R. | Brima, N. | Williams, I. | Schwenk, A. | Ainsworth, J. | Wood, C. | Miller, S. | Johnson, M. | Youle, M. | Lampe, F. | Smith, C. | Grabowska, H. | Chaloner, C. | Puradiredja, D. | Walsh, J. | Weber, J. | Ramzan, F. | Mackie, N. | Winston, A. | Leen, C. | Wilson, A. | Gompels, M. | Allan, S. | Palfreeman, A. | Moore, A. | Chadwick, D. | Wakeman, K. | Kegg, Stephen | Main, Paul | Mitchell,  | Hunter,  | Sachikonye, Memory | Hay, Phillip | Dhillon, Mandip
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2014;210(3):363-373.
Background. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been linked to renal impairment, but the extent to which this impairment is reversible is unclear. We aimed to investigate the reversibility of renal decline during TDF therapy.
Methods. Cox proportional hazards models assessed factors associated with discontinuing TDF in those with an exposure duration of >6 months. In those who discontinued TDF therapy, linear piecewise regression models estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slopes before initiation of, during, and after discontinuation of TDF therapy. Factors associated with not achieving eGFR recovery 6 months after discontinuing TDF were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.
Results. We observed declines in the eGFR during TDF exposure (mean slopes, −15.7 mL/minute/1.73 m2/year [95% confidence interval {CI}, −20.5 to −10.9] during the first 3 months and −3.1 mL/minute/1.73 m2/year [95% CI, −4.6 to −1.7] thereafter) and evidence of eGFR increases following discontinuation of TDF therapy (mean slopes, 12.5 mL/minute/1.73 m2/year [95% CI, 8.9–16.1] during the first 3 months and 0.8 mL/minute/1.73 m2/year [95% CI, .1–1.5] thereafter). Following TDF discontinuation, 38.6% of patients with a decline in the eGFR did not experience recovery. A higher eGFR at baseline, a lower eGFR after discontinuation of TDF therapy, and more-prolonged exposure to TDF were associated with an increased risk of incomplete recovery 6 months after discontinuation of TDF therapy.
Conclusions. This study shows that a decline in the eGFR during TDF therapy was not fully reversible in one third of patients and suggests that prolonged TDF exposure at a low eGFR should be avoided.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jiu107
PMCID: PMC4091582  PMID: 24585896
tenofovir; highly active antiretroviral therapy; eGFR; eGFR slopes; renal function; kidney
2.  Low frequency of genotypic resistance in HIV-1-infected patients failing an atazanavir-containing regimen: a clinical cohort study 
Dolling, David I. | Dunn, David T. | Sutherland, Katherine A. | Pillay, Deenan | Mbisa, Jean L. | Parry, Chris M. | Post, Frank A. | Sabin, Caroline A. | Cane, Patricia A. | Aitken, Celia | Asboe, David | Webster, Daniel | Cane, Patricia | Castro, Hannah | Dunn, David | Dolling, David | Chadwick, David | Churchill, Duncan | Clark, Duncan | Collins, Simon | Delpech, Valerie | Geretti, Anna Maria | Goldberg, David | Hale, Antony | Hué, Stéphane | Kaye, Steve | Kellam, Paul | Lazarus, Linda | Leigh-Brown, Andrew | Mackie, Nicola | Orkin, Chloe | Rice, Philip | Pillay, Deenan | Phillips, Andrew | Sabin, Caroline | Smit, Erasmus | Templeton, Kate | Tilston, Peter | Tong, William | Williams, Ian | Zhang, Hongyi | Zuckerman, Mark | Greatorex, Jane | Wildfire, Adrian | O'Shea, Siobhan | Mullen, Jane | Mbisa, Tamyo | Cox, Alison | Tandy, Richard | Hale, Tony | Fawcett, Tracy | Hopkins, Mark | Ashton, Lynn | Booth, Claire | Garcia-Diaz, Ana | Shepherd, Jill | Schmid, Matthias L. | Payne, Brendan | Hay, Phillip | Rice, Phillip | Paynter, Mary | Bibby, David | Kirk, Stuart | MacLean, Alasdair | Gunson, Rory | Coughlin, Kate | Fearnhill, Esther | Fradette, Lorraine | Porter, Kholoud | Ainsworth, Jonathan | Anderson, Jane | Babiker, Abdel | Fisher, Martin | Gazzard, Brian | Gilson, Richard | Gompels, Mark | Hill, Teresa | Johnson, Margaret | Kegg, Stephen | Leen, Clifford | Nelson, Mark | Palfreeman, Adrian | Post, Frank | Sachikonye, Memory | Schwenk, Achim | Walsh, John | Huntington, Susie | Jose, Sophie | Thornton, Alicia | Glabay, Adam | Orkin, C. | Garrett, N. | Lynch, J. | Hand, J. | de Souza, C. | Fisher, M. | Perry, N. | Tilbury, S. | Gazzard, B. | Nelson, M. | Waxman, M. | Asboe, D. | Mandalia, S. | Delpech, V. | Anderson, J. | Munshi, S. | Korat, H. | Welch, J. | Poulton, M. | MacDonald, C. | Gleisner, Z. | Campbell, L. | Gilson, R. | Brima, N. | Williams, I. | Schwenk, A. | Ainsworth, J. | Wood, C. | Miller, S. | Johnson, M. | Youle, M. | Lampe, F. | Smith, C. | Grabowska, H. | Chaloner, C. | Puradiredja, D. | Walsh, J. | Weber, J. | Ramzan, F. | Mackie, N. | Winston, A. | Leen, C. | Wilson, A. | Allan, S. | Palfreeman, A. | Moore, A. | Wakeman, K.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy  2013;68(10):2339-2343.
Objectives
To determine protease mutations that develop at viral failure for protease inhibitor (PI)-naive patients on a regimen containing the PI atazanavir.
Methods
Resistance tests on patients failing atazanavir, conducted as part of routine clinical care in a multicentre observational study, were randomly matched by subtype to resistance tests from PI-naive controls to account for natural polymorphisms. Mutations from the consensus B sequence across the protease region were analysed for association and defined using the IAS-USA 2011 classification list.
Results
Four hundred and five of 2528 (16%) patients failed therapy containing atazanavir as a first PI over a median (IQR) follow-up of 1.76 (0.84–3.15) years and 322 resistance tests were available for analysis. Recognized major atazanavir mutations were found in six atazanavir-experienced patients (P < 0.001), including I50L and N88S. The minor mutations most strongly associated with atazanavir experience were M36I, M46I, F53L, A71V, V82T and I85V (P < 0.05). Multiple novel mutations, I15S, L19T, K43T, L63P/V, K70Q, V77I and L89I/T/V, were also associated with atazanavir experience.
Conclusions
Viral failure on atazanavir-containing regimens was not common and major resistance mutations were rare, suggesting that adherence may be a major contributor to viral failure. Novel mutations were described that have not been previously documented.
doi:10.1093/jac/dkt199
PMCID: PMC3772741  PMID: 23711895
HIV; drug resistance mutations; naive patients; protease inhibitors; virological failure
3.  Adverse events: ART and the kidney: alterations in renal function and renal toxicity 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19513.
Renal dysfunction is common in HIV-positive patients who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Several antiretrovirals have been associated with kidney disease progression, inhibition of renal tubular transporters that mediate creatinine secretion or impaired reabsorption of phosphate and low-molecular weight proteins. These aberrations of renal function are typically non-treatment limiting and of unclear clinical significance. By contrast, severe renal toxicity is infrequent in well-managed patents. Tenofovir-DF and atazanavir may cause acute tubular injury, tubule-interstitial nephritis or nephrolithiasis. Discontinuation of the offending drug is required to mitigate the adverse effects on kidney or bone. This presentation will discuss ART-associated changes in renal function and treatment-limiting renal toxicity in terms of incidence, risk factors, putative mechanism and provide recommendations for clinical practice.
doi:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19513
PMCID: PMC4224819  PMID: 25394022
4.  Major challenges in clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe compared with Western Europe and Latin America 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19505.
Introduction
Rates of both TB/HIV co-infection and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). Data on the clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients are scarce. Our aim was to study the clinical characteristics of TB/HIV patients in Europe and Latin America (LA) at TB diagnosis, identify factors associated with MDR-TB and assess the activity of initial TB treatment regimens given the results of drug-susceptibility tests (DST).
Material and Methods
We enrolled 1413 TB/HIV patients from 62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, Western Europe (WE), Southern Europe (SE) and LA from January 2011 to December 2013. Among patients who completed DST within the first month of TB therapy, we linked initial TB treatment regimens to the DST results and calculated the distribution of patients receiving 0, 1, 2, 3 and ≥4 active drugs in each region. Risk factors for MDR-TB were identified in logistic regression models.
Results
Significant differences were observed between EE (n=844), WE (n=152), SE (n=164) and LA (n=253) for use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at TB diagnosis (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001), a definite TB diagnosis (culture and/or PCR positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001) and MDR-TB prevalence (34%, 3%, 3% and 11%, p <0.0001 among those with DST results). The history of injecting drug use [adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.03, (95% CI 1.00–4.09)], prior TB treatment (aOR = 3.42, 95% CI 1.88–6.22) and living in EE (aOR = 7.19, 95% CI 3.28–15.78) were associated with MDR-TB. For 569 patients with available DST, the initial TB treatment contained ≥3 active drugs in 64% of patients in EE compared with 90–94% of patients in other regions (Figure 1a). Had the patients received initial therapy with standard therapy [Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol (RHZE)], the corresponding proportions would have been 64% vs. 86–97%, respectively (Figure 1b).
Conclusions
In EE, TB/HIV patients had poorer exposure to cART, less often a definitive TB diagnosis and more often MDR-TB compared to other parts of Europe and LA. Initial TB therapy in EE was sub-optimal, with less than two-thirds of patients receiving at least three active drugs, and improved compliance with standard RHZE treatment does not seem to be the solution. Improved management of TB/HIV patients requires routine use of DST, initial TB therapy according to prevailing resistance patterns and more widespread use of cART.
doi:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19505
PMCID: PMC4224915  PMID: 25394014
5.  Impact on life expectancy of HIV-1 positive individuals of CD4+ cell count and viral load response to antiretroviral therapy 
AIDS (London, England)  2014;28(8):1193-1202.
Objective:
The objective of this study is to estimate life expectancies of HIV-positive patients conditional on response to antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Methods:
Patients aged more than 20 years who started ART during 2000–2010 (excluding IDU) in HIV clinics contributing to the UK CHIC Study were followed for mortality until 2012. We determined the latest CD4+ cell count and viral load before ART and in each of years 1–5 of ART. For each duration of ART, life tables based on estimated mortality rates by sex, age, latest CD4+ cell count and viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/ml), were used to estimate expected age at death for ages 20–85 years.
Results:
Of 21 388 patients who started ART, 961 (4.5%) died during 110 697 person-years. At start of ART, expected age at death [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 35-year-old men with CD4+ cell count less than 200, 200–349, at least 350 cells/μl was 71 (68–73), 78 (74–82) and 77 (72–81) years, respectively, compared with 78 years for men in the general UK population. Thirty-five-year-old men who increased their CD4+ cell count in the first year of ART from less than 200 to 200–349 or at least 350 cells/μl and achieved viral suppression gained 7 and 10 years, respectively. After 5 years on ART, expected age at death of 35-year-old men varied from 54 (48–61) (CD4+ cell count <200 cells/μl and no viral suppression) to 80 (76–83) years (CD4+ cell count ≥350 cells/μl and viral suppression).
Conclusion:
Successfully treated HIV-positive individuals have a normal life expectancy. Patients who started ART with a low CD4+ cell count significantly improve their life expectancy if they have a good CD4+ cell count response and undetectable viral load.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000243
PMCID: PMC4004637  PMID: 24556869
antiretroviral therapy; CD4+ cell count; HIV; HIV-1 RNA; life expectancy; viral load
6.  TB Meningitis in HIV-Positive Patients in Europe and Argentina: Clinical Outcome and Factors Associated with Mortality 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:373601.
Objectives. The study aimed at describing characteristics and outcome of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in HIV-positive patients and comparing these parameters with those of extrapulmonary TB (TBEP) and pulmonary TB (TBP). Methods. Kaplan-Meier estimation and Poisson regression models were used to assess the mortality following TB diagnosis and to evaluate potential prognostic factors for the 3 groups of TB patients separately. Results. A total of 100 patients with TBM, 601 with TBEP, and 371 TBP were included. Patients with TBM had lower CD4 cell counts and only 17.0% received antiretroviral therapy (ART) at TB diagnosis. The cumulative probability of death at 12 months following TB was 51.2% for TBM (95% CI 41.4–61.6%), 12.3% for TBP (8.9–15.7%), and 19.4% for TBEP (16.1–22.6) (P < 0.0001; log-rank test). For TBM, factors associated with a poorer prognosis were not being on ART (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 4.00 (1.72–9.09), a prior AIDS diagnosis (aIRR = 4.82 (2.61–8.92)), and receiving care in Eastern Europe (aIRR = 5.41 (2.58–11.34))). Conclusions. TBM among HIV-positive patients was associated with a high mortality rate, especially for patients from Eastern Europe and patients with advanced HIV-infection, which urgently calls for public health interventions to improve both TB and HIV aspects of patient management.
doi:10.1155/2013/373601
PMCID: PMC3930027  PMID: 24699884
7.  Effects of Hydroxychloroquine on Immune Activation and Disease Progression Among HIV-Infected Patients Not Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy A Randomized Controlled Trial 
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association  2012;308(4):10.1001/jama.2012.6936.
Context
Therapies to decrease immune activation might be of benefit in slowing HIV disease progression.
Objective
To determine whether hydroxychloroquine decreases immune activation and slows CD4 cell decline.
Design, Setting, and Patients
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed at 10 HIV outpatient clinics in the United Kingdom between June 2008 and February 2011. The 83 patients enrolled had asymptomatic HIV infection, were not taking antiretroviral therapy, and had CD4 cell counts greater than 400 cells/μL.
Intervention
Hydroxychloroquine, 400 mg, or matching placebo once daily for 48 weeks.
Main Outcome Measures
The primary outcome measure was change in the proportion of activated CD8 cells (measured by the expression of CD38 and HLA-DR surface markers), with CD4 cell count and HIV viral load as secondary outcomes. Analysis was by intention to treat using mixed linear models.
Results
There was no significant difference in CD8 cell activation between the 2 groups (−4.8% and −4.2% in the hydroxychloroquine and placebo groups, respectively, at week 48; difference, −0.6%; 95% CI, −4.8% to 3.6%; P=.80). Decline in CD4 cell count was greater in the hydroxychloroquine than placebo group (−85 cells/μL vs −23 cells/μL at week 48; difference, −62 cells/μL; 95% CI, −115 to −8; P=.03). Viral load increased in the hydroxychloroquine group compared with placebo (0.61 log10 copies/mL vs 0.23 log10 copies/mL at week 48; difference, 0.38 log10 copies/mL; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.63; P=.003). Antiretroviral therapy was started in 9 patients in the hydroxychloroquine group and 1 in the placebo group. Trial medication was well tolerated, but more patients reported influenza-like illness in the hydroxychloroquine group compared with the placebo group (29% vs 10%; P=.03).
Conclusion
Among HIV-infected patients not taking antiretroviral therapy, the use of hydroxychloroquine compared with placebo did not reduce CD8 cell activation but did result in a greater decline in CD4 cell count and increased viral replication.
Trial Registration
isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN30019040
doi:10.1001/jama.2012.6936
PMCID: PMC3821003  PMID: 22820788
8.  Role of HIV Infection Duration and CD4 Cell Level at Initiation of Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy on Risk of Failure 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75608.
Background
The development of HIV drug resistance and subsequent virological failure are often cited as potential disadvantages of early cART initiation. However, their long-term probability is not known, and neither is the role of duration of infection at the time of initiation.
Methods
Patients enrolled in the UK Register of HIV seroconverters were followed-up from cART initiation to last HIV-RNA measurement. Through survival analysis we examined predictors of virologic failure (2HIV-RNA ≥400 c/l while on cART) including CD4 count and HIV duration at initiation. We also estimated the cumulative probabilities of failure and drug resistance (from the available HIV nucleotide sequences) for early initiators (cART within 12 months of seroconversion).
Results
Of 1075 starting cART at a median (IQR) CD4 count 272 (190,370) cells/mm3 and HIV duration 3 (1,6) years, virological failure occurred in 163 (15%). Higher CD4 count at initiation, but not HIV infection duration at cART initiation, was independently associated with lower risk of failure (p=0.033 and 0.592 respectively). Among 230 patients initiating cART early, 97 (42%) discontinued it after a median of 7 months; cumulative probabilities of resistance and failure by 8 years were 7% (95% CI 4,11) and 19% (13,25), respectively.
Conclusion
Although the rate of discontinuation of early cART in our cohort was high, the long-term rate of virological failure was low. Our data do not support early cART initiation being associated with increased risk of failure and drug resistance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075608
PMCID: PMC3782426  PMID: 24086588
9.  Risk Factors and Outcomes for Late Presentation for HIV-Positive Persons in Europe: Results from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe Study (COHERE) 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(9):e1001510.
Amanda Mocroft and colleagues investigate risk factors and health outcomes associated with diagnosis at a late stage of infection in individuals across Europe.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Few studies have monitored late presentation (LP) of HIV infection over the European continent, including Eastern Europe. Study objectives were to explore the impact of LP on AIDS and mortality.
Methods and Findings
LP was defined in Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) as HIV diagnosis with a CD4 count <350/mm3 or an AIDS diagnosis within 6 months of HIV diagnosis among persons presenting for care between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2011. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with LP and Poisson regression to explore the impact on AIDS/death. 84,524 individuals from 23 cohorts in 35 countries contributed data; 45,488 were LP (53.8%). LP was highest in heterosexual males (66.1%), Southern European countries (57.0%), and persons originating from Africa (65.1%). LP decreased from 57.3% in 2000 to 51.7% in 2010/2011 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.96; 95% CI 0.95–0.97). LP decreased over time in both Central and Northern Europe among homosexual men, and male and female heterosexuals, but increased over time for female heterosexuals and male intravenous drug users (IDUs) from Southern Europe and in male and female IDUs from Eastern Europe. 8,187 AIDS/deaths occurred during 327,003 person-years of follow-up. In the first year after HIV diagnosis, LP was associated with over a 13-fold increased incidence of AIDS/death in Southern Europe (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 13.02; 95% CI 8.19–20.70) and over a 6-fold increased rate in Eastern Europe (aIRR 6.64; 95% CI 3.55–12.43).
Conclusions
LP has decreased over time across Europe, but remains a significant issue in the region in all HIV exposure groups. LP increased in male IDUs and female heterosexuals from Southern Europe and IDUs in Eastern Europe. LP was associated with an increased rate of AIDS/deaths, particularly in the first year after HIV diagnosis, with significant variation across Europe. Earlier and more widespread testing, timely referrals after testing positive, and improved retention in care strategies are required to further reduce the incidence of LP.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Every year about 2.5 million people become newly infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. HIV can be transmitted through unprotected sex with an infected partner, from an HIV-positive mother to her unborn baby, or through injection of drugs. Most people do not become ill immediately after infection with HIV although some develop a short influenza-like illness. The next stage of the HIV infection, which may last up to 10 years, also has no major symptoms but, during this stage, HIV slowly destroys immune system cells, including CD4 cells, a type of lymphocyte. Eventually, when the immune system is unable to fight off infections by other disease-causing organisms, HIV-positive people develop AIDS-defining conditions—unusual viral, bacterial, and fungal infections and unusual tumors. Progression to AIDS occurs when any severe AIDS-defining condition is diagnosed, when the CD4 count in the blood falls below 200 cells/mm3, or when CD4 cells account for fewer than 15% of lymphocytes.
Why Was This Study Done?
People need to know they are HIV positive as soon as possible after they become infected because antiretroviral therapy, which controls but does not cure HIV infection, works best if it is initiated when people still have a relatively high CD4 count. Early diagnosis also reduces the risk of onward HIV transmission. However, 40%–60% of HIV-positive individuals in developed countries are not diagnosed until they have a low CD4 count or an AIDS-defining illness. Reasons for such late presentation include fear of discrimination or stigmatization, limited knowledge about HIV risk factors, testing, and treatment together with missed opportunities to offer an HIV test. Policy makers involved in national and international HIV control programs need detailed information about patterns of late presentation before they can make informed decisions about how to reduce this problem. In this study, therefore, the researchers use data collected by the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE) to analyze trends in late presentation over time across Europe and in different groups of people at risk of HIV infection and to investigate the clinical consequences of late presentation.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers analyzed data collected from 84,524 individuals participating in more than 20 observational studies that were undertaken in 35 European countries and that investigated outcomes among HIV-positive people. Nearly 54% of the participants were late presenters—individuals who had a CD4 count of less than 350 cells/mm3 or an AIDS-defining illness within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presentation was highest among heterosexual males, in Southern European countries, and among people originating in Africa. Overall, late presentation decreased from 57.3% in 2000 to 51.7% in 2010/11. However, whereas late presentation decreased over time among men having sex with men in Central and Northern Europe, for example, it increased over time among female heterosexuals in Southern Europe. Finally, among the 8,000 individuals who developed a new AIDS-defining illness or died during follow-up, compared to non-late presentation, late presentation was associated with an increased incidence of AIDS/death in all regions of Europe during the first and second year after HIV diagnosis (but not in later years); the largest increase in incidence (13-fold) occurred during the first year after diagnosis in Southern Europe.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that, although late presentation with HIV infection has decreased in recent years, it remains an important issue across Europe and in all groups of people at risk of HIV infection. They also show that individuals presenting late have a worse clinical outlook, particularly in the first and second year after diagnosis compared to non-late presenters. Several aspects of the study design may affect the accuracy and usefulness of these findings, however. For example, some of the study participants recorded as late presenters may have been people who were aware of their HIV status but who chose not to seek care for HIV infection, or may have been seen in the health care system prior to HIV diagnosis without being offered an HIV test. Delayed entry into care and late presentation are likely to have different risk factors, a possibility that needs to be studied further. Despite this and other study limitations, these findings nevertheless suggest that HIV testing strategies that encourage early testing in all populations at risk, that ensure timely referrals, and that improve retention in care are required to further reduce the incidence of late presentation with HIV infection in Europe.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001510.
Information is available from the US National Institute of Allergy and infectious diseases on HIV infection and AIDS
NAM/aidsmap provides basic information about HIV/AIDS, and summaries of recent research findings on HIV care and treatment
Information is available from Avert, an international AIDS charity, on many aspects of HIV/AIDS, including detailed information on the stages of HIV infection and on HIV and AIDS in Europe (in English and Spanish)
The HIV in Europe Initiative has information about strategies to improve earlier diagnosis and access to care in Europe
Information about COHERE, which was established in 2005 to conduct epidemiological research on the prognosis and outcome of HIV-infected people from across Europe, is available; more information on the consensus definition of late presentation used in this study is available through the HIV in Europe initiative
Patient stories about living with HIV/AIDS are available through Avert and through the nonprofit website Healthtalkonline
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001510
PMCID: PMC3796947  PMID: 24137103
10.  Cobicistat: a Novel Pharmacoenhancer for Co-Formulation with HIV Protease and Integrase Inhibitors 
Infectious Diseases and Therapy  2013;2(2):111-122.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy has evolved over the last 20 years from mono-drug therapy given five times daily to regimens consisting of three or four drugs combined in a single-tablet dosed once daily. To allow once-daily administration, several drugs require pharmacokinetic boosting by a concomitantly administered P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 inhibitor such as ritonavir. The availability of cobicistat provides an alternative to ritonavir to those who are intolerant to this drug, and the opportunity for co-formulated single-tablet regimens consisting of tenofovir/emtricitabine, cobicistat and elvitegravir, atazanavir or darunavir. The cobicistat/elvitegravir-based regimen is well tolerated and patients achieved high rates of HIV RNA suppression in clinical trials. Cobicistat inhibits renal tubular secretion of creatinine, resulting in increased serum creatinine concentrations and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, with a new set point reached after 4 weeks. Treatment limiting renal toxicity with cobicistat/elvitegravir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is infrequent and may be further reduced when cobicistat is co-formulated with tenofovir alafenamide fumarate, a novel formation of tenofovir currently undergoing clinical trials.
doi:10.1007/s40121-013-0013-7
PMCID: PMC4108106  PMID: 25134475
Boosting; Cobicistat; eGFR; HIV; Infection; Pharmacology; Renal; Stribild; Virology
11.  Late HIV diagnosis is a major risk factor for intensive care unit admission in HIV-positive patients: a single centre observational cohort study 
Background
HIV positive patients are at risk of infectious and non-infectious complications that may necessitate intensive care unit (ICU) admission. While the characteristics of patients requiring ICU admission have been described previously, these studies did not include information on the denominator population from which these cases arose.
Methods
We conducted an observational cohort study of ICU admissions among 2751 HIV positive patients attending King’s College Hospital, South London, UK. Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with ICU admission.
Results
The overall incidence rate of ICU admission was 1.0 [95% CI 0.8, 1.2] per 100 person-years of follow up, and particularly high early (during the first 3 months) following HIV diagnosis (12.4 [8.7, 17.3] per 100 person-years compared to 0.37 [0.27, 0.50] per 100 person-years thereafter; incidence rate ratio 33.5 [23.4, 48.1], p < 0.001). In time-updated analyses, AIDS and current CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 were associated with an increased incidence of ICU admission while receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was associated with a reduced incidence of ICU admission. Late HIV diagnosis (initial CD4 cell count <350 or AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis) applied to 81% of patients who were first diagnosed HIV positive during the study period and who required ICU admission. Late HIV diagnosis was significantly associated with ICU admission in the first 3 months following HIV diagnosis (adjusted incidence rate ratio 8.72, 95% CI 2.76, 27.5).
Conclusions
Late HIV diagnosis was a major risk factor for early ICU admission in our cohort. Earlier HIV diagnosis allowing cART initiation at CD4 cell counts of 350 cells/mm3 is likely to have a significant impact on the need for ICU care.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-23
PMCID: PMC3553027  PMID: 23331544
ICU; Intensive care; HIV; Antiretroviral therapy; cART; Immunodeficiency; Late
12.  Baseline Kidney Function as Predictor of Mortality and Kidney Disease Progression in HIV-Positive Patients 
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased all-cause mortality and kidney disease progression. Decreased kidney function at baseline may identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients at increased risk of death and kidney disease progression.
Study Design
Observational cohort study.
Setting & Participants
7 large HIV cohorts in the United Kingdom with kidney function data available for 20,132 patients.
Predictor
Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Outcomes
Death and progression to stages 4-5 CKD (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 for >3 months) in Cox proportional hazards and competing-risk regression models.
Results
Median age at baseline was 34 (25th-75th percentile, 30-40) years, median CD4 cell count was 350 (25th-75th percentile, 208-520) cells/μL, and median eGFR was 100 (25th-75th percentile, 87-112) mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients were followed up for a median of 5.3 (25th-75th percentile, 2.0-8.9) years, during which 1,820 died and 56 progressed to stages 4-5 CKD. A U-shaped relationship between baseline eGFR and mortality was observed. After adjustment for potential confounders, eGFRs <45 and >105 mL/min/1.73 m2 remained associated significantly with increased risk of death. Baseline eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was associated with increased risk of kidney disease progression, with the highest incidence rates of stages 4-5 CKD (>3 events/100 person-years) observed in black patients with eGFR of 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2 and those of white/other ethnicity with eGFR of 30-44 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Limitations
The relatively small numbers of patients with decreased eGFR at baseline and low rates of progression to stages 4-5 CKD and lack of data for diabetes, hypertension, and proteinuria.
Conclusions
Although stages 4-5 CKD were uncommon in this cohort, baseline eGFR allowed the identification of patients at increased risk of death and at greatest risk of kidney disease progression.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.03.006
PMCID: PMC3657190  PMID: 22521282
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI); human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); chronic kidney disease; mortality; competing risk
13.  How Representative Are Research Tissue Biobanks of the Local Populations? Experience of the Infectious Diseases Biobank at King's College, London, UK 
Biopreservation and Biobanking  2011;9(3):287-288.
Biobanks have a primary responsibility to collect tissues that are a true reflection of their local population and thereby promote translational research, which is applicable to the community. The Infectious Diseases BioBank (IDB) at King's College London is located in the southeast of the city, an area that is ethnically diverse. Transplantation programs have frequently reported a low rate of donation among some ethnic minorities. To determine whether patients who volunteered peripheral venous blood samples to the IDB were representative of the local community, we compared local government demographic data to characteristics of patients who have donated to the IDB. There was a good match between these statistics, indicating that the IDB's volunteer population of human immunodeficiency virus patients was similar to local demographics.
doi:10.1089/bio.2011.0015
PMCID: PMC3178420  PMID: 21977243
14.  Total protein, albumin and low-molecular-weight protein excretion in HIV-positive patients 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:85.
Background
Chronic kidney disease is common in HIV positive patients and renal tubular dysfunction has been reported in those receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Tenofovir (TFV) in particular has been linked to severe renal tubular disease as well as proximal tubular dysfunction. Markedly elevated urinary concentrations of retinal-binding protein (RBP) have been reported in patients with severe renal tubular disease, and low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWP) such as RBP may be useful in clinical practice to assess renal tubular function in patients receiving TFV. We analysed 3 LMWP as well as protein and albumin in the urine of a sample of HIV positive patients.
Methods
In a cross-sectional fashion, total protein, albumin, RBP, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were quantified in random urine samples of 317 HIV positive outpatients and expressed as the ratio-to-creatinine (RBPCR, CCR and NGALCR). Exposure to cART was categorised as none, cART without TFV, and cART containing TFV and a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor (TFV/NNRTI) or TFV and a protease-inhibitor (TFV/PI).
Results
Proteinuria was present in 10.4 % and microalbuminuria in 16.7 % of patients. Albumin accounted for approximately 10 % of total urinary protein. RBPCR was within the reference range in 95 % of patients while NGALCR was elevated in 67 % of patients. No overall differences in urine protein, albumin, and LMWP levels were observed among patients stratified by cART exposure, although a greater proportion of patients exposed to TFV/PI had RBPCR >38.8 μg/mmol (343 μg/g) (p = 0.003). In multivariate analyses, black ethnicity (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77) and eGFR <75 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR 3.54, 95 % CI 1.61, 7.80) were independently associated with upper quartile (UQ) RBPCR. RBPCR correlated well to CCR (r2 = 0.71), but not to NGALCR, PCR or ACR.
Conclusions
In HIV positive patients, proteinuria was predominantly of tubular origin and microalbuminuria was common. RBPCR in patients without overt renal tubular disease was generally within the reference range, including those receiving TFV. RBP therefore appears a promising biomarker for monitoring renal tubular function in patients receiving TFV and for distinguishing patients with normal tubular function or mild tubular dysfunction from those with severe renal tubular disease or Fanconi syndrome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-85
PMCID: PMC3444380  PMID: 22883485
Proteinuria; Albuminuria; Retinol-binding protein; RBP; Cystatin C; Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; NGAL; Tenofovir; HIV
15.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth at the Cavity Surface: a Microenvironment with Failed Immunity  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(12):7099-7108.
Protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is characterized by the formation in the lungs of granulomas consisting of macrophages and activated T cells producing tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon, both required for the activation of the phagocytes. In 90% of immunocompetent humans, this response controls the infection. To understand why immunity fails in the other 10%, we studied the lungs of six patients who underwent surgery for incurable TB. Histologic examination of different lung lesions revealed heterogeneous morphology and distribution of acid-fast bacilli; only at the surface of cavities, i.e., in granulomas with a patent connection to the airways, were there numerous bacilli. The mutation profile of the isolates suggested that a single founder strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may undergo genetic changes during treatment, leading to acquisition of additional drug resistance independently in discrete physical locales. Additional drug resistance was preferentially observed at the cavity surface. Cytokine gene expression revealed that failure to control the bacilli was not associated with a generalized suppression of cellular immunity, since cytokine mRNA was up regulated in all lesions tested. Rather, a selective absence of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was noted at the luminal surface of the cavity, preventing direct T-cell-macrophage interactions at this site, probably allowing luminal phagocytes to remain permissive for bacillary growth. In contrast, in the perinecrotic zone of the granulomas, the two cell types colocalized and bacillary numbers were substantially lower, suggesting that in this microenvironment an efficient bacteriostatic or bactericidal phagocyte population was generated.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.12.7099-7108.2003
PMCID: PMC308931  PMID: 14638800
16.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-Kilodalton Lipoprotein Inhibits Mycobacterium smegmatis-Induced Cytokine Production by Human Macrophages In Vitro 
Infection and Immunity  2001;69(3):1433-1439.
Vaccination of mice with Mycobacterium vaccae or M. smegmatis induces some protection against M. tuberculosis challenge. The 19-kDa lipoprotein of M. tuberculosis, expressed in M. vaccae or M. smegmatis (M. smeg19kDa), abrogates this protective immunity. To investigate the mechanism of this suppression of immunity, human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were infected with M. smeg19kDa. Infection resulted in reduced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P < 0.01), interleukin-12 (IL-12) (P < 0.05), IL-6 (P < 0.05), and IL-10 (P < 0.05), compared to infection with M. smegmatis vector (M. smegV). Infection with M. smeg19kDa and with M. smegV had no differential effect on expression of costimulatory molecules on MDM, nor did it affect the proliferation of presensitized T cells cocultured with infected MDM. When MDM were infected with M. smegmatis expressing mutated forms of the 19-kDa lipoprotein, including non-O-glycosylated (M. smeg19NOG), nonsecreted (M. smeg19NS), and nonacylated (M. smeg19NA) variants, the reduced production of TNF-α or IL-12 was not observed. When the purified 19-kDa lipoprotein was added directly to cultures of infected monocytes, there was little effect on either induction of cytokine production or its inhibition. Thus, the immunosuppressive effect is dependent on glycosylated and acylated 19-kDa lipoprotein present in the phagosome containing the mycobacterium. These results suggest that the diminished protection against challenge with M. tuberculosis seen in mice vaccinated with M. smegmatis expressing the 19-kDa lipoprotein is the result of reduced TNF-α and IL-12 production, possibly leading to reduced induction of T-cell activation.
doi:10.1128/IAI.69.3.1433-1439.2001
PMCID: PMC98038  PMID: 11179309
17.  Impact of late diagnosis and treatment on life expectancy in people with HIV-1: UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study 
Objectives To estimate life expectancy for people with HIV undergoing treatment compared with life expectancy in the general population and to assess the impact on life expectancy of late treatment, defined as CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at start of antiretroviral therapy.
Design Cohort study.
Setting Outpatient HIV clinics throughout the United Kingdom.
Population Adult patients from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study with CD4 count ≤350 cells/mm3 at start of antiretroviral therapy in 1996-2008.
Main outcome measures Life expectancy at the exact age of 20 (the average additional years that will be lived by a person after age 20), according to the cross sectional age specific mortality rates during the study period.
Results 1248 of 17 661 eligible patients died during 91 203 person years’ follow-up. Life expectancy (standard error) at exact age 20 increased from 30.0 (1.2) to 45.8 (1.7) years from 1996-9 to 2006-8. Life expectancy was 39.5 (0.45) for male patients and 50.2 (0.45) years for female patients compared with 57.8 and 61.6 years for men and women in the general population (1996-2006). Starting antiretroviral therapy later than guidelines suggest resulted in up to 15 years’ loss of life: at age 20, life expectancy was 37.9 (1.3), 41.0 (2.2), and 53.4 (1.2) years in those starting antiretroviral therapy with CD4 count <100, 100-199, and 200-350 cells/mm3, respectively.
Conclusions Life expectancy in people treated for HIV infection has increased by over 15 years during 1996-2008, but is still about 13 years less than that of the UK population. The higher life expectancy in women is magnified in those with HIV. Earlier diagnosis and subsequent timely treatment with antiretroviral therapy might increase life expectancy.
doi:10.1136/bmj.d6016
PMCID: PMC3191202  PMID: 21990260
18.  A systematic review of definitions of extreme phenotypes of HIV control and progression 
AIDS (London, England)  2013;28(2):149-162.
The study of individuals at opposite ends of the HIV clinical spectrum can provide invaluable insights into HIV biology. Heterogeneity in criteria used to define these individuals can introduce inconsistencies in results from research and make it difficult to identify biological mechanisms underlying these phenotypes. In this systematic review, we formally quantified the heterogeneity in definitions used for terms referring to extreme phenotypes in the literature, and identified common definitions and components used to describe these phenotypes. We assessed 714 definitions of HIV extreme phenotypes in 501 eligible studies published between 1 January 2000 and 15 March 2012, and identified substantial variation among these. This heterogeneity in definitions may represent important differences in biological endophenotypes and clinical progression profiles of individuals selected by these, suggesting the need for harmonized definitions. In this context, we were able to identify common components in existing definitions that may provide a framework for developing consensus definitions for these phenotypes in HIV infection.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000049
PMCID: PMC3882304  PMID: 24149086
definitions; elite controllers; extreme-trait designs; HIV; HIV controllers; long-term nonprogressors; phenotypes; slow progressors; systematic review; viremic controllers
19.  Laboratory adverse events and discontinuation of therapy according to CD4+ cell count at the start of antiretroviral therapy 
AIDS (London, England)  2014;28(9):1333-1339.
Objective:
Few data describe antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related adverse events when treatment is initiated at CD4+ cell counts more than 350 cells/μl. We compared rates of laboratory-defined adverse events (LDAEs) according to CD4+ cell count at ART initiation.
Design:
Analysis of on-going cohort study.
Methods:
ART-naive persons initiating ART from 2000 to 2010 were included. Chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal–Wallis tests compared characteristics among those starting ART with a CD4+ cell count of 350 or less, 351–499 and at least 500 cells/μl. Time-updated Poisson regression compared rates of LDAE in the three CD4+ cell strata. Cox proportional hazard models compared risk of ART discontinuation.
Results:
Nine thousand, four hundred and six individuals were included: median age 37 years, 61% white, 80% men, median viral load 4.8 log copies/ml. Four hundred and forty-seven (4.9%) and 1099 (11.7%) started ART with a CD4+ cell count at least 500 and 351–499 cells/μl, respectively. One thousand, two hundred and eighty-three (13.6%) patients experienced at least one LDAE. The rate of LDAE did not differ between those starting ART with a CD4+ cell count 351–499 and less than 350 cells/μl [relative rate 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74–1.09)], but an increased risk of ART discontinuation was observed (hazard ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.10–2.27). Those starting ART at CD4+ cell count at least 500 cells/μl had an increased rate of LDAE (relative rate 1.44, 95% CI 1.13–1.82) but were not more likely to discontinue ART (hazard ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.64–2.09).
Conclusion:
This study demonstrates the need to consider ART-related toxicities when initiating therapy at CD4+ cell counts at least 500 cells/μl. Whilst evidence from randomized controlled trials is awaited, the timing of ART initiation in terms of benefits and risks of ART remains an important question.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000242
PMCID: PMC4032216  PMID: 24583670
biological markers; CD4+ lymphocyte count; drug toxicity; HAART; HIV

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