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1.  P-Cresyl Sulfate Is a Valuable Predictor of Clinical Outcomes in Pre-ESRD Patients 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:526932.
Background/Aims. Previous studies have reported p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) was related to endothelial dysfunction and adverse clinical effect. We investigate the adverse effects of PCS on clinical outcomes in a chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohort study. Methods. 72 predialysis patients were enrolled from a single medical center. Serum biochemistry data and PCS were measured. The clinical outcomes including cardiovascular event, all-cause mortality, and dialysis event were recorded during a 3-year follow-up. Results. After adjusting other independent variables, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed age (HR: 1.12, P = 0.01), cardiovascular disease history (HR: 6.28, P = 0.02), and PCS (HR: 1.12, P = 0.02) were independently associated with cardiovascular event; age (HR: 0.91, P < 0.01), serum albumin (HR: 0.03, P < 0.01), and PCS level (HR: 1.17, P < 0.01) reached significant correlation with dialysis event. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with higher serum p-cresyl sulfate (>6 mg/L) were significantly associated with cardiovascular and dialysis event (log rank P = 0.03, log rank P < 0.01, resp.). Conclusion. Our study shows serum PCS could be a valuable marker in predicting cardiovascular event and renal function progression in CKD patients without dialysis.
PMCID: PMC3925630  PMID: 24592393
2.  Serum p-cresyl sulfate predicts cardiovascular disease and mortality in elderly hemodialysis patients 
Previous studies have shown that serum p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) were significantly related to clinical outcomes in patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, evidence for the relationship in elderly HD patients remains scarce. We explore whether the two toxins can predict clinical outcomes in elderly HD patients.
Material and methods
Fifty stable HD patients more than 65 years old were enrolled from a single medical center. Serum total and free PCS, IS levels and biochemistry were measured concurrently. The clinical outcomes including cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality were analyzed after 38-month follow-up.
Univariate Cox proportional hazard ratio analysis revealed that cardiovascular events were associated with gender (p = 0.02), diabetes (p < 0.01), calcium (p = 0.01), total PCS (p < 0.01), free PCS (p < 0.01) and total IS (p = 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes (p = 0.01), total PCS (p = 0.01) and free PCS (p = 0.04) were related to cardiovascular events. For all-cause mortality, only total PCS (p = 0.01) reached significance after adjusting other confounding factors. However, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that free PCS (p = 0.02) and total PCS (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with cardiovascular events and total PCS (p = 0.048) was related to all-cause mortality during 38-month follow-up.
Our results indicate that total PCS is a valuable marker in predicting cardiovascular event and all-cause mortality in elderly HD patients.
PMCID: PMC3776179  PMID: 24049526
hemodialysis; p-cresyl sulfate; indoxyl sulfate; cardiovascular disease; mortality
3.  Peripheral artery disease in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients: single-center retrospective study in Taiwan 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:100.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a condition characterized by restricted blood flow to the extremities, and is especially common in the elderly. PAD increases the risk for mortality and morbidity in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), especially those on hemodialysis (HD).
The records of 484 patients with end-stage renal disease who were on HD or peritoneal dialysis (PD) were reviewed. PAD was diagnosed based on the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed.
PAD had an overall prevalence of 18.2% and was significantly more common in HD patients (21.8%) than in PD patients (4.8%). Advanced age, diabetes mellitus, smoking, low parathyroid hormone level, elevated serum ferritin, elevated serum glucose, and low serum creatinine levels increased the risk for PAD. PAD was independently associated with advanced age, diabetes mellitus, duration of dialysis, low serum creatinine, and hyperlipidemia. PD patients had a significantly lower prevalence of PAD than HD patients, maybe due to their younger age and lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus in this present study.
The prevalence of PAD was greater in the HD group than the PD group. Most of the risk factors for PAD were specific to HD, and no analyzed factor was significantly associated with PAD in PD patients.
PMCID: PMC3447712  PMID: 22943313
Ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI); Cardiovascular disease; End-stage renal disease; Hemodialysis; Peritoneal dialysis; Peripheral artery disease

Results 1-3 (3)