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1.  Hypertension resistant to antihypertensive agents commonly occurs with the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective observational study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:48.
We investigated 1) the frequency of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes graded by the new classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) reported by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) and 2) the number of antihypertensive agents needed to achieve treatment goals using a prospective observational study.
A population of 2018 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was recruited for the study. The CKD stage was classified according to the eGFR and the urinary albumin excretion levels.
Hypertension was found in 1420 (70%) of the patients, and the proportion of subjects showing a blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg was 31% at the baseline. Although the mean blood pressure was approximately 130/75 mmHg, the rate of patients with a blood pressure of < 130/80 mmHg became limited to 41-50% during the observation period. The number of antihypertensive agents required for treatment was significantly higher at the endpoint (2.0 ± 1.3) than at the baseline (1.6 ± 1.2). Furthermore, it increased with the progression of the CKD stage at both the baseline and the endpoint of the observation. However, the frequency of subjects who did not achieve the blood pressure target was found to increase in the group demonstrating the later stage of CKD.
Hypertension resistant to antihypertensive agents was common in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased with the progression of CKD. Although powerful combination therapy using antihypertensive agents is considered necessary for the strict control of blood pressure, this became difficult in individuals who were in advanced stages as graded based on the eGFR and the urinary albumin excretion levels.
PMCID: PMC3437202  PMID: 22738384
Hypertension; Antihypertensive agents; Chronic kidney disease; CKD stage; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; KDIGO
2.  Hyperuricemia Is Independently Associated with Coronary Heart Disease and Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27817.
To investigate the relationship between hyperuricemia (HUA) and the clinical backgrounds in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
After a cross-sectional study evaluating the association of HUA with the clinical characteristics in 1,213 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the incidence of diabetic macroangiopathies was investigated in a prospective observational study in 1,073 patients during a 3.5 year period. HUA was defined by serum uric acid levels >327 μmol/L or as patients using allopurinol.
The frequency of HUA was significantly higher in the diabetic patients (32% in men and 15% in women) than in the normal controls (14% in men and 1% in women). In total, HUA was found in 299 (25%) of the patients during the cross-sectional study. Even after adjusting for sex, drinking status, treatment for diabetes mellitus, body mass index, hypertension, use of diuretics, hyperlipidemia, HbA1c and/or the eGFR, the HUA was independently associated with some diabetic complications. The eGFR was significantly reduced in HUA patients compared to those with normouricemia in the 12 months after observation was started. HUA was also an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease even after adjustment in the Cox proportional hazard model.
HUA is a associated with diabetic micro- and macroangiopathies. HUA is a predictor of coronary heart disease and renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the influence of HUA is considered to be limited.
PMCID: PMC3220675  PMID: 22125626

Results 1-2 (2)