Metabolic acid-base disorders are comnom clinical problems in ICU patients. Arterial blood gas analysis and anion gap (AG) are important laboratory data in approaching acid-base interpretation. When measuring the AG, several factors such as albumin have influence on unmeasured anions and unmeasured cations. If a patient has hypoalbuminemia, the AG should be adjusted according to the albumin level. High AG metabolic acidoses including lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, and ingestion of toxic alcohols are common in ICU patients. The treatment target of lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis is not the acidosis, but the underlying condition causing acidosis. Gastric acid loss, diuretics, volume depletion, renal compensation for respiratory acidosis, hypokalemia, and mineralocorticoid excess are common causes of metaboic alkalosis. In chloride responsive metaboic alkalosis, volume and potassium repletion are mandatory.
anion gap; metabolic aidosis; metabolic alkalosis; lactic acidosis; ketoacidosis
Recent studies reported that early initiation of hemodialysis may increase mortality. However, studies that assessed the influence of early initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) yielded controversial results. In the present study, we evaluated the prognosis of early initiation of PD on the various outcomes of end stage renal failure patients by using propensity-score matching methods. Incident PD patients (n = 491) who started PD at SNU Hospital were enrolled. The patients were divided into 'early starters (n = 244)' and 'late starters (n = 247)' on the basis of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the start of dialysis. The calculated propensity-score was used for one-to-one matching. After propensity-score-based matching (n = 136, for each group), no significant differences were observed in terms of all-cause mortality (P = 0.17), technique failure (P = 0.62), cardiovascular event (P = 0.96) and composite event (P = 0.86) between the early and late starters. Stratification analysis in the propensity-score quartiles (n = 491) exhibited no trend toward better or poorer survival in terms of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, early commencement of PD does not reduce the mortality risk and other outcomes. Although the recent guidelines suggest that initiation of dialysis at higher eGFR, physicians should not determine the time to initiate PD therapy simply rely on the eGFR alone.
Peritoneal Dialysis; End Stage Renal Failure; Dialysis Initiation; Propensity Score Match; Outcome; Survival
We retrospectively evaluated demographic and biochemical parameters associated with depression and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study included 105 patients maintaining PD at Seoul National University Hospital. Data were collected from electronic medical record. Korean Beck's Depression Inventory and Korean version of Kidney Disease Quality of Life short form, version 1.3 were used to evaluate depression and HRQOL, respectively. Moderate to severe depression was found in 24.8% of patients. Patients with lower normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance (nPNA) (< 1.2 g/kg/day), lower weekly renal Kt/Vurea (< 0.2), and lower serum albumin level (≤ 4.0 g/dL) were associated with depression (P < 0.05). Among them, lower weekly renal Kt/Vurea was the only independent risk factor associated with depression (OR = 3.1, P = 0.007). Depressed patients showed significantly lower scores in every dimension of HRQOL (P < 0.001). Lower weekly renal Kt/Vurea (β = 0.24, P = 0.005) and lower nPNA (β = 0.15, P = 0.03) were the independent risk factors associated with lower kidney dialysis component summary, whereas lower plasma hemoglobin level was the consistent risk factor for lower physical component summary (β = 0.22, P = 0.03) and mental component summary (β = 0.22, P = 0.01). Depression is a prevalent psychological problem in PD population. Residual renal function is the most important factor associated with depression and impaired HRQOL in PD patients.
Peritoneal Dialysis; Depression; Health-Related Quality of Life; Residual Renal Function; Beck's Depression Inventory; KDQOL-SF
The pharmacokinetics (PK) of ceftazidime after intravenous (i.v.) administration during automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and their dependence on peritoneal membrane transport are the targets of the present study. Eleven patients receiving a single i.v. dose of ceftazidime (15 mg/kg of body weight) (seven males, median [interquatile] age, 59 [36 to 62]) were recruited. Serum and dialysate samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of each of the five dwells during a 24-h period, with dwells 1, 2, and 3 using an automated cycler (designated on-cycler) and dwells 4 and 5 being manual exchanges (designated off-cycler), together with urine collection during the same period. Population PK analysis was employed to estimate the PK parameters. Peritoneal equilibration tests were performed for all patients, and correlations between peritoneal clearance (CLPD) for ceftazidime and dialysate-to-plasma ratios for creatinine (D/Pcr) were obtained using the Spearman's product correlation coefficient (ρ). Ceftazidime renal clearance (CLrenal) was 0.052 ml/min/kg, and CLPD was 0.063 ± 0.050 ml/min/kg. CLPD for on- and off-cycler were 0.071 and 0.058 ml/min/kg (P = 0.164), respectively. A significant correlation between CLPD and D/Pcr was observed, with one outlier excluded, suggesting that CLPD for ceftazidime during APD is dependent upon the peritoneal small-solute transport rate. A model prediction yielded adequate serum and dialysate concentrations of ceftazidime throughout a 24-h period for sensitive organisms (MIC, 8 μg/ml) by either i.v. (at 15 mg/kg) or intraperitoneal (i.p.; at 20 mg/kg) administration during off-cycler dwells. The present study suggests that the i.v. administration of ceftazidime at 15 mg/kg or i.p. administration of ceftazidime at 20 mg/kg during a long dwell every 24 h can be recommended for treating systemic or intraperitoneal infections of APD patients.
Thiazide is known to decrease urinary calcium excretion. We hypothesized that thiazide shows different hypocalciuric effects depending on the stimuli causing hypercalciuria. The hypocalciuric effect of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5), calbindin-D28K, and several sodium transporters were assessed in hypercalciuric rats induced by high calcium diet and vitamin D3. Urine calcium excretion and the expression of transporters were measured from 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley rats; control, HCTZ, high calcium-vitamin D, and high calcium-vitamin D with HCTZ groups. HCTZ decreased urinary calcium excretion by 51.4% in the HCTZ group and only 15% in the high calcium-vitamin D with HCTZ group. TRPV5 protein abundance was not changed by HCTZ in the high calcium-vitamin D with HCTZ group compared to the high calcium-vitamin D group. Protein abundance of NHE3, SGLT1, and NKCC2 decreased in the hypercalciuric rats, and only SGLT1 protein abundance was increased by HCTZ in the hypercalciuric rats. The hypocalciuric effect of HCTZ is attenuated in high calcium and vitamin D-induced hypercalciuric rats. This attenuation seems to have resulted from the lack of HCTZ's effect on protein abundance of TRPV5 in severe hypercalciuric condition induced by high calcium and vitamin D.
Hypercalciuria; TRPV5; Sodium Transporters; Cholecalciferol; Thiazides
TRPV5 is believed to play an important role in the regulation of urinary calcium excretion. We assessed the effects of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) on the expression of TRPV5, calbindin-D28K, and several sodium transporters in hypercalciuric rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups; control, HCTZ, high salt, and high salt with HCTZ group in experiment 1; control, HCTZ, high calcium (Ca), and high Ca with HCTZ group in experiment 2. To quantitate the expression of TRPV5, calbindin-D28K, and sodium transporters, western blotting was performed. In both experiments, HCTZ significantly decreased urinary calcium excretion. TRPV5 protein abundance decreased in all hypercalciuric rats, and restored by HCTZ in both high salt with HCTZ and high Ca with HCTZ group. Calbindin-D28K protein abundance increased in the high salt and high salt with HCTZ groups, but did not differ among groups in experiment 2. Protein abundance of NHE3 and NKCC2 decreased in all hypercalciuric rats, and were restored by HCTZ in only high Ca-induced hypercalciuric rats. In summary, protein abundance of TRPV5, NHE3, and NKCC2 decreased in all hypercalciuric rats. The hypocalciuric effect of HCTZ is associated with increased protein abundance of TRPV5 in high salt or calcium diet-induced hypercalciuric rats.
Hypercalciuria; Thiazides; Transporters
Hemodynamic factors play an important role in the development and/or progression of diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesized that renal sodium transporter dysregulation might contribute to the hemodynamic alterations in diabetic nephropathy. Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were used as an animal model for type 2 diabetes. Long Evans Tokushima (LETO) rats were used as controls. Renal sodium transporter regulation was investigated by semiquantitative immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry of the kidneys of 40-week-old animals. The mean serum glucose level in OLETF rats was increased to 235±25 mg/dL at 25 weeks, and the hyperglycemia continued up to the end of 40 weeks. Urine protein/creatinine ratios were 10 times higher in OLETF rats than in LETO rats. At 40th week, the abundance of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) β-subunit was increased in OLETF rats, but the abundance of the ENaC γ-subunit was decreased. No significant differences were observed in the ENaC α-subunit or other major sodium transporters. Immunohistochemistry for the ENaC β-subunit showed increased immunoreactivity in OLETF rats, whereas the ENaC γ-subunit showed reduced immunoreactivity in these rats. In OLETF rats, ENaC β-subunit upregulation and ENaC γ-subunit downregulation after the development of diabetic nephropathy may reflect an abnormal sodium balance.
Diabetic Nephropathies; Rats, Inbred OLETF; Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3; Bumetanide Sensitive NaK2Cl Cotransporter; Thiazide Sensitive Nacl Cotransporter; Epithelial Sodium Channel
Renal failure is one of the most serious complications associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). To date, early markers have failed to predict renal function deterioration at the early stages. This 1-year prospective study evaluated N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a new surrogate marker for renal function in ADPKD.
A total of 270 patients were enrolled in the study, and we measured urinary NAG, β2-microglobulin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) prospectively for 1 year to compare their predictive values for renal function.
Baseline urinary NAG/Cr was negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r2 = 0.153, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with total kidney volume (TKV) (r2 = 0.113, P < 0.001). Among other biomarkers, urinary NAG/Cr better discriminated patients with decreased renal function from those with conserved renal function, showing the largest area under the curve (AUC 0.794). Immunohistochemical study revealed strong staining along the cyst-lining epithelial cells as well as the nearby compressed tubular epithelial cells. However, both single and repeated measurements of urinary NAG/Cr failed to predict renal function decline in 1 year.
Urinary NAG/Cr may be a useful surrogate marker for renal function in ADPKD patients.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Biomarkers; Renal function