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1.  DNA methylation as an epigenetic biomarker in colorectal cancer 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(6):1687-1692.
Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a consequence of the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that result in the transformation of normal colonic epithelial cells to adenocarcinomas. Studies have indicated that a common event in the tumorigenesis of CRC is the association of global hypomethylation with discrete hypermethylation at the promoter regions of specific genes that are involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, apoptosis, angiogenesis, adhesion and invasion. The present study aimed to investigate the epigenetic changes (DNA methylation) in 24 candidate genes in CRC. A total of 10 candidate hypermethylated (HM) and unmethylated (UM) genes were identified that may be useful epigenetic markers for non-invasive CRC screening. The five genes that had the highest average UM percentages in the control group were MLH1 (71.7%), DKK2 (69.6%), CDKN2A (68.4%), APC (67.5%) and hsa-mir-342 (67.4%). RUNX3 (58.9%), PCDH10 (55.5%), SFRP5 (52.1%), IGF2 (50.4%) and Hnf1b (50.0%) were the five genes with the highest average HM percentages in the test group. In summary, the present preliminary study identified the methylation profiles of normal and cancerous colonic epithelial tissues, and provided the groundwork for future large-scale methylation studies.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1606
PMCID: PMC3834199  PMID: 24260063
methylation; colorectal cancer; epigenetics
2.  Effects of starting hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula or central venous catheter compared with peritoneal dialysis: a retrospective cohort study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:88.
Background
Although several studies have demonstrated early survival advantages with peritoneal dialysis (PD) over hemodialysis (HD), the reason for the excess mortality observed among incident HD patients remains to be established, to our knowledge. This study explores the relationship between mortality and dialysis modality, focusing on the role of HD vascular access type at the time of dialysis initiation.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was performed among local adult chronic kidney disease patients who consecutively initiated PD and HD with a tunneled cuffed venous catheter (HD-TCC) or a functional arteriovenous fistula (HD-AVF) in our institution in the year 2008. A total of 152 patients were included in the final analysis (HD-AVF, n = 59; HD-TCC, n = 51; PD, n = 42). All cause and dialysis access-related morbidity/mortality were evaluated at one year. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to compare the survival of PD patients with those who initiated HD with an AVF or with a TCC.
Results
Compared with PD patients, both HD-AVF and HD-TCC patients were more likely to be older (p<0.001) and to have a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.017) and cardiovascular disease (p = 0.020). Overall, HD-TCC patients were more likely to have clinical visits (p = 0.069), emergency room visits (p<0.001) and hospital admissions (p<0.001). At the end of follow-up, HD-TCC patients had a higher rate of dialysis access-related complications (1.53 vs. 0.93 vs. 0.64, per patient-year; p<0.001) and hospitalizations (0.47 vs. 0.07 vs. 0.14, per patient-year; p = 0.034) than HD-AVF and PD patients, respectively. The survival rates at one year were 96.6%, 74.5% and 97.6% for HD-AVF, HD-TCC and PD groups, respectively (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, HD-TCC use at the time of dialysis initiation was the important factor associated with death (HR 16.128, 95%CI [1.431-181.778], p = 0.024).
Conclusion
Our results suggest that HD vascular access type at the time of renal replacement therapy initiation is an important modifier of the relationship between dialysis modality and survival among incident dialysis patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-88
PMCID: PMC3476986  PMID: 22916962

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