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1.  “Association between moderate renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events in a general population: Tehran lipid and glucose study” 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:59.
Background
Chronic kidney disease(CKD) has been proposed as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is conflicting evidence among community based studies regarding the association between CKD and CVD. Furthermore, in order to assess the possible interaction between CKD and BMI, we also examined the association between CKD and CVD, across different BMI categories.
Methods
The risk of CVD events was evaluated in a large cohort of participants selected from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Participants(mean age, 47.4 years) free of previous CVD were followed up for 9.1 years. GFR ml/min per 1.73 m2 was estimated using the MDRD formula.
Results
Of the 6,209 participants, 22.2%(1381) had CKD with eGFR ml/min per 1.73 m2 <60 at baseline. Almost all of them (99%) were in stage 3a. Moderate renal insufficiency only predicted CVD outcomes independently when we adjusted for age and sex. After further adjustment, the presence of moderate CKD lost its statistical significance to confer an independent increased risk of CVD events with a hazard ratio of: HR: 1.14, CI 95% 0.91-1.42. Furthermore, when participants were categorized according to CKD status and BMI groups, after further adjustment, no interaction was found(P = 0.2).
Conclusion
CKD was not an independent risk factor for CVD events in a community-based study in a Tehranian population and the higher prevalence of CVD in subjects with mild to moderate renal insufficiency might be due to the co-occurrence of traditional CVD risk factors in this group.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-59
PMCID: PMC3413571  PMID: 22799559
Chronic kidney disease; Cardiovascular disease; Body mass index; Glomerular filtration rate; General population
2.  High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Iran: a large population-based study 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:44.
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health threat, associated with an alarming increase in morbidity and mortality. The importance is the worldwide increase in its incidence and prevalence.
Methods
In this cross-sectional study, we estimate the prevalence and determine the associated factors of chronic kidney disease in a representative sample of 10063 participants aged over 20 years, in Tehran, Iran. Chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated from abbreviated prediction equation provided by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study (MDRD).
Results
Overall prevalence of CKD with the abbreviated MDRD equation was 18.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.2, 20.6). Age adjusted prevalence of CKD was 14.9% (95%CI 14.2, 15.6). Factors associated to CKD include age(years)(odds ratio(OR) 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2), female gender (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.6, 3.7), BMI (BMI 25 to <30 OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3, 1.8 and BMI ≥ 30 OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3, 2.0), high waist circumference (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4), hypertension (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4), and dyslipidemia (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1, 1.5).
Conclusion
CKD with its high prevalence poses a definite health threat in Iran.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-44
PMCID: PMC2658666  PMID: 19183493

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