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2.  Water and Sodium Regulation in Heart Failure 
Heart failure is the pathophysiological state characterized by ventricular dysfunction and associated clinical symptoms. Decreased cardiac output or peripheral vascular resistance lead to arterial underfilling. That is an important signal which triggers multiple neurohormonal systems to maintain adequate arterial pressure and peripheral perfusion of the vital organs. The kidney is the principal organ affected when cardiac output declines. Alterations of hemodynamics and neurohormonal systems in heart failure result in renal sodium and water retention. Activation of sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and non-osmotic vasopressin release stimulate the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. Dysregulation of aquaporin-2 and sodium transporters also play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal sodium and water retention.
PMCID: PMC3041487  PMID: 21468184
heart failure; aquaporins; sodium-potassium-chloride symporters; sodium chloride symporters; epithelial sodium channel
3.  SIADH Associated with Prostate Cancer 
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most common disease leading to hyponatremia, and it is characterized by an inappropriately elevated serum ADH level relative to serum osmolality. This syndrome may occur in a variety of clinical settings including malignancies. However, it is rarely observed in association with prostate cancer. Moreover, its pathogenesis and clinical characteristics have not been completely understood. We report a case of SIADH associated with prostate cancer in a 64-year-old male patient with a literature review.
PMCID: PMC3894506  PMID: 24459500
Inappropriate ADH syndrome; Hyponatremia; Prostatic neoplasms
4.  Impact of partial nephrectomy on kidney function in patients with renal cell carcinoma 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15(1):181.
This study aimed to compare the changes in kidney function and the association of tumor size and renal outcomes between patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) and those who underwent partial nephrectomy (PN).
A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 557 patients with an RCC of ≤7 cm in diameter and normal contralateral kidney function who underwent PN or RN. PN was performed for 218 (39%) patients. Renal outcomes included the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD), and a ≥25% decline in eGFR 1 year after surgery.
Serial changes in eGFR were compared during the 3 years of follow-up. Postoperative eGFR was significantly lower in patients undergoing RN than in those undergoing PN. The incidence of AKI and new-onset CKD was significantly higher in patients after RN (70.1% vs. 24.3%, respectively; P <0.001) than after PN (55.7% vs. 6.2%, respectively; P <0.001). According to the multivariable logistic regression analysis, RN was an independent risk factor for a ≥25% decline in kidney function after 1 year regardless of the tumor size, even after adjusting for various covariates.
Compared to PN, RN for even a moderate sized RCC leads to an increased incidence of AKI and new-onset CKD, and is a significant risk factor for kidney function decline. Therefore, PN should be considered as the choice of surgical treatment for RCCs that are ≤7 cm in diameter in order to preserve renal function postoperatively.
PMCID: PMC4246517  PMID: 25410757
Kidney function; Nephrectomy; Renal cell carcinoma
5.  Acute interstitial nephritis induced by Dioscorea quinqueloba 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:143.
The use of herbal medicine may be a risk factor for the development of kidney injury, as it has been reported to cause various renal syndromes. Dioscorea quinqueloba is a medicinal herb that is used as an alternative therapy for cardiovascular disease and various medical conditions.
Case presentation
A 52-year-old man was admitted with complaints of skin rash and burning sensation. He had ingested a raw extract of D. quinqueloba as a traditional remedy. Laboratory tests revealed the following values: absolute eosinophil count, 900/mm3; serum creatinine level, 2.7 mg/dL; and blood urea nitrogen, 33.0 mg/dL. The immunoglobulin E level was markedly increased at 1320.0 IU/mL. Urinalysis revealed a fractional excretion of sodium of 3.77%, protein 1+, and blood 3+. Histological examination of the renal biopsy specimen showed a diffusely edematous interstitium with infiltrates composed of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils.
Here, we present the first reported case of biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis following ingestion of D. quinqueloba associated with skin rash, eosinophilia, and increased plasma immunoglobulin E level.
PMCID: PMC4236634  PMID: 25186588
Dioscorea quinqueloba; Acute interstitial nephritis
6.  Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Adult Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Health Screening 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e93795.
This study was aimed to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the association between MS and its components with CKD in Korea.
We excluded diabetes to appreciate the real impact of MS and performed a cross-sectional study using the general health screening data of 10,253,085 (48.86±13.83 years, men 56.18%) participants (age, ≥20 years) from the Korean National Health Screening 2011. CKD was defined as dipstick proteinuria ≥1 or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2.
The prevalence of CKD was 6.15% (men, 5.37%; women, 7.15%). Further, 22.25% study population had MS (abdominal obesity, 27.98%; hypertriglyceridemia, 30.09%; low high-density cholesterol levels, 19.74%; high blood pressure, 43.45%; and high fasting glucose levels, 30.44%). Multivariate-adjusted analysis indicated that proteinuria risk increased in participants with MS (odds ratio [OR] 1.884, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.867–1.902, P<0.001). The presence of MS was associated with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR 1.364, 95% CI 1.355–1.373, P<0.001). MS individual components were also associated with an increased CKD risk. The strength of association between MS and the development of CKD increase as the number of components increased from 1 to 5. In sub-analysis by men and women, MS and its each components were a significant determinant for CKD.
MS and its individual components can predict the risk of prevalent CKD for men and women.
PMCID: PMC4013132  PMID: 24807226
7.  Farnesoid X Receptor Ligand Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury by Enhancing Small Heterodimer Partner 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86553.
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is mainly expressed in liver, intestine and kidney. We investigated whether 6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid (6ECDCA), a semisynthetic derivative of chenodeoxycholic aicd (CDCA, an FXR ligand), protects against kidney injury and modulates small heterodimer partner (SHP) in cisplatin-induced kidney injury. Cisplatin inhibited SHP protein expression in the kidney of cisplatin-treated mice and human proximal tubular (HK2) cells; this effect was counteracted by FXR ligand. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed the presence of tubular casts, obstructions and dilatations in cisplatin-induced kidney injury, which was attenuated by FXR ligand. FXR ligand also attenuated protein expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad signaling, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process, inflammatory markers and cytokines, and apoptotic markers in cisplatin-treated mice. Cisplatin induced NF-κB activation in HK2 cell; this effect was attenuated by pretreatment with FXR ligand. In SHP knockdown by small interfering RNA, cisplatin-induced activation of TGF-β1, p-JNK and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was not attenuated, while SHP overexpression and FXR ligand inhibited expression of these proteins in cisplatin-pretreated HK2 cells. In conclusion, FXR ligand, 6ECDCA prevents cisplatin-induced kidney injury, the underlying mechanism of which may be associated with anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects through SHP induction.
PMCID: PMC3903546  PMID: 24475141
8.  Concomitant Impact of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;55(1):132-140.
The present study aimed to investigate the impact of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and renal dysfunction on clinical outcomes in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.
Materials and Methods
The study involved a retrospective cohort of 8332 patients admitted with AMI. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and hs-CRP: group I, no renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2) with low hs-CRP (≤2.0 mg/dL); group II, no renal dysfunction with high hs-CRP; group III, renal dysfunction with low hs-CRP; and group IV, renal dysfunction with high hs-CRP. We compared major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a 1-year follow-up period.
The 4 groups demonstrated a graded association with increased MACE rates (group I, 8.8%; group II, 13.8%; group III, 18.6%; group IV, 30.1%; p<0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, mortality at 12 months increased in groups II, III, and IV compared with group I [hazard ratio (HR) 2.038, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.450-2.863, p<0.001; HR 3.003, 95% CI 2.269-3.974, p<0.001; HR 5.087, 95% CI 3.755-6.891, p<0.001].
High hs-CRP, especially in association with renal dysfunction, is related to the occurrence of composite MACE, and indicates poor prognosis in AMI patients.
PMCID: PMC3874927  PMID: 24339298
C-reactive protein; glomerular filtration rate; myocardial infarction
9.  Incidence, Predictive Factors, and Clinical Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury after Gastric Surgery for Gastric Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82289.
Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), a serious surgical complication, is common after cardiac surgery; however, reports on AKI after noncardiac surgery are limited. We sought to determine the incidence and predictive factors of AKI after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and its effects on the clinical outcomes.
We conducted a retrospective study of 4718 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2011. Postoperative AKI was defined by serum creatinine change, as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline.
Of the 4718 patients, 679 (14.4%) developed AKI. Length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rates, and in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% versus 0.2%) were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without. AKI was also associated with requirement of renal replacement therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender; hypertension; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; hypoalbuminemia (<4 g/dl); use of diuretics, vasopressors, and contrast agents; and packed red blood cell transfusion were independent predictors for AKI after gastric surgery. Postoperative AKI and vasopressor use entailed a high risk of 3-month mortality after multiple adjustments.
AKI was common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. We identified several factors associated with postoperative AKI; recognition of these predictive factors may help reduce the incidence of AKI after gastric surgery. Furthermore, postoperative AKI in patients with gastric cancer is an important risk factor for short-term mortality.
PMCID: PMC3857284  PMID: 24349249
10.  Increased Phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR in the Obstructed Kidney of Rats with Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(3):108-112.
The present study aimed to investigate changes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the obstructed kidney of rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally obstructed by ligation of the left proximal ureter for 7 days. Control rats were treated in the same way except that no ligature was made. The expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mTOR were determined in the kidney by semiquantitative immunoblotting. The protein expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, Bax, and Bcl-2 were also determined in the kidney. The phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR was increased in the kidney of ureteral obstruction rats compared with the control. In the obstructed kidney, the protein expression of TGF-β1 and Bax was also increased, whereas Bcl-2 expression was decreased. In conclusion, the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR was increased in the obstructed kidney of rats with UUO.
PMCID: PMC3881205  PMID: 24400212
mTOR protein, rat; Ureteral Obstruction; Fibrosis; Apoptosis
11.  Antiapoptotic Effect of Paricalcitol in Gentamicin-induced Kidney Injury 
While the anti-apoptotic effect of paricalcitol has been demonstrated in various animal models, it is not yet clear whether paricalcitol attenuates the apoptosis in gentamicin (GM)-induced kidney injury. We investigated the effect of paricalcitol on apoptotic pathways in rat kidneys damaged by GM. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1) Control group (n=8), where only vehicle was delivered, 2) GM group (n=10), where rats were treated with GM (150 mg/kg/day) for 7 days, 3) PARI group (n=10), where rats were co-treated with paricalcitol (0.2 µg/kg/day) and GM for 7 days. Paricalcitol attenuated renal dysfunction by GM administration in biochemical profiles. In terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining, increased apoptosis was observed in GM group, which was reversed by paricalcitol co-treatment. Immunoblotting using protein samples from rat cortex/outer stripe of outer medulla showed increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved form of caspase-3 in GM group, both of which were reversed by paricalcitol. The phosphorylated Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression was increase in GM, which was counteracted by paricalcitol. The protein expression of p-Akt and nitro-tyrosine was also enhanced in GM-treated rats compared with control rats, which was reversed by paricalcitol co-treatment. Paricalcitol protects GM-induced renal injury by antiapoptotic mechanisms, including inhibition of intrinsic apoptosis pathway and JNK.
PMCID: PMC3823957  PMID: 24227945
Apoptosis; Gentamicin; Kidney; Paricalcitol
12.  Clinical Impact of Hospital-Acquired Anemia in Association with Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75583.
Hospital-acquired anemia (HAA) is common in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is an independent indicator of long-term mortality in these patients. However, limited information exists regarding the development and prognostic impact of HAA associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in AMI patients.
Methods and Results
We retrospectively analyzed 2,289 patients with AMI, and excluded those with anemia at admission. The study population included 1,368 patients, of whom 800 (58.5%) developed HAA. Age, Hgb level at admission, Length of hospital stay, documented in-hospital bleeding and use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, presence of CKD and occurrence of AKI were significantly associated with the development of HAA. HAA was significantly associated with higher 3-year mortality (4.8% and 11.4% for non-HAA and HAA patients, respectively; P < 0.001). After adjustment for multivariable confounders, the risk for long-term mortality was increased in HAA patients with AKI and/or CKD but not in HAA patients without AKI and/or CKD, compared to non-HAA patients (HAA patients without AKI and CKD, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–2.56; HAA patients with either AKI or CKD, HR: 2.80, 95% CI: 1.37–5.73; HAA patients with AKI and CKD, HR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.28–8.24; compared with the non-HAA group).
AKI and CKD were strongly associated with the development of HAA in AMI patients. HAA, when accompanied by AKI or CKD, is an independent risk predictor for long-term mortality in AMI patients.
PMCID: PMC3782440  PMID: 24086579
13.  Proteinuria as a Risk Factor for Mortality in Patients with Colorectal Cancer 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(5):1194-1201.
We investigated the effects of proteinuria and renal insufficiency on all-cause mortality in patients with colorectal cancer, with special emphasis on cancer staging and cancer-related deaths.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. In protocol 1, patients were classified into four groups based on the operability of cancer and proteinuria: group 1, early-stage cancer patients (colorectal cancer stage ≤3) without proteinuria; group 2, early-stage cancer patients with proteinuria; group 3, advanced-stage cancer patients without proteinuria (colorectal cancer stage=4); and group 4, advanced-stage cancer patients with proteinuria. In protocol 2, patients were classified into four similar groups based on cancer staging and renal insufficiency (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2009, 3379 patients were enrolled in this cohort and followed until May 1, 2012 or until death.
The number of patients with proteinuria was 495 (14.6%). The prevalence of proteinuria was higher in advanced-stage cancer (n=151, 22.3%) than in early-stage cancer patients (n=344, 12.7%). After adjusting for age, gender and other clinical variables, the proteinuric, early-stage cancer group was shown to be associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.67 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.38-2.01, compared with non-proteinuric early-stage cancer patients. However, renal insufficiency was not associated with colorectal cancer mortality.
Proteinuria is an important risk factor for cancer mortality, especially in relatively early colorectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC3743186  PMID: 23918569
Cancer; death; proteinuria; GFR; stage
14.  Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Sepsis and Septic Shock: Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(4):965-972.
The aim of this study was to investigate clinical characteristics and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with sepsis and septic shock. Additionally, we explored whether the severity of AKI affects on the clinical outcomes.
Materials and Methods
Data were collected retrospectively in a single center. Among 5680 patients who visited emergency department from January to December 2010, 992 patients with sepsis and septic shock were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups, patients who developed AKI or not, to compare the baseline characteristics, and laboratory and physiologic data. Patients with AKI were subdivided according to its stages for survival analysis.
AKI was developed in 57.7% of patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that development of septic AKI was associated with older age, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, presence of shock, positive blood culture results, and low white blood cell and platelet counts. Hospital mortality was higher in AKI group. Crude Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated reduced 30-day survival rate was significantly associated with the severity of acute kidney injury.
The development of septic AKI was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Furthermore, the severity of AKI was associated with increased mortality.
PMCID: PMC3663224  PMID: 23709433
Acute kidney injury; mortality; risk factors; sepsis; septic shock
15.  Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Elderly Patients with Renal Dysfunction: Results from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(7):1027-1033.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on short- and long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in elderly (>75 yr old) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with renal dysfunction. As part of Korea AMI Registry (KAMIR), elderly patients with AMI and renal dysfunction (GFR<60 mL/min) received either medical (n=439) or PCI (n=1,019) therapy. Primary end point was in-hospital death. Secondary end point was MACE during a 1 month and 1 yr follow-up. PCI group showed a significantly lower incidence of in-hospital death (20.0% vs 14.3%, P=0.006). Short-term and long-term MACE rates were higher in medical therapy group (31.9% vs 19.0%; 57.7% vs 31.3%, P<0.001), and this difference was mainly attributed to cardiac death (29.3% vs 17.6%; 51.9% vs 25.0%, P<0.001). MACE-free survival time after adjustment was also higher in PCI group on short-term (hazard ratio, 0.67; confidence interval, 0.45-0.98; P=0.037) and long-term follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.61, confidence interval, 0.45-0.83; P=0.002). In elderly AMI patients with renal dysfunction, PCI therapy yields favorable in-hospital and short-term and long-term MACE-free survival.
PMCID: PMC3708073  PMID: 23853485
Acute Myocardial Infarction; Renal Dysfunction; Elderly; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Major Adverse Cardiac Event
16.  Paricalcitol Attenuates 4-Hydroxy-2-Hexenal-Induced Inflammation and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63186.
4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), the aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation, may be responsible for the pathogenesis of progressive renal disease. Recently, paricalcitol (19-nor-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2) was shown to be renoprotective through its anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in various experimental nephropathy models. In this study, we investigated the effects of paricalcitol on inflammation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) after HHE-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying HHE-induced renal tubular cell injury, the human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells cultured with 10 µM HHE in the presence or absence of paricalcitol. In HK-2 cells, paricalcitol attenuated the HHE-induced expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and prevented nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. The expression of the inflammatory proteins inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 was attenuated by paricalcitol pretreatment. In addition, HHE increased the expression of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling proteins and fibrotic proteins, such as α-smooth muscle actin and connective tissue growth factor; this inducible expression was suppressed by pretreatment with paricalcitol. Treatment with HHE resulted in the activation of the β-catenin signaling pathway, and paricalcitol pretreatment reduced the expression of β-catenin in HHE-treated HK-2 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation shows that paricalcitol induced vitamin D receptor (VDR)/β-catenin complex formation in HK-2 cells. Also immunofluorescence staining revealed that co-localization of VDR and β-catenin in the nuclei. ICG-001, an inhibitor of β-catenin, decreased the expression of TGF-β1 and attenuated HHE-induced tubular EMT. These results show that paricalcitol attenuated HHE-induced renal tubular cell injury by suppressing inflammation and EMT process through inhibition of the NF-κB, TGF-β/Smad, and β-catenin signaling pathways.
PMCID: PMC3656901  PMID: 23690997
17.  Gross Hematuria Associated with Genitourinary Tuberculosis 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):48-49.
A 27-year-old man presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of massive gross hematuria and urinary retention. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging showed uneven, dilated calices and a narrowing of the renal pelvis in the left kidney; in addition, a large hematoma was noted in the urinary bladder. An emergency cystoscopy was performed following detection of the hematoma and blood clots were removed. A lesional biopsy, a tuberculosis (TB) culture, and urine cytology showed positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The clinical manifestations of genitourinary tuberculosis are nonspecific and are usually detected at a chronic stage. In conclusion, we report an unusual cause of acute kidney injury associated with a subacute stage of genitourinary tuberculosis that caused mucosal erosion and bleeding in the bladder.
PMCID: PMC3651987  PMID: 23678478
Tuberculosis; Acute kidney injury; Hematuria
18.  Serratia marcescens Peritonitis in a Diabetic Patient Receiving Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis 
Infection & Chemotherapy  2013;45(1):105-107.
We report a case of Serratia marcescens peritonitis in a 45-year-old man with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient presented with abdominal pain and cloudy dialysate. Empiric antibiotic therapy was initiated intraperitoneally with cefazolin and ceftazidime for 5 days. Cultures of the dialysate revealed S. marcescens, and the treatment was subsequently changed to gentamicin and ceftazidime. Oral ciprofloxacin was also added. The patient's abdominal pain and the dialysate white blood cell (WBC) count, however, did not improve. The indwelling CAPD catheter was therefore removed. This is an unusual case report in the Korean literature of S. marcescens peritonitis in a patient receiving CAPD.
PMCID: PMC3780930  PMID: 24265957
Serratia marcescens; Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; Peritonitis
19.  Activation of the Renal PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in a DOCA-Salt Model of Hypertension 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2012;48(3):150-154.
The present study investigated the changes that occurred in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the kidney as a result of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Rats were implanted with DOCA strips (200 mg/kg) 1 week after unilateral nephrectomy and were then supplied with 0.9% saline to drink. Four weeks after DOCA implantation, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by use of the tail-cuff method. The expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mTOR, as well as the protein expression levels of ED-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2, were then examined in the kidney by semiquantitative immunoblotting. DOCA-salt hypertensive rats were found to have significantly increased SBP as well as an increased kidney weight-to-body weight ratio. Moreover, the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR was increased in the kidney of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats compared with the control, as was the protein expression of ED-1, COX-2, TGF-β1, and α-SMA. The expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax were increased significantly, whereas Bcl-2 expression was decreased. In conclusion, the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR was increased in the kidney of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.
PMCID: PMC3539094  PMID: 23323219
Deoxycorticosterone; Hypertension; Kidney
20.  EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a patient with primary Sjögren’s syndrome and membranous glomerulonephritis 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:149.
Sjögren’s syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease in which lymphatic cells destroy the salivary and lacrimal glands. Glomerulonephritis is thought to be a rare occurrence in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Furthermore, concurrent glomerular involvement and lymphoma in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome has seldom been reported.
Case presentation
A 52-year-old woman with primary Sjögren’s syndrome developed membranous glomerulonephritis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). She was diagnosed with Sjögren’s syndrome based on the dry eyes, dry mouth, positive anti-nuclear antibody test, anti-Ro (SS-A) antibody, salivary gland biopsy, and salivary scintigraphy. Moreover, renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of membranous glomerulonephritis. Three months later, her small bowel was perforated with pneumoperitoneum, and the biopsy revealed Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL.
We observed the first case of primary Sjögren’s syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr Virus-positive DLBCL and membranous glomerulonephritis. Because of the possibility of malignancy-associated membranous glomerulonephritis in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome, we should be careful and examine such patients for hidden malignancy.
PMCID: PMC3519503  PMID: 23151312
Primary Sjögren’s syndrome; Membranous glomerulonephritis; EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
21.  Suboptimal medical care of patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Renal Insufficiency: results from the Korea acute Myocardial Infarction Registry 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:110.
The clinical outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are poor in patients with renal insufficiency. This study investigated changes in the likelihood that patients received optimal medical care throughout the entire process of myocardial infarction management, on the basis of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
This study analyzed 7,679 patients (age, 63 ± 13 years; men 73.6%) who had STEMI and were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) from November 2005 to August 2008. The study subjects were divided into 5 groups corresponding to strata used to define chronic kidney disease stages.
Patients with lower GFR were less likely to present with typical chest pain. The average symptom-to-door time, door-to-balloon time, and symptom-to-balloon time were longer with lower GFR than higher GFR. Primary reperfusion therapy was performed less frequently and the results of reperfusion therapy were poorer in patients with renal insufficiency; these patients were less likely to receive adjunctive medical treatment, such as treatment with aspirin, clopidogrel, β-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), or statin, during hospitalization and at discharge. Patients who received less intense medical therapy had worse clinical outcomes than those who received more intense medical therapy.
Patients with STEMI and renal insufficiency had less chance of receiving optimal medical care throughout the entire process of MI management, which may contribute to worse outcomes in these patients.
PMCID: PMC3467157  PMID: 22966970
Myocardial infarction; Optimal medical care; Renal function
22.  Hypercalcemia in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2012;48(2):128-129.
A 59-year-old female with diabetes mellitus presented with hypercalcemia and polycythemia. Her serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were increased, and Tc-99m sesta-MIBI scanning showed hot uptake in the lower portion of the left thyroid lobe. After parathyroidectomy, her calcium, iPTH, and polycythemia were normalized. In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of polycythemia and hypercalcemia should also include the possibility of a parathyroid tumor in addition to other neoplasms.
PMCID: PMC3434793  PMID: 22977755
Hypercalcemia; Polycythemia vera; Parathyroid tumor
23.  Altered Regulation of Renal Acid Base Transporters in Response to Ammonium Chloride Loading in Rats 
The role of the kidney in combating metabolic acidosis has been a subject of considerable interest for many years. The present study was aimed to determine whether there is an altered regulation of renal acid base transporters in acute and chronic acid loading. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Metabolic acidosis was induced by administration of NH4Cl for 2 days (acute) and for 7days (chronic). The serum and urinary pH and bicarbonate were measured. The protein expression of renal acid base transporters [type 3 Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), type 1 Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC1), Na-K+ ATPase, H+-ATPase, anion exchanger-1 (AE-1)] was measured by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Serum bicarbonate and pH were decreased in acute acid loading rats compared with controls. Accordingly, urinary pH decreased. The protein expression of NHE3, H+-ATPase, AE-1 and NBC1 was not changed. In chronic acid loading rats, serum bicarbonate and pH were not changed, while urinary pH was decreased compared with controls. The protein expression of NHE3, H+-ATPase was increased in the renal cortex of chronic acid loading rats. These results suggest that unaltered expression of acid transporters combined with acute acid loading may contribute to the development of acidosis. The subsequent increased expression of NHE3, H+-ATPase in the kidney may play a role in promoting acid excretion in the later stage of acid loading, which counteract the development of metabolic acidosis.
PMCID: PMC3339293  PMID: 22563253
Ammonium chloride; Acidosis; Sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3; Proton-Translocating ATPases
24.  Perirenal Fluid Collection after Kidney Transplantation 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2012;48(1):57-59.
A 30-year-old male presented with pitting edema. He had received a kidney transplantation 3 months previously. His serum creatinine level was increased, and a renal ultrasound showed hypoechoic fluid collection in the perirenal space and pelvic cavity. We conducted sono-guided percutaneous drainage of the fluid collected in the pelvic cavity. The chemistry of the peritoneal fluid was more equivalent to serum chemistry values than to urinary values. Simple aspiration and treatment with antibiotics were performed. We have presented a case of lymphocele after kidney transplantation. This case suggests that physicians should remember how to differentiate the pelvic cavity fluid collection in patients who have received a kidney transplant.
PMCID: PMC3341439  PMID: 22570817
Lymphocele; Kidney; Transplantation
25.  Incomplete Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis with Nephrocalcinosis 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2011;47(3):170-172.
We report the case of a female patient with incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis with nephrocalcinosis. She was admitted to the hospital because of acute pyelonephritis. Imaging studies showed dual medullary nephrocalcinosis. Subsequent evaluations revealed hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia with normal acid-base status. A modified tubular acidification test with NH4Cl confirmed a defect of urine acidification, which is compatible with incomplete distal tubular acidosis. We treated our patient with potassium citrate, which corrects hypokalemia and prevents further deposition of calcium salts.
PMCID: PMC3252506  PMID: 22247918
Renal tubular acidosis; Nephrocalcinosis; Kidney

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