The FAS and FASL system plays a substantial role in apoptosis and immune escape of cells. Three polymorphisms located in the promoter regions of FAS (-1377G/A and -670A/G) and FASL (-844T/C) have been shown to alter the transcriptional activity of the genes, respectively. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these polymorphisms on the susceptibility of neuroblastoma in the Chinese population. A total of 203 patients with neuroblastoma and 411 controls were recruited in this case-control study. Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied for genotyping. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate cancer risk by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). It was observed that significantly increased risks of neuroblastoma associated with FAS -1377G/A and FASL -844T/C polymorphisms, with ORs equal to 1.55 (95% CI, 1.10–2.20) for FAS -1377 A allele and 2.90 (95% CI, 2.04–4.12) for FASL -844CC genotype carriers compared with non-carriers, respectively. However, no association was found between the polymorphisms of FAS -670A/G and risk of neuroblastoma. In addition, the cumulative effect of FAS and FASL polymorphisms on risk of neuroblastoma was observed (P for trend = 2.502×10−10), with OR for the carriers of both FAS -1377A allele and FASL -844CC genotypes equaled to 3.95 (95% CI, 2.40–6.51). This work reveals that polymorphisms of FAS -1377G/A and FASL -844T/C but not FAS -670A/G are associated with risk of neuroblastoma in Chinese. These findings support the hypothesis that genetic polymorphism in FAS/FASL death system may influence individual susceptibility to neuroblastoma.
The six-membered ring of the title compound, C8H11NO3, adopts an envelope shape with the C atom in the meta position of the carbonyl representing the flap. This atom is disordered over two positions in an 0.865 (6): 0.135 (6) ratio. In the crystal, a two-dimensional supramolecular network parallel to the ac plane is built up from O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
To combat the possibility of a zoonotic H5N1 pandemic in a timely fashion, it is necessary to develop a vaccine that would confer protection against homologous and heterologous human H5N1 influenza viruses. Using a replicating modified vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (MVTT) as a vaccine vector, we constructed MVTTHA-QH and MVTTHA-AH, which expresses the H5 gene of a goose-derived Qinghai strain A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 or human-derived Anhui Strain A/Anhui/1/2005. The immunogenicity profiles of both vaccine candidates were evaluated. Vaccination with MVTTHA-QH induced a significant level of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) against a homologous strain and a wide range of H5N1 pseudoviruses (clades 1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3.2, and 2.3.4). Neutralization tests (NT) and Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies inhibit the live autologous virus as well as a homologous A/Xingjiang/1/2006 and a heterologous A/Vietnam/1194/2004, representing two human isolates from clade 2.2 and clade 1, respectively. Importantly, mice vaccinated with intranasal MVTTHA-QH were completely protected from challenge with lethal dosages of A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 and the A/Viet Nam/1194/2004, respectively, but not control mice that received a mock MVTTS vaccine. However, MVTTHA-AH induced much lower levels of NT against its autologous strain. Our results suggest that it is feasible to use the H5 gene from A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 to construct an effective vaccine, when using MVTT as a vector, to prevent infections against homologous and genetically divergent human H5N1 influenza viruses.
Pahayokolides A–B are cyanobacteria derived non-ribosomal peptides which exhibit cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines. The biosynthetic origin of the 3-amino-2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-10-methylundecanoic acid (Athmu) moiety has been investigated using stable isotope incorporation experiments. While α-ketoisocaproic acid (α-KIC), α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (α-HIC) and leucine all serve as precursors to Athmu, the feeding of [1-13C] α-KIC results in more than threefold greater 13C enrichment than the other precursors. This result suggests that α-KIC is the immediate precursor which is selected and activated by the adenylation domain of the loading NRPS module and subsequently reduced in a fashion similar to that of the recently identified pathways for cryptophycins A–B, cereulide and valinomycin.
Pahayokolide; Biosynthesis; αγ-hydroxy-β-amino acid; α-KIC; α-HIC
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a primary cause of bacterial infection in humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. pneumoniae strain A026, which is a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from cerebrospinal fluid.
We recently reported a novel adhesion pathway in lymphocytes that is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 4 activity and mediates lymphocyte interactions with endothelial matrix. We now demonstrate that HIV-infected lymphocytes also use Cdk4 to mediate spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and endothelial matrix. We further demonstrate that HIV-infected lymphocytes require Rap-1 activity for phorbol-stimulated adhesion. Understanding adhesion pathways used by HIV-infected lymphocytes may lead to interventions to regulate aberrant adhesion and migration.
Ophiusa disjungens nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpdiNPV) was newly found in Guangdong Province, China. Using BamHI, EcoRI, HindIII, PstI, XhoI, XbaI digestion, the size of the OpdiNPV genome was estimated to be 92,000 base pair. The pstI-G genomic fragment of OpdiNPV was cloned and sequenced. Searches of databases identified at least four open reading frames (ORFs) within this fragment. These ORFs encode odv-e66 (EU 623602), p87/vp80 (EU 732665), odv-ec43 (EU617337) and ac108 gene (EU 732666) respectively. The phylogenetic tree of NPVs based on the combined sequences of odv-ec43 and ac108 indicated that OpdiNPV was most closely related to Mamestra configurata NPV-A and Mamestra configurata NPV-B. The characterization of OpdiNPV in this paper would provide better understanding molecular properties of this virus and be helpful in the development of the newly isolated virus as a biopesticide or an engineered pesticide to control more species of insect pests.
Ophiusa disjungens; Nucleopolyhedrovirus; Physical map; odc-ec43; odv-e66; p87/vp80; ac108
The roles of interferon regulatory element (IRE) in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome on inhibitory effect of interferon against HBV are controversial in vitro. This study aimed to determine the functional characterization of HBV-IRE sequence in vivo. Wild-type or IRE-mutant HBV replication-competent mice were firstly established, and mice were subquently treated with polyinosinic-polytidylin acid (polyI.C) or phosphate-buffered saline via intraperitoneal. Results showed that PolyI.C inhibited viral replication, and increased the level of 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthase mRNA transcripts, a marker of INF-α/β induction. Between wild-type and IRE-mutant HBV replication-competent mice, the levels of HBV-RNA and HBV-DNA replication intermediates were similar. After PolyI.C treatment, the decreasing of HBV-RNA was similar between two groups, but HBV-DNA replication intermediates decreased significantly less in IRE-mutant than wild-type HBV replication-competent mice. These findings suggested that IRE mutant reduced the inhibitory effect of interferon on HBV replication, which played a role in antiviral effect of interferon against HBV.
Interferon regulatory element; Hepatitis B virus; Transcription; Replication; Polyinosinic-polytidylin acid; Mice model
Mast cells participate importantly in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) by releasing inflammatory cytokines to promote vascular cell protease expression and arterial wall remodelling. Mast cells accumulate in AAA lesions during disease progression, but the exact chemokines by which mast cells migrate to the site of vascular inflammation remain unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that mast cells use chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) for their accumulation in experimental mouse AAA lesions.
Methods and results
We generated mast cell and apolipoprotein E double-deficient (Apoe–/–KitW-sh/W-sh) mice and found that they were protected from angiotensin II (Ang II) chronic infusion-induced AAAs compared with Apoe–/– littermates. Using bone-marrow derived mast cells (BMMC) from Apoe–/– mice and CCR2 double-deficient (Apoe–/–Ccr2–/–) mice, we demonstrated that Apoe–/–KitW-sh/W-sh mice receiving BMMC from Apoe–/–Ccr2–/– mice, but not those from Apoe–/– mice, remained protected from AAA formation. Adoptive transfer of BMMC from Apoe–/– mice into Apoe–/–KitW-sh/W-sh mice also increased lesion content of macrophages, T cells, and MHC class II-positive cells; there was also increased apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, elastin fragmentation, and medial smooth muscle cell loss. In contrast, adoptive transfer of BMMC from Apoe–/–Ccr2–/– mice into Apoe–/–KitW-sh/W-sh mice did not affect these variables.
The increased AAA formation and associated lesion characteristics in Apoe–/–KitW–sh/W–sh mice after receiving BMMC from Apoe–/– mice, but not from Apoe–/–Ccr2–/– mice, suggests that mast cells use CCR2 as the chemokine receptor for their recruitment in Ang II-induced mouse AAA lesions.
Mast cell; Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Ang II; MCP-1; CCR2
To study explores the effect of HLEC on the secreted proteins of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells (SKOV3-PM4) with directional highly lymphatic metastasis.
Supernatants of four groups of cultured cells, namely, SKOV3 (A), SKOV3+HLEC (B), SKOV3-PM4 (C), SKOV3-PM4+HLEC (D), were collected, and their proteins were detected by antibody arrays and iTRAQ-2D-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS. Significantly differential proteins were further analyzed via bioinformatics and validated in human serums and cell media via ELISA.
Results of antibody arrays and mass spectrometry demonstrated that GRN and VEGFA were upregulated in group C (compared with group A), whereas IGFBP7 and SPARC were downregulated in group D (compared with group C). Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis results showed that IGFBP7 and VEGFA were closely linked to each other. Further validation with serums showed statistical significance in VEGFA and IGFBP7 levels among groups of patients with ovarian cancers, benign tumors, and control groups. Two proteins were upegulated in the first group. VEGFA in the control group was downregulated. For IGFBP, upregulation in the control group and down-regulation in the first group were also observed.
The HLEC microenvironment is closely associated with directional metastasis to lymph nodes and with differential proteins including cell stromal proteins and adhesion factors. The upregulation of VEGFA and GRN and the downregulation of SPARC and IGFBP7 are closely associated with directional metastasis to lymph nodes in EOC cells.
Ovarian cancer; tumor microenvironment; lymphatic metastasis; human lymphatic capillary endothelial cells; secreted proteins
Increased expression of EZH2 correlates with aggressive clinical behavior in various malignancies. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinical and prognostic values of EZH2 expression and activity in tumor tissues and improve the risk stratification in patients with renal cell carcinoma after surgery. We analyzed EZH2 expression and its activity as indicated by H3K27me3 levels comprising 373 patients with renal cell carcinoma in our institute. Outcome was assessed as overall survival and disease free survival using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Prognostic values of EZH2 and H3K27me3 expression for clinical outcomes were evaluated by Cox regression analysis. We used receiver operating characteristic to calculate diagnostic accuracy. High EZH2 expression correlates with poor overall survival in all patients, especially in advanced RCC, which is an independent prognostic factor in disease free survival and overall survival. Compared with EZH2, H3K27me3 expression is not an independent prognostic factor. The expressions of H3K27me3 and EZH2 are not completely consistent, which might be due to complicated interaction of Polycomb Repressor Complex 2. A combination of EZH2 expression and TNM stage could have better prognostic value than do TNM stage or EZH2 expression alone in both sets for disease free survival and overall survival. These results imply that evaluating intratumoral EZH2 density might improve prognostic value to the TNM staging system and inform treatment decisions for patients with late-stage renal cell carcinoma.
Gliomas, the most malignant form of brain tumors, contain a small subpopulation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are implicated in therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Topoisomerase I inhibitors, shikonin and topotecan, play a crucial role in anti-cancer therapies. After isolated and identified the GSCs from glioma cells successfully, U251, U87, GSCs-U251 and GSCs-U87 cells were administrated with various concentrations of shikonin or topotecan at different time points to seek for the optimal administration concentration and time point. The cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were detected using cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometer to observe the inhibitory effects on glioma cells and GSCs. We demonstrated that shikonin and topotecan obviously inhibited proliferation of not only human glioma cells but also GSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. According to the IC50 values at 24 h, 2 μmol/L of shikonin and 3 μmol/L of topotecan were selected as the optimal administration concentration. In addition, shikonin and topotecan induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases and promoted apoptosis. The down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression with the activation of caspase 9/3-dependent pathway was involved in the apoptosis process. Therefore, the above results showed that topoisomerase I inhibitors, shikonin and topotecan, inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of GSCs as well as glioma cells, which suggested that they might be the potential anticancer agents targeting gliomas to provide a novel therapeutic strategy.
Traumatic injury is a common cause of coagulopathy, primarily due to blood loss and hemodilution secondary to fluid resuscitation. Traumatic injury-associated coagulopathy often follows a course of transition from hyper- to hypocoagulable state exemplified in disseminated intravascular coagulation. The incidence of coagulopathy is significantly higher in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially those with penetrating trauma compared to injury to the trunk and limbs. This occurs despite the fact that patients with isolated TBI bleed less and receive restricted volume load of fluids. TBI-associated coagulopathy is extensively documented to associate with poor clinical outcomes, but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Studies in the past have shown that brain tissue is highly enriched in key procoagulant molecules. This review focuses on the biochemical and cellular characteristics of these molecules and pathways that could make brain uniquely procoagulant and prone to coagulopathy. Understanding this unique procoagulant environment will help to identify new therapeutic targets that could reverse a state of coagulopathy with minimal impacts on hemostasis, a critical requirement for neurosurgical treatments of TBI.
coagulopathy; microparticles; tissue factor; traumatic brain injury
The aim of the present study was to design a novel topical skin-target drug-delivery system, the paeonol microsponge, and to investigate its drug-release patterns in dosage form, both in vitro and in vivo. Paeonol microsponges were prepared using the quasi-emulsion solvent-diffusion method. In vitro release studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cells, while in vivo studies were investigated by microdialysis after the paeonol microsponges were incorporated into a cream base. In vitro release studies showed that the drug delivered via microsponges increased the paeonol permeation rate. Ex vivo drug-deposition studies showed that the microsponge formulation improved drug residence in skin. In addition, in vivo microdialysis showed that the values for the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) for the paeonol microsponge cream was much higher than that of paeonol cream without microsponges. Maximum time (Tmax) was 220 min for paeonol microsponge cream and 480 min for paeonol cream, while the half-life (t1/2) of paeonol microsponge cream (935.1 min) was almost twice that of paeonol cream (548.6 min) in the skin (n = 3). Meanwhile, in the plasma, the AUC value for paeonol microsponge cream was half that of the paeonol cream. Based on these results, paeonol-loaded microsponge formulations could be a better alternative for treating skin disease, as the formulation increases drug bioavailability by lengthening the time of drug residence in the skin and should reduce side-effects because of the lower levels of paeonol moving into the circulation.
Although studies have shown the oncogene WT1 is overexpressed in lung cancer, there is no data showing the implication of WT1 in lung cancer biology. In the present study, we first demonstrated that isotype C of WT1 was conservely overexpressed in 20 lung cancer patient specimens. Knockdown of WT1 by small interference RNA (siRNA) transfection resulted in a significant inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and the expression change of BCL-2 family genes in WT1+ A549 cells. Furthermore, we found that DDP treatment could decrease the WT1 mRNA expression level by 5% and 15% at a dose of 1 μg/ml, by 25% and 40% at a dose of 2 μg/ml for 24 and 48 h, respectively. In the mean time, DDP treatment also reduced the PI3K/AKT pathway activity. Further analysis by using siRNA targeting the AKT-1 and the PI3K pathway inhibitor Ly294002 revealed that the AKT-1 siRNA reduced the WT1 expression effectively in A549 cells, and the same result was observed in Ly294002 treated cells, indicating that DDP treatment could down regulate WT1 expression through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Of particular interest, knockdown of WT1 also inhibited the AKT expression effectively, Chip assay further confirmed that WT1 is a transcription factor of AKT-1. We thus concluded that there is a positive feedback loop between WT1 and AKT-1. Taken together, DDP treatment downregulates the WT1 expression through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and there is a feedback between WT1 and AKT-1; WT1 is involved in cellular proliferation in A549 cells, WT1 inhibition in combination with DDP will provide a new light for lung cancer therapy.
WT1; Lung cancer; PI3K/AKT
Both vitamin C deficiency and inflammation are prevalent in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of oral vitamin C supplementation on inflammatory status in MHD patients with low vitamin C level and high hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level.
A total of 128 patients were recruited in our present study. Patients were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n = 67), patients were orally administered with 200 mg/day vitamin C in the first 3 months, and then the vitamin C supplementation was withdrawn in the next 3 months. In group 2 (n = 61), patients were not given vitamin C in the first 3 months, and then they were orally administered with 200 mg/day in the next 3 months. Levels of hs-CRP, prealbumin, albumin and hemoglobin as well as the EPO resistance index (ERI) were determined at the baseline and every 3 months throughout the study. Plasma vitamin C level was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.
Among the 128 patients, 28 of them dropped out of the study before completion. Consequently, a total of 100 patients (group 1: n = 48; group 2: n = 52) were included in the final analysis. At the baseline, the plasma vitamin C level of all patients was less than 4 μg/mL. However, this proportion was decreased to 20% after the vitamin C supplementation for 3 months. Compared with patients without the vitamin C supplementation, a decreased level of hs-CRP and an increased level of prealbumin were induced by the vitamin C supplementation for 3 months in both groups. However, levels of these biomarkers returned to their original state after the supplementation was withdrawn. Same beneficial effects on plasma albumin, hemoglobin and ERI response to vitamin C supplementation were observed in the two groups without statistical significance.
The inflammatory status in MHD patients with plasma vitamin C deficiency and high levels of inflammatory markers could be partially improved by long-term oral administration of small doses of vitamin C.
The clinical trial number: NCT01356433.
Hemodialysis; Inflammation; Vitamin C
The prognostic importance of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro BNP (NT-proBNP) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains controversial.
We conducted an unrestricted search from the MEDLINE and EMBASE in all languages that were published between 1966 and Augest2013. Twenty-seven long-term prospective studies met our inclusion criterias. From the pooled analysis, elevated BNP/NT-proBNP was significantly associated with increased all cause mortality [odds ratio (OR), 3.85; 95% CI, 3.11 to 4.75], cardiovascular mortality (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 2.53 to 6.84), and cardiovascular events (OR, 7.02; 95% CI, 2.21 to 22.33). The funnel plot showed no evidence of publication bias. The corresponding pooled positive and negative likelihood ratio for prediction of all cause mortality were 1.86 (95% CI, 1.66 to 2.08) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.55), respectively.
BNP/NT-proBNP is a promising prognostic tool to risk-stratify the patients with ESRD. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the specific pathogenic mechanisms and the impact of other potential prognostic factors.
Urinary function can be protected following open lateral node dissection (LND) with pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP) for advanced rectal cancer. However data regarding urinary function after laparoscopic LND with PANP have not been reported. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of laparoscopic LND with PANP on urinary function in male patients with rectal cancer.
Urine flowmetry was performed using an Urodyn flowmeter. Patients were also asked to complete the standardized International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire before surgery and 6 months after. In total, this study consisted of 60 males with advanced rectal cancer.
No significant differences were seen in maximal urinary flow rate, voided volume or residual volume before and after surgery. The total IPSS score increased significantly after surgery and at least 41 patients (68.3%) reported there was no change in one of the seven IPSS questions.
Laparoscopic LND with PANP was relatively safe in preserving urinary function.
Except for the most organized mature hepatocytes, liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs) can differentiate into many other types of cells in the liver including cholangiocytes. In addition, LSPCs are demonstrated to be able to give birth to other kinds of extra-hepatic cell types such as insulin-producing cells. Even more, under some bad conditions, these LSPCs could generate liver cancer stem like cells (LCSCs) through malignant transformation. In this review, we mainly concentrate on the molecular mechanisms for controlling cell fates of LSPCs, especially differentiation of cholangiocytes, insulin-producing cells and LCSCs. First of all, to certificate the cell fates of LSPCs, the following three features need to be taken into account to perform accurate phenotyping: (1) morphological properties; (2) specific markers; and (3) functional assessment including in vivo transplantation. Secondly, to promote LSPCs differentiation, systematical attention should be paid to inductive materials (such as growth factors and chemical stimulators), progressive materials including intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways, and implementary materials (such as liver enriched transcriptive factors). Accordingly, some recommendations were proposed to standardize, optimize, and enrich the effective production of cholangiocyte-like cells out of LSPCs. At the end, the potential regulating mechanisms for generation of cholangiocytes by LSPCs were carefully analyzed. The differentiation of LSPCs is a gradually progressing process, which consists of three main steps: initiation, progression and accomplishment. It’s the unbalanced distribution of affecting materials in each step decides the cell fates of LSPCs.
Liver stem/progenitor cells; Cholangiocytes; Biliary differentiation; Unbalanced distribution of materials; Cell therapy
The upstream Gγ-globin cAMP-response element (G-CRE) plays an important role in regulating Gγ-globin expression through binding of ATF2 and its DNA-binding partners defined in this study. ATF2 knockdown resulted in a significant reduction of γ-globin expression accompanied by decreased ATF2 binding to the G-CRE. By contrast, stable ATF2 expression in K562 cells increased γ-globin transcription which was reduced by ATF2 knockdown. Moreover, a similar effect of ATF2 on γ-globin expression was observed in primary erythroid progenitors. To understand the role of ATF2 in γ-globin expression, chromatographically purified G-CRE/ATF2-interacting proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis; major binding partners included CREB1, cJun, Brg1, and histone deacetylases among others. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated interaction of these proteins with ATF2 and in vivo GCRE binding in CD34+ cells undergoing erythroid differentiation which was correlated with γ-globin expression during development. These results suggest synergism between developmental stage-specific recruitments of the ATF2 protein complex and expression of γ-globin during erythropoiesis. Microarray studies in K562 cells support ATF2 plays diverse roles in hematopoiesis and chromatin remodeling.
Non-invasive in-vivo tracking of T-cells by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can lead to a better understanding of many pathophysiological situations, including AIDS, cancer, diabetes, graft rejection, etc. However, an efficient MRI contrast agent and a reliable technique to track non-phagocytic T-cells are needed. We report a novel superparamagnetic nano-sized iron-oxide particle, IOPC-NH2 series particles, coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), with high transverse relaxivity (250 s−1mM−1), thus useful for MRI studies. IOPC-NH2 particles are the first reported magnetic particles that can label rat and human T-cells with over 90% efficiency, without using transfection agents, HIV-1 transactivator peptide, or electroporation. IOPC-NH2 particles do not cause any measurable effects on T-cell properties. Infiltration of IOPC-NH2-labeled-T-cells can be detected in a rat model of heart-lung transplantation by in-vivo MRI. IOPC-NH2 is potentially valuable contrast agents for labeling a variety of cells for basic and clinical cellular MRI studies, e.g., cellular therapy.
Immune response; Cellular MRI; Nanoparticle; Regenerative medicine; Rat heartlung transplant model
Mucosal surfaces are not targeted by most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines, despite being major routes for HIV-1 transmission. Here we report a novel vaccination regimen consisting of a mucosal prime with a modified replicating vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (MVTTSIVgpe) and an intramuscular boost with a nonreplicating adenovirus strain (Ad5SIVgpe). This regimen elicited robust cellular immune responses with enhanced magnitudes, sustainability, and polyfunctionality, as well as higher titers of neutralizing antibodies against the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac1A11 in rhesus monkeys. The reductions in peak and set-point viral loads were significant in most animals, with one other animal being protected fully from high-dose intrarectal inoculation of SIVmac239. Furthermore, the animals vaccinated with this regimen were healthy, while ∼75% of control animals developed simian AIDS. The protective effects correlated with the vaccine-elicited SIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses against Gag and Pol. Our study provides a novel strategy for developing an HIV-1 vaccine by using the combination of a replicating vector and mucosal priming.
Teriflunomide is an oral disease-modifying therapy recently approved in several locations for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To gain insight into the effects of teriflunomide, immunocyte population changes were measured during progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Dark Agouti rats. Treatment with teriflunomide attenuated levels of spinal cord-infiltrating T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Teriflunomide also mitigated the disease-induced changes in immune cell populations in the blood and spleen suggesting an inhibitory effect on pathogenic immune responses.
multiple sclerosis; teriflunomide; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; lymphocytes; dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase
Close relationships between ticks and microbial communities are important for tick fitness and pathogen colonization and transmission. Haemaphysalis longicornis, distributed widely in China, can carry and transmit various pathogens and pose serious damages to public health and economics. However, little is known about the broader array of microbial communities and symbionts in H. longicornis under natural conditions. In the present study, we investigated the composition of bacterial communities associated with H. longicornis and evaluated the putative symbionts.
The eubacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of H. longicornis were constructed and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. In addition, diagnostic PCR was performed to assess the prevalence, vertical transmission and infection sites of the symbionts in H. longicornis.
Vertically-transmitted symbionts, potential pathogens and allochthonous nonpathogenic bacteria were identified from the field-collected H. longicornis. Three types of symbionts (Coxiella-like, Arsenophonus-like and Rickettsia-like symbionts) were identified in a single host simultaneously. A series of analyses revealed the vertical transmission, prevalence, and infection sites of these symbionts. However, only Coxiella-like bacteria were transmitted stably in the laboratory-reared ticks. In addition, we identified a novel Coxiella-like agent with 95.31% sequence similarity to the taxon described previously.
The present study demonstrated that natural H. longicornis harboured a diverse array of microbial communities. Three types of symbionts were identified in a single host simultaneously. Moreover, high prevalence, vertical transmission and the infection sites supported an obligate symbiotic association between Coxiella symbiont and its host. The role of Coxiella symbiont in the host fitness and the interaction among microbial communities remained to be elucidated. Our investigation of microbial communities in the ticks revealed the complexity of ecological interactions between host and microbe and provided insight for the biological control of ticks.
Haemaphysalis longicornis; Microbial communities; Coxiella-like symbiont; Arsenophonus-like symbiont; Rickettsia-like symbiont