Active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is under investigation to prevent or treat early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In 2002, a Phase II clinical trial (AN1792) was halted due to meningoencephalitis in ∼6% of the AD patients, possibly caused by a T-cell-mediated immunological response. Thus, generating a vaccine that safely generates high anti-Aβ antibody levels in the elderly is required. In this study, MER5101, a novel conjugate of Aβ1-15 peptide (a B-cell epitope fragment) conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein, diphtheria toxoid (DT), and formulated in a nanoparticular emulsion-based adjuvant, was administered to 10 mo-old APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (Wt) mice. High anti-Aβ antibody levels were observed in both vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg and Wt mice. Antibody isotypes were mainly IgG1 and IgG2b, suggesting a Th2-biased response. Re-stimulation of splenocytes with the Aβ1-15:DT conjugate resulted in a strong proliferative response, whereas proliferation was absent after re-stimulation with Aβ1-15 or Aβ1-40/42 peptides, indicating a cellular immune response against DT while avoiding an Aβ-specific T cell response. Moreover, significant reductions in cerebral Aβ plaque burden, accompanied by attenuated microglial activation and increased synaptic density, were observed in MER5101 vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice compared to Tg adjuvant controls. Lastly, MER5101 immunized APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice showed improvement of cognitive deficits in both Contextual Fear Conditioning (CFC) and the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Our novel, highly immunogenic Aβ conjugate vaccine, MER5101, shows promise for improving Aβ vaccine safety and efficacy and therefore, may be useful for preventing and/or treating early AD.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a well-known photocatalyst for environmental cleaning and energy conversion. However, it can only be excited by ultraviolet light for photocatalysis due to its wide band gap (3.2 eV). In this paper, we present a novel (Yb,Er)-NaYF4/C-TiO2 composite which can be perfectly induced not only by ultraviolet light but also weak visible and near infrared lights, owing to the increased carbon doping contents and optimal energy transfer between up-conversion phosphor and C doped TiO2 compared with that of solely C-TiO2. Consequently, the (Yb,Er)-NaYF4/C-TiO2 composite can present the outstanding continuous NOx gas destruction ability under the irradiation of ultraviolet, weak visible and infrared lights much superior to pure C-TiO2, P25 titania and even that of (Yb,Er)-NaYF4/N-TiO2 composite, due to the nice synergetic effect of (Yb,Er)-NaYF4 and C-TiO2, indicating a promising potential in the photocatalyst application with high efficiency of ultraviolet, visible and infrared lights induced photocatalysis simultaneously.
The C-terminal domain (CTD) of τ subunit of the clamp loader (τc) binds to both the DnaB helicase and the DNA polymerase III α subunit (PolIIIα), and determines their relative positions and orientations on the leading and lagging strands. Here we present a 3.2 Å resolution structure of Thermus aquaticus PolIIIα in complex with τc and a DNA substrate. The structure reveals that the CTD of τc interacts with the CTD of PolIIIα through its C-terminal helix and the adjacent loop. Additionally, in this complex PolIIIα displays an open conformation including the reorientations of the oligonucleotide-binding fold and the thumb domain, which may be an indirect result of crystal packing due to the presence of τc. Nevertheless, the position of the τc on the PolIIIα allows us to suggest an approximate model for how the PolIIIα is oriented and positioned on the DnaB helicase.
It is well established that the central nervous system (CNS), especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. We have previously shown that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is critical for stimulating fat loss in response to dietary leucine deprivation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the CNS regulation of leucine deprivation–stimulated fat loss are, however, still largely unknown. Here, we used intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral vectors to identify a novel role for hypothalamic p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a major downstream effector of the kinase mammalian target of rapamycin, in leucine deprivation stimulation of energy expenditure. Furthermore, we show that the effect of hypothalamic S6K1 is mediated by modulation of Crh expression in a melanocortin-4 receptor–dependent manner. Taken together, our studies provide a new perspective for understanding the regulation of energy expenditure by the CNS and the importance of cross-talk between nutritional control and regulation of endocrine signals.
Increasing penetration remains one of the most important issues in optical coherence tomography (OCT) research, which we achieved with a parallel ultrasound beam. In addition to qualitative improvements of tissue imaging, quantitative improvements in resolution of up to 28%±2% was noted. At lower frequencies and energies the improvement occurred primarily by altering the detection of multiply scattered light (photon–phonon interaction), which was substantially greater in solids than in liquids (even though the liquid had the higher scattering coefficient). In conclusion, the use of an ultrasound beam with OCT appears the most effective means to date for increasing imaging penetration.
AIM: To investigate whether transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).
METHODS: A murine model of PBC was developed by injection of polyinosinic polycytidylic acids (poly I: C) in C57BL/6 mice, and the liver expressions of TGF β1, TGF-β receptor I (TβRI), TGF-β receptor II (TβRII), p-Smad2/3, monoclonal α-smooth muscle actin antibody (α-SMA) and α1 (I) collagen in the mouse model and control mice were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Lymphocyte subsets in liver were analyzed using flow cytometry.
RESULTS: The mouse model had several key phenotypic features of human PBC, including elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, antimitochondrial antibodies, portal bile ducts inflammation, and progressive collagen deposition. Compared with control mice, protein and mRNA levels of TGF β1, TβRI, TβRII, p-Smad2/3, α-SMA and α1 (I) collagen in liver (1.7 ± 0.4 vs 8.9 ± 1.8, 0.8 ± 0.2 vs 5.1 ± 1.5, 0.6 ± 0.01 vs 5.1 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.3 vs 2.0 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.4 vs 3.4 ± 0.6, 0.8 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.3, 1.1 ± 1.2 vs 11.8 ± 0.6, P < 0.05), and the total number and percentage of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes (0.01 ± 0.001 vs 0.004 ± 0.00, 0.12 ± 0.04 vs 0.52 ± 0.23, P < 0.01) were higher in the mouse model.
CONCLUSION: TGFβ1 might play a dual role in the development of PBC: it suppresses inflammatory response but operates to enhance fibrogenesis. The aberrant activity of TGF-β1 signaling contributes to the development of PBC.
Primary biliary cirrhosis; Transforming growth factor-β1; Regulatory T cell; Liver
In the title compound, C18H14N2O4, the piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation and the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 13.09 (9)°. In the crystal, molecules are linked along the c axis by C—H⋯π and N⋯π [H(N)–centroid distances = 2.8030 (2) and 3.376 (2) Å] interactions between neighbouring molecules.
Forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FOXM1) has been reported to overexpress and correlate with pathogenesis in a variety of human malignancies. However, little research has been done to investigate its clinical significance in gastric cancer.
We examined the expression of FOXM1 in 103 postoperational gastric cancer tissues and 5 gastric cell lines by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis respectively. Data on clinic-pathological features and relevant prognostic factors in these patients were then analyzed. Moreover, the association of FOXM1 expression and chemosensitivity to docetaxel in gastric cancer cells was further explored.
Our study demonstrated that the level of FOXM1 expression was significantly higher in gastric cancer than in para-cancer tissues (P < 0.001) and normal gastric cell lines (P = 0.026). No significant association was found between FOXM1 expression and any clinical pathological features (P > 0.1). FOXM1 amplification was identified as an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (P = 0.001), and its affection is more significant in patients with tumor size larger than 5 cm (P = 0.004), pT3-4 (P = 0.003) or pIII-IV (P = 0.001). Additionally, shown to mediate docetaxel resistance in gastric cancers by our research, FOXM1 was revealed to alter microtubule dynamics in response to the treatment of docetaxel, and the drug resistance could be reversed with FOXM1 inhibitor thiostrepton treatment.
FOXM1 can be a useful marker for predicting patients’ prognosis and monitoring docetaxel response, and might be a new therapeutic target in docetaxel resistant gastric cancer.
FOXM1; Gastric cancer; Prognosis; Docetaxel resistance
Biology is meaningful and important to identify cytokines and investigate their various functions and biochemical mechanisms. However, several issues remain, including the large scale of benchmark datasets, serious imbalance of data, and discovery of new gene families. In this paper, we employ the machine learning approach based on a novel ensemble classifier to predict cytokines. We directly selected amino acids sequences as research objects. First, we pretreated the benchmark data accurately. Next, we analyzed the physicochemical properties and distribution of whole amino acids and then extracted a group of 120-dimensional (120D) valid features to represent sequences. Third, in the view of the serious imbalance in benchmark datasets, we utilized a sampling approach based on the synthetic minority oversampling technique algorithm and K-means clustering undersampling algorithm to rebuild the training set. Finally, we built a library for dynamic selection and circulating combination based on clustering (LibD3C) and employed the new training set to realize cytokine classification. Experiments showed that the geometric mean of sensitivity and specificity obtained through our approach is as high as 93.3%, which proves that our approach is effective for identifying cytokines.
Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively.
Diazoxide, a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channel opener, protects the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Diazoxide also inhibits mitochondrial complex II-dependent respiration in addition to its preconditioning effect. However, there are no prior studies of the role of diazoxide on post-ischemic myocardial oxygenation. In the current study, we determined the effect of diazoxide on the suppression of post-ischemic myocardial tissue hyperoxygenation in vivo, superoxide (O2−•) generation in isolated mitochondria, and impairment of the interaction between complex II and complex III in purified mitochondrial proteins. It was observed that diazoxide totally suppressed the post-ischemic myocardial hyperoxygenation. With succinate but not glutamate/malate as the substrate, diazoxide significantly increased ubisemiquinone-dependent O2−• generation, which was not blocked by 5-HD and glibenclamide. Using a model system, the super complex of succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCR) hosting complex II and complex III, we also observed that diazoxide impaired complex II and its interaction with complex III with no effect on complex III. UV-visible spectral analysis revealed that diazoxide decreased succinate-mediated ferricytochrome b reduction in SCR. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that diazoxide suppressed the in vivo post-ischemic myocardial hyperoxygenation through opening the mitoKATP channel and ubisemiquinone-dependent O2−• generation via inhibiting mitochondrial complex II-dependent respiration.
Mitochondria; Diazoxide; Superoxide; Ischemia Reperfusion; Oxygenation
Based on the previous research that oroxylin A can suppress inflammation, we investigated the hepatoprotective role of oroxylin A against CCl4-induced liver damage in mice and then studied the possible alteration of the activities of cytokine signaling participating in liver regeneration. Wild type (WT) mice were orally administrated with oroxylin A (60 mg/kg) for 4 days after CCl4 injection, the anti-inflammatory effects of oroxylin A were assessed directly by hepatic histology and indirectly by measuring serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Albumin. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining was performed to evaluate the role of oroxylin A in promoting hepatocyte proliferation. Serum IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1Ra levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liver HGF, EGF, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1Ra and IL-1β gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The data indicated that the IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA of oroxylin A administered group significantly increased higher than the control within 12 hours after CCl4 treatment. Meanwhile, oroxylin A significantly enhanced the expression of IL-1Ra at the early phase, which indicated that oroxylin A could facilitate the initiating events in liver regeneration by increasing IL-1Ra which acts as an Acute-Phase Protein (APP). In addition, a lethal CCl4-induced acute liver failure model offers a survival benefit in oroxylin A treated WT mice. However, oroxylin A could not significantly improve the percent survival of IL-1RI−/− mice with a lethal CCl4-induced acute liver failure.
Our study confirmed that oroxylin A could strongly promote liver structural remodeling and functional recovery through IL-1Ra/IL-1RI signaling pathway. All these results support the possibility of oroxylin A being a therapeutic candidate for acute liver injury.
Growth arrest and DNA damage protein 45b (Gadd45b) functions as an intrinsic neuroprotective molecule protecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from injury. This study was performed to elucidate further the induction pathway of Gadd45b expression in RGCs.
The induction of Gadd45b expression in response to TGFβNFκB signaling was investigated in RGC5 cultures in vitro and murine retina in vivo. Gadd45b mRNA and protein expression were detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunoblot assay, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytochemistry. Activation of NFκB and TGFβ/Gadd45b signaling were assessed by measuring phosphorylation of NFκB and using specific inhibitors. Gadd45b siRNA was transfected into RGC5 to silence Gadd45b mRNA expression.
Expression of TGFβ receptors I and II was detected in RGC5 in vitro and RGCs in vivo. TGFβ induced abundant Gadd45b mRNA and protein expression, exhibiting a dose-dependent response in vitro. Exogenous TGFβ1 induced upregulation of Gadd45b expression in RGCs in murine retina in vivo. TGFβ stimulated phosphorylation of NFκB, and inhibition of NFκB phosphorylation blocked induction of Gadd45b by TGFβ in RGC5 cells. Induction of Gadd45b by TGFβ increased the resistance of RGC5 cells against TNFα cytotoxicity and paraquat oxidative stress.
TGFβ signaling induced Gadd45b expression in RGCs. Modulation of the TGFβ/NFκB/Gadd45b signaling pathway may provide a means to enhance the neuroprotective effect of Gadd45b in RGCs.
Gadd45b is an intrinsic neuroprotective molecule protecting RGCs from injuries. The present study identified TGFβ/NFκB as the induction pathway of Gadd45b in RGCs. Study on TGFβ/NFκB/Gadd45b signaling pathway may provide means to enhance the neuroprotective effect of Gadd45b in RGCs.
We have sequenced the gene clusters for type strains of the Acinetobacter baumannii serotyping scheme developed in the 1990s, and used the sequences to better understand diversity in surface polysaccharides of the genus. We obtained genome sequences for 27 available serovar type strains, and identified 25 polysaccharide gene cluster sequences. There are structures for 12 of these polysaccharides, and in general the genes present are appropriate to the structure where known. This greatly facilitates interpretation. We also find 53 different glycosyltransferase genes, and for 7 strains can provisionally allocate specific genes to all linkages. We identified primers that will distinguish the 25 sequence forms by PCR or microarray, or alternatively the genes can be used to determine serotype by “molecular serology”. We applied the latter to 190 Acinetobacter genome-derived gene-clusters, and found 76 that have one of the 25 gene-cluster forms. We also found novel gene clusters and added 52 new gene-cluster sequence forms with different wzy genes and different gene contents. Altogether, the strains that have one of the original 25 sequence forms include 98 A. baumannii (24 from our strains) and 5 A. nosocomialis (3 from our strains), whereas 32 genomes from 12 species other than A. baumannii or A. nosocomialis, all have new sequence forms. One of the 25 serovar type sequences is found to be in European clone I (EC I), 2 are in EC II but none in EC III. The public genome strains add an additional 52 new sequence forms, and also bring the number found in EC I to 5, in EC II to 9 and in EC III to 2.
This paper covers eight Salmonella serogroups, that are defined by O antigens with related structures and gene clusters. They include the serovars that are now most frequently isolated. Serogroups A, B1, B2, C2-C3, D1, D2, D3 and E have O antigens that are distinguished by having galactose as first sugar, and not N-acetyl glucosamine or N-acetyl galactosamine as in the other 38 serogroups, and indeed in most Enterobacteriaceae. The gene clusters for these galactose-initiated appear to have entered S. enterica since its divergence from E. coli, but sequence comparisons show that much of the diversification occurred long before this. We conclude that the gene clusters must have entered S. enterica in a series of parallel events. The individual gene clusters are discussed, followed by analysis of the divergence for those genes shared by two or more gene clusters, and a putative phylogenic tree for the gene clusters is presented. This set of O antigens provides a rare case where it is possible to examine in detail the relationships of a significant number of O antigens. In contrast the more common pattern of O-antigen diversity within a species is for there to be only a few cases of strains having related gene clusters, suggesting that diversity arose through gain of individual O-antigen gene clusters by lateral gene transfer, and under these circumstances the evolution of the diversity is not accessible. This paper on the galactose-initiated set of gene clusters gives new insights into the origins of O-antigen diversity generally.
Observational studies show moderate alcohol use negatively associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, healthier attributes among moderate users compared to never users may confound the apparent association. A potentially less biased way to examine the association is Mendelian randomization, using alcohol metabolizing genes which influence alcohol use.
We used instrumental variable analysis with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genotypes (AA/GA/GG) as instrumental variables for alcohol use to examine the association of alcohol use (10 g ethanol/day) with CVD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids and glucose) and morbidity (self-reported IHD and CVD) among men in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.
ALDH2 genotypes were a credible instrument for alcohol use (F-statistic 74.6). Alcohol was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0.05 mmol/L per alcohol unit, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.08) and diastolic blood pressure (1.15 mmHg, 95% CI 0.23 to 2.07) but not with systolic blood pressure (1.00 mmHg, 95% CI -0.74 to 2.74), LDL-cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.08), log transformed triglycerides (0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.08) or log transformed fasting glucose (0.01 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.006 to 0.03), self-reported CVD (odds ratio (OR) 0.98, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.27) or self-reported IHD (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.45).
Low to moderate alcohol use among men had the expected effects on most CVD risk factors but not fasting glucose. Larger studies are needed to confirm the null associations with IHD, CVD and fasting glucose.
In order to search for new structural modification strategies on fluoroquinolones, we have designed and synthesized a series of fluoroquinolone derivatives by linking various hydrazine compounds to the C-3 carboxyl group of levofloxacin and assessed their anticancer activities. Several novel levofloxacin derivatives displayed potent cytotoxicity against the tested cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7- piperazin-1, 4-dihydro- quinoline- 3-carboxylic acid benzo [1,3] dioxol-5- ylmethylene- hydrazide (QNT11) on the apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro.
The inhibition effects of QNT11 on cell proliferation were examined by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis method. The topoisomerase ΙΙ activity was measured by agarose gel electrophoresis using Plasmid pBR322 DNA as the substrate. Cell cycle progression was analyzed using flow cytometry in conjunction with ethanol fixation and propidium iodide staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential (△ψm) was measured by high content screening image system. The caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, CDK1, Cyclin B1and cytochrome c protein expressions were detected by Western blot analysis.
QNT11 showed selective cytotoxicity against Hep3B, SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and HCT-8 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.21 μM, 2.38 μM, 3.17 μM and 2.79 μM, respectively. In contrast, QNT11 had weak cytotoxicity against mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with IC50 value of 7.46 μM. Treatment of Hep3B cells with different concentrations of QNT11 increased the percentage of the apoptosis cells significantly, and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed the ladder DNA bands typical of apoptotic cells, with a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Compared to the control group, QNT11 could influence the DNA topoisomerase IIactivity and inhibit the religation of DNA strands, thus keeping the DNA in fragments. There was a significant increase of cytochrome c in the cytosol after 24 h of treatment with QNT11 and a decrease in the mitochondrial compartment. Observed changes in cell cycle distribution by QNT11 treated might be caused by insufficient preparation for G2/M transition. In addition, QNT11 increased the protein expression of Bax, caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, as well as the cleaved activated forms of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 significantly, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 decreased.
Our results showed that QNT11 as a fluoroquinolone derivative exerted potent and selectively anticancer activity through the mechanism of eukaryotic topoisomerase II poisoning. The growth inhibition was in large part mediated via apoptosis-associated mitochondrial dysfunction and regulation of Bcl-2 signaling pathways.
Fluoroquinolone derivatives; Hepatocarcinoma cell line; DNA topoisomerase II; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Apoptosis
Anatase TiO2 modified FeS nanowires assembled by numerous nanosheets were synthesized by using a typical hydrothermal method. The carbon-free nanocoated composite electrodes exhibit improved reversible capacity of 510 mAh g−1 after 100 discharge/charge cycles at 200 mA g−1, much higher than that of the pristine FeS nanostructures, and long-term cycling stability with little performance degradation even after 500 discharge/charge cycles at current density of 400 mA g−1. Full batteries fabricated using the FeS@TiO2 nanostructures anode and the LiMn2O4 nanowires cathode with excellent stability, and good rate capacities could also be achieved. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes can be attributed to the improved conductively of the integrated electrodes and the enhanced kinetics of lithium insertion/extraction at the electrode/electrolyte interface because of the incorporation of anatase TiO2 phase.
We have undertaken an extensive survey of a group of epimerases originally named Gne, that were thought to be responsible for inter-conversion of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc). The analysis builds on recent work clarifying the specificity of some of these epimerases. We find three well defined clades responsible for inter-conversion of the gluco- and galacto-configuration at C4 of different N-acetylhexosamines. Their major biological roles are the formation of UDP-GalNAc, UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminuronic acid (UDP-GalNAcA) and undecaprenyl pyrophosphate-N-acetylgalactosamine (UndPP-GalNAc) from the corresponding glucose forms. We propose that the clade of UDP-GlcNAcA epimerase genes be named gnaB and the clade of UndPP-GlcNAc epimerase genes be named gnu, while the UDP-GlcNAc epimerase genes retain the name gne. The Gne epimerases, as now defined after exclusion of those to be named GnaB or Gnu, are in the same clade as the GalE 4-epimerases for inter-conversion of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) and UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal). This work brings clarity to an area that had become quite confusing. The identification of distinct enzymes for epimerisation of UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcNAcA and UndPP-GlcNAc will greatly facilitate allocation of gene function in polysaccharide gene clusters, including those found in bacterial genome sequences. A table of the accession numbers for the 295 proteins used in the analysis is provided to enable the major tree to be regenerated with the inclusion of additional proteins of interest. This and other suggestions for annotation of 4-epimerase genes will facilitate annotation.
The radial migration of neuronal progenitor cells is critical for the development of cerebral cortex layers. They go through a critical step transforming from multipolar to bipolar before outward migration. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is a transmembrane protease which can process many substrates involved in cell-cell interaction, including Notch, ligands of EGFR, and some cell adhesion molecules. In this study, we used in utero electroporation to knock down or overexpress ADAM17 at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) in neuronal progenitor cells to examine the role of ADAM17 in cortical embryonic neurogenesis. Our results showed that the radial migration of ADAM17-knocked down cells were normal till E16.5 and reached the intermediate zone (IZ). Then most transfected cells stopped migration and stayed at the IZ to inner cortical plate (CP) layer at E18.5, and there was higher percentage of multipolar cells at IZ layer in the ADAM17-knocked down group compared to the cells in control group. Marker staining revealed that those ADAM17-knocked down cells differentiated normally from neural stem cells (NSCs) to neuronal intermediate progenitor cells (nIPCs) but did not differentiate into mature neurons. The migration and multipolar exit defects caused by ADAM17 knockdown could be partially rescued by over-expressing an shRNA resistant ADAM17, while overexpressing ADAM17 alone did not affect the radial migration. Taken together, our results showed for the first time that, ADAM17 is critical in regulating the multipolar-stage exit and radial migration of the nIPCs during telencephalon cortex development in mice.
Eukaryotic initiation factor subunit c (eIF3c) has been identified as an oncogene that is over-expressed in tumor cells and, therefore, is a potential therapeutic target for gene-based cancer treatment. This study was focused on investigating the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated eIF3c gene knockdown on colon cancer cell survival. The eIF3c gene was observed to be highly expressed in colon cancer cell models. The expression levels of the gene in eIF3c siRNA infected and control siRNA infected cells were compared via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting analysis. Cell proliferation levels were analyzed employing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony formation assays. Furthermore, the effects of eIF3c gene knockdown on the cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. The results showed that suppression of eIF3c expression significantly (P<0.001) reduced cell proliferation and colony formation of RKO colon cancer cells. The cell cycle was arrested by decreasing the number of cells entering S phase. Further, apoptosis was induced as a result of eIF3c knockdown. Collectively, eIF3c deletion effectively reduced the survival of colon cancer cells and could be used as a therapeutic tool for colon cancer therapy.
Eukaryotic initiation factor subunit c (eIF3c); Colon cancer; RKO cells; Small interfering RNA (siRNA)
Fis, one of the most important nucleoid-associated proteins, functions as a global regulator of transcription in bacteria that has been comprehensively studied in Escherichia coli K12. Fis also influences the virulence of Salmonella enterica and pathogenic E. coli by regulating their virulence genes, however, the relevant mechanism is unclear. In this report, using combined RNA-seq and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq technologies, we first identified 1646 Fis-regulated genes and 885 Fis-binding targets in the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and found a Fis regulon different from that in E. coli. Fis has been reported to contribute to the invasion ability of S. enterica. By using cell infection assays, we found it also enhances the intracellular replication ability of S. enterica within macrophage cell, which is of central importance for the pathogenesis of infections. Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 are crucial for the invasion and survival of S. enterica in host cells. Using mutation and overexpression experiments, real-time PCR analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that Fis regulates 63 of the 94 Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 genes, by three regulatory modes: i) binds to SPI regulators in the gene body or in upstream regions; ii) binds to SPI genes directly to mediate transcriptional activation of themselves and downstream genes; iii) binds to gene encoding OmpR which affects SPI gene expression by controlling SPI regulators SsrA and HilD. Our results provide new insights into the impact of Fis on SPI genes and the pathogenicity of S. enterica.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). The annotation of functional genome and signaling network in M. tuberculosis are still not systematic. Essential gene modules are a collection of functionally related essential genes in the same signaling or metabolic pathway. The determination of essential genes and essential gene modules at genomic level may be important for better understanding of the physiology and pathology of M. tuberculosis, and also helpful for the development of drugs against this pathogen. The establishment of genomic operon database (DOOR) and the annotation of gene pathways have felicitated the genomic analysis of the essential gene modules of M. tuberculosis.
Bibliometric approach has been used to perform a High-throughput screen for essential genes of M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Ant colony algorithm were used to identify the essential genes in other M. tuberculosis reference strains. Essential gene modules were analyzed by operon database DOOR. The pathways of essential genes were assessed by Biocarta, KEGG, NCI-PID, HumanCyc and Reactome. The function prediction of essential genes was analyzed by Pfam.
A total approximately 700 essential genes were identified in M. tuberculosis genome. 40% of operons are consisted of two or more essential genes. The essential genes were distributed in 92 pathways in M. tuberculosis. In function prediction, 61.79% of essential genes were categorized into virulence, intermediary metabolism/respiration,cell wall related and lipid metabolism, which are fundamental functions that exist in most bacteria species.
We have identified the essential genes of M. tuberculosis using bibliometric approach at genomic level. The essential gene modules were further identified and analyzed.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Essential gene modules; Operon; Pathway
Complement components and their receptors are found within and around Aβ cerebral plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Microglia defend against pathogens through phagocytosis via complement component C3 and/or engagement of C3 cleavage product iC3b with complement receptor type 3 (CR3, Mac-1). Here we provide direct evidence that C3 and Mac-1 mediate, in part, phagocytosis and clearance of fibrillar amyloid-β (fAβ) by murine microglia in vitro and in vivo. Microglia took up not only synthetic fAβ42 but also amyloid cores from AD patients, transporting them to lysosomes in vitro. Fibrillar Aβ42 uptake was significantly attenuated by the deficiency or knockdown of C3 or Mac-1 and scavenger receptor class A ligands. In addition, C3 or Mac-1 knockdown combined with a scavenger receptor ligand, fucoidan, further attenutated fibrillar Aβ42 uptake by N9 microglia. Fluorescent fibrillar Aβ42 microinjected cortically was significantly higher in C3 and Mac-1 knockout mice compared to wild-type mice 5 days after surgery, indicating reduced clearance in vivo. Together, these results demonstrate that C3 and Mac-1 are involved in phagocytosis and clearance of fAβ by microglia, providing support for a potential beneficial role for microglia and the complement system in AD pathogenesis.
microglia; Aβ; complement component C3; complement receptor type 3; Mac-1; phagocytosis
Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is a blue-light receptor mediating blue-light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic promotion of floral initiation. CRY2 is a constitutive nuclear protein that undergoes blue-light-dependent phosphorylation, ubiquitination, photobody formation, and degradation in the nucleus, but the relationship between these blue-light-dependent events remains unclear. It has been proposed that CRY2 phosphorylation triggers a conformational change responsible for the subsequent ubiquitination and photobody formation, leading to CRY2 function and/or degradation. We tested this hypothesis by a structure-function study, using mutant CRY2–GFP fusion proteins expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. We show that changes of lysine residues of the NLS (Nuclear Localization Signal) sequence of CRY2 to arginine residues partially impair the nuclear importation of the CRY2K541R and CRY2K554/5R mutant proteins, resulting in reduced phosphorylation, physiological activities, and degradation in response to blue light. In contrast to the wild-type CRY2 protein that forms photobodies exclusively in the nucleus, the CRY2K541R and CRY2K554/5R mutant proteins form protein bodies in both the nucleus and cytosol in response to blue light. These results suggest that photoexcited CRY2 molecules can aggregate to form photobody-like structure without the nucleus-dependent protein modifications or the association with the nuclear CRY2-interacting proteins. Taken together, the observation that CRY2 forms photobodies markedly faster than CRY2 phosphorylation in response to blue light, we hypothesize that the photoexcited cryptochromes form oligomers, preceding other biochemical changes of CRY2, to facilitate photobody formation, signal amplification, and propagation, as well as desensitization by degradation.
protein phosphorylation; signal transduction; fluorescence imaging; protein degradation; photobody