Bacterial populations in clinical and laboratory settings contain a significant proportion of mutants with elevated mutation rates (mutators). Mutators have a particular advantage when multiple beneficial mutations are needed for fitness, as in antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, high mutation rates potentially lead to increasing numbers of deleterious mutations and subsequently to the decreased fitness of mutators. To test how fitness changed with mutation accumulation, genome sequencing and fitness assays of nine Escherichia coli mutY mutators were undertaken in an evolving chemostat population at three time points. Unexpectedly, the fitness in members of the mutator subpopulation became constant despite a growing number of mutations over time. To test if the accumulated mutations affected fitness, we replaced each of the known beneficial mutations with wild-type alleles in a mutator isolate. We found that the other 25 accumulated mutations were not deleterious. Our results suggest that isolates with deleterious mutations are eliminated by competition in a continuous culture, leaving mutators with mostly neutral mutations. Interestingly, the mutator–non-mutator balance in the population reversed after the fitness plateau of mutators was reached, suggesting that the mutator–non-mutator ratio in populations has more to do with competition between members of the population than the accumulation of deleterious mutations.
bacterial genomics; experimental evolution; mutators
Adrenergic stimulation modulates cardiac function by altering the phosphorylation status of several cardiac proteins. The Troponin complex, which is the Ca2+ sensor for cardiac contraction, is a hot spot for adrenergic phosphorylation. While the effect of β-adrenergic related PKA phosphorylation of troponin I at Ser23/24 is well established, the effects of α-adrenergic induced PKC phosphorylation on multiple sites of TnI (Ser43/45, Thr144) and TnT (Thr194, Ser198, Thr203 and Thr284) are much less clear. By utilizing an IAANS labeled fluorescent troponin C, , we systematically examined the site specific effects of PKC phosphomimetic mutants of TnI and TnT on TnC’s Ca2+ binding properties in the Tn complex and reconstituted thin filament. The majority of the phosphomemetics had little effect on the Ca2+ binding properties of the isolated Tn complex. However, when incorporated into the thin filament, the phosphomimetics typically altered thin filament Ca2+ sensitivity in a way consistent with their respective effects on Ca2+ sensitivity of skinned muscle preparations. The altered Ca2+ sensitivity could be generally explained by a change in Ca2+ dissociation rates. Within TnI, phosphomimetic Asp and Glu did not always behave similar, nor were Ala mutations (used to mimic non-phosphorylatable states) benign to Ca2+ binding. Our results suggest that Troponin may act as a hub on the thin filament, sensing physiological stimuli to modulate the contractile performance of the heart.
The evolutionary history of living species is usually inferred through the phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological information using various mathematical models. New challenges in phylogenetic analysis are centered mostly on the search for accurate and efficient methods to handle the huge amounts of sequence data generated from newer genome sequencing. The next major challenge is the determination of relationships between the evolution of structural elements and their functional implementation, which is largely ignored in previous analyses. Here, we described the discovery of structural elements in metazoan mitochondrial genomes, termed key K-strings, that can serve as a basis for phylogenetic tree construction. Although comprising only a small fraction (0.73%) of all K-strings, these key K-strings are pivotal to the tree construction because they allow for a significant reduction in the computational time required to construct phylogenetic trees, and more importantly, they make significant improvement to the results of phylogenetic inference. The trees constructed from the key K-strings were consistent overall to our current view of metazoan phylogeny and exhibited a more rational topology than the trees constructed by using other conventional methods. Surprisingly, the key K-strings tended to accumulate in the conserved regions of the original sequences, which were most likely due to strong selection pressure. Furthermore, the special structural features of the key K-strings should have some potential applications in the study of the structures and functions relationship of proteins and in the determination of evolutionary trajectory of species. The novelty and potential importance of key K-strings lead us to believe that they are essential evolutionary elements. As such, they may play important roles in the process of species evolution and their physical existence. Further studies could lead to discoveries regarding the relationship between evolution and processes of speciation.
Lichen is a classic mutualistic organism and the lichenization is one of the fungal symbioses. The lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum is living in symbiosis with the green alga Diplosphaera chodatii Bialsuknia as a lichen in the arid regions.
454 and Illumina technologies were used to sequence the genome of E. pusillum. A total of 9,285 genes were annotated in the 37.5 Mb genome of E. pusillum. Analyses of the genes provided direct molecular evidence for certain natural characteristics, such as homothallic reproduction and drought-tolerance. Comparative genomics analysis indicated that the expansion and contraction of some protein families in the E. pusillum genome reflect the specific relationship with its photosynthetic partner (D. chodatii). Co-culture experiments using the lichen-forming fungus E. pusillum and its algal partner allowed the functional identification of genes involved in the nitrogen and carbon transfer between both symbionts, and three lectins without signal peptide domains were found to be essential for the symbiotic recognition in the lichen; interestingly, the ratio of the biomass of both lichen-forming fungus and its photosynthetic partner and their contact time were found to be important for the interaction between these two symbionts.
The present study lays a genomic analysis of the lichen-forming fungus E. pusillum for demonstrating its general biological features and the traits of the interaction between this fungus and its photosynthetic partner D. chodatii, and will provide research basis for investigating the nature of its drought resistance and symbiosis.
Mycobiont; Phycobiont; Lichenization; Symbiosis; Symbiosis-related gene; Photosynthetic products
Structural integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST) after stroke is closely linked to the degree of motor impairment. However, current methods for measurement of fractional atrophy (FA) of CST based on region of interest (ROI) are time-consuming and open to bias. Here, we used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) together with a CST template with healthy volunteers to quantify structural integrity of CST automatically. Two groups of patients after ischemic stroke were enrolled, group 1 (10 patients, 7 men, and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores ⩽ 50) and group 2 (12 patients, 12 men, and FMA scores = 100). CST of FAipsi, FAcontra, and FAratio was compared between the two groups. Relative to group 2, FA was decreased in group 1 in the ipsilesional CST (P < 0.01), as well as the FAratio (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the two subgroups in the contralesional CST (P = 0.23). Compared with contralesional CST, FA of ipsilesional CST decreased in group 1 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the automated method used in our study could detect a surrogate biomarker to quantify the CST after stroke, which would facilitate implementation of clinical practice.
The tracking initiation problem is examined in the context of autonomous bearings-only-tracking (BOT) of a single appearing/disappearing target in the presence of clutter measurements. In general, this problem suffers from a combinatorial explosion in the number of potential tracks resulted from the uncertainty in the linkage between the target and the measurement (a.k.a the data association problem). In addition, the nonlinear measurements lead to a non-Gaussian posterior probability density function (pdf) in the optimal Bayesian sequential estimation framework. The consequence of this nonlinear/non-Gaussian context is the absence of a closed-form solution. This paper models the linkage uncertainty and the nonlinear/non-Gaussian estimation problem jointly with solid Bayesian formalism. A particle filtering (PF) algorithm is derived for estimating the model's parameters in a sequential manner. Numerical results show that the proposed solution provides a significant benefit over the most commonly used methods, IPDA and IMMPDA. The posterior Cramér-Rao bounds are also involved for performance evaluation.
Despite advances in immunosuppressive drugs, long-term success of liver transplantation is still limited by the development of chronic liver allograft dysfunction. Although the exact pathogenesis of chronic liver allograft dysfunction remains to be established, there is strong evidence that chemokines are involved in organ damage induced by inflammatory and immune responses after liver surgery. Chemokines are a group of low-molecular-weight molecules whose function includes angiogenesis, haematopoiesis, mitogenesis, organ fibrogenesis, tumour growth and metastasis, and participating in the development of the immune system and in inflammatory and immune responses. The purpose of this review is to collect all the research that has been done so far concerning chemokines and the pathogenesis of chronic liver allograft dysfunction and helpfully, to pave the way for designing therapeutic strategies and pharmaceutical agents to ameliorate chronic allograft dysfunction after liver transplantation.
Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne disease in many countries. Serotype determination of Salmonella is important for disease assessment, infection control, and epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a microarray system that targets the O antigen-specific genes was developed for simultaneously detecting and identifying all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Of these, 40 serogroups can be confidently identified, and the remaining 6, in three pairs (serogroups O67 and B, E1 and E4, and A and D1), need to be further distinguished from each other using PCR methods or conventional serotyping methods. The microarray was shown to be highly specific when evaluated against 293 Salmonella strains, 186 Shigella strains, representative Escherichia coli strains, and 10 strains of other bacterial species. The assay correctly identified 288 (98%) of the Salmonella strains. The detection sensitivity was determined to be 50 ng genomic DNA per sample. By testing simulated samples in a tomato background, 2 to 8 CFU per gram inoculated could be detected after enrichment. This newly developed microarray assay is the first molecular protocol that can be used for the comprehensive detection and identification of all 46 Salmonella O serogroups. Compared to the traditional serogrouping method, the microarray provides a reliable, high-throughput, and sensitive approach that can be used for rapid identification of multiple Salmonella O serogroups simultaneously.
The CAPRI and CASP prediction experiments have demonstrated the power of community wide tests of methodology in assessing the current state of the art and spurring progress in the very challenging areas of protein docking and structure prediction. We sought to bring the power of community wide experiments to bear on a very challenging protein design problem that provides a complementary but equally fundamental test of current understanding of protein-binding thermodynamics. We have generated a number of designed protein-protein interfaces with very favorable computed binding energies but which do not appear to be formed in experiments, suggesting there may be important physical chemistry missing in the energy calculations. 28 research groups took up the challenge of determining what is missing: we provided structures of 87 designed complexes and 120 naturally occurring complexes and asked participants to identify energetic contributions and/or structural features that distinguish between the two sets. The community found that electrostatics and solvation terms partially distinguish the designs from the natural complexes, largely due to the non-polar character of the designed interactions. Beyond this polarity difference, the community found that the designed binding surfaces were on average structurally less embedded in the designed monomers, suggesting that backbone conformational rigidity at the designed surface is important for realization of the designed function. These results can be used to improve computational design strategies, but there is still much to be learned; for example, one designed complex, which does form in experiments, was classified by all metrics as a non-binder.
Quantum state exchange between light and matter is an important ingredient for future quantum information networks as well as other applications. Photons are the fastest and simplest carriers of information for transmission but in general, it is difficult to localize and store photons, so usually one prefers choosing matter as quantum memory elements. Macroscopic superposition and nonlocal quantum interactions have received considerable interest for this purpose over recent years in fields ranging from quantum computers to cryptography, in addition to providing major insights into physical laws. However, these experiments are generally performed either with equipment or under conditions that are unrealistic for practical applications. Ideally, the two can be combined using conventional equipment and conditions to generate a “quantum teleportation”-like state, particularly with a very small amount of purity existing in an overall highly mixed thermal state (relatively low decoherence at high temperatures). In this study we used an experimental design to demonstrate these principles. We performed optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a thermal source at room temperatures of a specifically designed target in the sample arm. Here, position uncertainty (i.e., dispersion) was induced in the reference arm. In the sample arm (target) we placed two glass plates separated by a different medium while altering position uncertainty in the reference arm. This resulted in a chirped signal between the glass plate reflective surfaces in the combined interferogram. The chirping frequency, as measured by the fast Fourier transform (FFT), varies with the medium between the plates, which is a nonclassical phenomenon. These results are statistically significant and occur from a superposition between the glass surface and the medium with increasing position uncertainty, a true quantum-mechanical phenomenon produced by photon pressure from two-photon interference. The differences in chirping frequency with medium disappears when second-order correlations are removed by dual balanced detection, confirming the proposed mechanism. We demonstrated that increasing position uncertainty at one site leads to position uncertainty (quantum position probability amplitude) nonlocally via second-order correlations (two-photon probability amplitude) from a low coherence thermal source (low purity, high local entropy). The implications, first, are that the phenomenon cannot be explained through classical mechanisms but can be explained within the context of quantum mechanics, particularly relevant to the second-order correlations where controversy exists. More specifically, we provide the theoretical framework that these results indicate a nonlocal macroscopic superposition is occurring through a two-photon probability amplitude-induced increase in the target position probability amplitude uncertainty. In addition, as the experiments were performed with a classical source at room temperature, it supports both the quantum-mechanical properties of second-order correlations and that macroscopic superposition is obtainable in a target not in a single coherent state (mixed state). Future work will focus on generalizing the observations outside the current experimental design and creating embodiments that allow practical application of the phenomenon.
Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a major active ingredient of flavonoids compounds. It exhibited anticancer activity and induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells according to our previous data. In this study, we investigated whether p53 is involved in DHM-triggered viability inhibition and apoptosis induction in cancer cells. MTT [3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was employed to evaluate the viability of HepG2 cells after DHM treatment. Meanwhile, p53 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was adopted to silence p53 expression. Protein level of p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 were evaluated by western blot analysis. Cell counting assay showed that DHM inhibited HepG2 cell growth effectively in a time- and dose-dependent manner. P53 expression was significantly increased after DHM treatment, whereas Bcl-2 was reduced potently. Furthermore, after co-treatment with Pifithrin-α (PFT-α, p53 inhibitor), Bcl-2 expression was reversed. The expression of Bax was no significant change, which was also observed after p53 silence. These findings defined and supported a novel function that DHM could induce human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells apoptosis by up-regulating Bax/Bcl-2 expression via p53 signal pathway.
The inflamed lung exhibits oxidative and nitrative modifications of multiple target proteins, potentially reflecting disease severity and progression. We identified sphingosine-1–phosphate receptor–3 (S1PR3), a critical signaling molecule mediating cell proliferation and vascular permeability, as a nitrated plasma protein in mice with acute lung injury (ALI). We explored S1PR3 as a potential biomarker in murine and human ALI. In vivo nitrated and total S1PR3 concentrations were determined by immunoprecipitation and microarray studies in mice, and by ELISA in human plasma. In vitro nitrated S1PR3 concentrations were evaluated in human lung vascular endothelial cells (ECs) or within microparticles shed from ECs after exposure to barrier-disrupting agonists (LPS, low-molecular-weight hyaluronan, and thrombin). The effects of S1PR3-containing microparticles on EC barrier function were assessed by transendothelial electrical resistance (TER). Nitrated S1PR3 was identified in the plasma of murine ALI and in humans with severe sepsis-induced ALI. Elevated total S1PR3 plasma concentrations (> 251 pg/ml) were linked to sepsis and ALI mortality. In vitro EC exposure to barrier-disrupting agents induced S1PR3 nitration and the shedding of S1PR3-containing microparticles, which significantly reduced TER, consistent with increased permeability. These changes were attenuated by reduced S1PR3 expression (small interfering RNAs). These results suggest that microparticles containing nitrated S1PR3 shed into the circulation during inflammatory lung states, and represent a novel ALI biomarker linked to disease severity and outcome.
acute lung injury; sphingosine-1–phosphate receptor–3; microparticles; nitration; biomarker
A 35-year-old man was scheduled for dural arteriovenous fistula resection for vascular malformation under general anesthesia and a cell saver device was employed. The patient suffered from massive bleeding for the rupture of arteriovenous malformations from the beginning of the operation and 1000 mL cell-saved blood was transfused. After autologous blood transfusion and fluid resuscitation, blood oozed significantly from the surgical wounds, and the administration of cryoprecipitate and fibrinogen has no effect. The value of the activated coagulation time (ACT) increased to 999s. Considering the residual heparin in the autologous blood, ninety mg of protamine was intravenously injected, then 5 minutes later the ACT dropped to 147s. After the therapy, the surgical procedure was performed smoothly. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and the thrombin time (TT) of the postoperative venous blood was 18.9 s and 53.6 s respectively. Two days later, the APTT and the TT decreased to 12.1 s and 32.7 s without special treatment. The patient was discharged home without complications and well follow-up.
Activated coagulation time; Cell saver; Coagulopathy; Heparin
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (or simply Typhimurium) is the most common serovar in both human infections and farm animals in Australia and many other countries. Typhimurium is a broad host range serovar but has also evolved into host-adapted variants (i.e. isolated from a particular host such as pigeons). Six Typhimurium strains of different phage types (defined by patterns of susceptibility to lysis by a set of bacteriophages) were analysed using Illumina high-throughput genome sequencing.
Variations between strains were mainly due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with an average of 611 SNPs per strain, ranging from 391 SNPs to 922 SNPs. There were seven insertions/deletions (indels) involving whole or partial gene deletions, four inactivation events due to IS200 insertion and 15 pseudogenes due to early termination. Four of these inactivated or deleted genes may be virulence related. Nine prophage or prophage remnants were identified in the six strains. Gifsy-1, Gifsy-2 and the sopE2 and sspH2 phage remnants were present in all six genomes while Fels-1, Fels-2, ST64B, ST104 and CP4-57 were variably present. Four strains carried the 90-kb plasmid pSLT which contains several known virulence genes. However, two strains were found to lack the plasmid. In addition, one strain had a novel plasmid similar to Typhi strain CT18 plasmid pHCM2.
The genome data suggest that variations between strains were mainly due to accumulation of SNPs, some of which resulted in gene inactivation. Unique genetic elements that were common between host-adapted phage types were not found. This study advanced our understanding on the evolution and adaptation of Typhimurium at genomic level.
Typhimurium; Genome; Next generation sequencing; Phage type; Evolution; Single nucleotide polymorphism
Active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is under investigation to prevent or treat early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In 2002, a Phase II clinical trial (AN1792) was halted due to meningoencephalitis in ∼6% of the AD patients, possibly caused by a T-cell-mediated immunological response. Thus, generating a vaccine that safely generates high anti-Aβ antibody levels in the elderly is required. In this study, MER5101, a novel conjugate of Aβ1-15 peptide (a B-cell epitope fragment) conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein, diphtheria toxoid (DT), and formulated in a nanoparticular emulsion-based adjuvant, was administered to 10 mo-old APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (Wt) mice. High anti-Aβ antibody levels were observed in both vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg and Wt mice. Antibody isotypes were mainly IgG1 and IgG2b, suggesting a Th2-biased response. Re-stimulation of splenocytes with the Aβ1-15:DT conjugate resulted in a strong proliferative response, whereas proliferation was absent after re-stimulation with Aβ1-15 or Aβ1-40/42 peptides, indicating a cellular immune response against DT while avoiding an Aβ-specific T cell response. Moreover, significant reductions in cerebral Aβ plaque burden, accompanied by attenuated microglial activation and increased synaptic density, were observed in MER5101 vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice compared to Tg adjuvant controls. Lastly, MER5101 immunized APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice showed improvement of cognitive deficits in both Contextual Fear Conditioning (CFC) and the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Our novel, highly immunogenic Aβ conjugate vaccine, MER5101, shows promise for improving Aβ vaccine safety and efficacy and therefore, may be useful for preventing and/or treating early AD.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The early diagnosis and treatment of CRC is the key to improving the survival of patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. In the present study, the protein expression of S100A3 was observed in a cohort of 20 patients with cancer, which indicated that S100A3 activation was involved in tumorigenesis. In addition, the anticancer activity of cantharidinate was investigated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. The protein expression of S100A3 was observed to increase by 2.4-fold in human CRC cells compared with the expression level in normal control cells (P<0.01). Cantharidinate inhibited the protein and gene expression of S100A3 in UCT-116 human CRC cells in vitro. These results suggested that S100A3 is important in human CRC. Cantharidinate has the potential to be considered as a novel adjuvant drug for controlling the expression of S100A3 in human CRC as it exhibits preventive effects.
colorectal cancer; S100A3; cantharidinate
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a well-known photocatalyst for environmental cleaning and energy conversion. However, it can only be excited by ultraviolet light for photocatalysis due to its wide band gap (3.2 eV). In this paper, we present a novel (Yb,Er)-NaYF4/C-TiO2 composite which can be perfectly induced not only by ultraviolet light but also weak visible and near infrared lights, owing to the increased carbon doping contents and optimal energy transfer between up-conversion phosphor and C doped TiO2 compared with that of solely C-TiO2. Consequently, the (Yb,Er)-NaYF4/C-TiO2 composite can present the outstanding continuous NOx gas destruction ability under the irradiation of ultraviolet, weak visible and infrared lights much superior to pure C-TiO2, P25 titania and even that of (Yb,Er)-NaYF4/N-TiO2 composite, due to the nice synergetic effect of (Yb,Er)-NaYF4 and C-TiO2, indicating a promising potential in the photocatalyst application with high efficiency of ultraviolet, visible and infrared lights induced photocatalysis simultaneously.
The C-terminal domain (CTD) of τ subunit of the clamp loader (τc) binds to both the DnaB helicase and the DNA polymerase III α subunit (PolIIIα), and determines their relative positions and orientations on the leading and lagging strands. Here we present a 3.2 Å resolution structure of Thermus aquaticus PolIIIα in complex with τc and a DNA substrate. The structure reveals that the CTD of τc interacts with the CTD of PolIIIα through its C-terminal helix and the adjacent loop. Additionally, in this complex PolIIIα displays an open conformation including the reorientations of the oligonucleotide-binding fold and the thumb domain, which may be an indirect result of crystal packing due to the presence of τc. Nevertheless, the position of the τc on the PolIIIα allows us to suggest an approximate model for how the PolIIIα is oriented and positioned on the DnaB helicase.
It is well established that the central nervous system (CNS), especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. We have previously shown that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is critical for stimulating fat loss in response to dietary leucine deprivation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the CNS regulation of leucine deprivation–stimulated fat loss are, however, still largely unknown. Here, we used intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral vectors to identify a novel role for hypothalamic p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a major downstream effector of the kinase mammalian target of rapamycin, in leucine deprivation stimulation of energy expenditure. Furthermore, we show that the effect of hypothalamic S6K1 is mediated by modulation of Crh expression in a melanocortin-4 receptor–dependent manner. Taken together, our studies provide a new perspective for understanding the regulation of energy expenditure by the CNS and the importance of cross-talk between nutritional control and regulation of endocrine signals.
Elucidating gut microbiota among gallstone patients as well as the complex bacterial colonization of cholesterol gallstones may help in both the prediction and subsequent lowered risk of cholelithiasis. To this end, we studied the composition of bacterial communities of gut, bile, and gallstones from 29 gallstone patients as well as the gut of 38 normal individuals, examining and analyzing some 299, 217 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from 120 samples.
First, as compared with normal individuals, in gallstone patients there were significant (P < 0.001) increases of gut bacterial phylum Proteobacteria and decreases of three gut bacterial genera, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, and Roseburia. Second, about 70% of gut bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from gallstone patients were detectable in the biliary tract and bacteria diversity of biliary tract was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that of gut. Third, analysis of the biliary tract core microbiome (represented by 106 bacteria OTUs) among gallstone patients showed that 33.96% (36/106) of constituents can be matched to known bacterial species (15 of which have publicly available genomes). A genome-wide search of MDR, BSH, bG, and phL genes purpotedly associated with the formation of cholesterol gallstones showed that all 15 species with known genomes (e.g., Propionibacterium acnes, Bacteroides vulgates, and Pseudomonas putida) contained at least contained one of the four genes. This finding could potentially provide underlying information needed to explain the association between biliary tract microbiota and the formation of cholesterol gallstones.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to discover gut microbiota dysbiosis among gallstone patients, the presence of which may be a key contributor to the complex bacteria community assembly linked with the presence of cholesterol gallstones. Likewise, this study also provides the first large-scale glimpse of biliary tract microbiota potentially associated with cholesterol gallstones. Such a characterization of the biliary tract core microbiome has potentially important biological and medical implications regarding the role of bacteria in the formation cholesterol gallstones.
Gut microbiota dysbiosis; Cholesterol gallstone; Bile; Bacterial colonization; Pyrosequencing
Increasing penetration remains one of the most important issues in optical coherence tomography (OCT) research, which we achieved with a parallel ultrasound beam. In addition to qualitative improvements of tissue imaging, quantitative improvements in resolution of up to 28%±2% was noted. At lower frequencies and energies the improvement occurred primarily by altering the detection of multiply scattered light (photon–phonon interaction), which was substantially greater in solids than in liquids (even though the liquid had the higher scattering coefficient). In conclusion, the use of an ultrasound beam with OCT appears the most effective means to date for increasing imaging penetration.
AIM: To investigate whether transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).
METHODS: A murine model of PBC was developed by injection of polyinosinic polycytidylic acids (poly I: C) in C57BL/6 mice, and the liver expressions of TGF β1, TGF-β receptor I (TβRI), TGF-β receptor II (TβRII), p-Smad2/3, monoclonal α-smooth muscle actin antibody (α-SMA) and α1 (I) collagen in the mouse model and control mice were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Lymphocyte subsets in liver were analyzed using flow cytometry.
RESULTS: The mouse model had several key phenotypic features of human PBC, including elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, antimitochondrial antibodies, portal bile ducts inflammation, and progressive collagen deposition. Compared with control mice, protein and mRNA levels of TGF β1, TβRI, TβRII, p-Smad2/3, α-SMA and α1 (I) collagen in liver (1.7 ± 0.4 vs 8.9 ± 1.8, 0.8 ± 0.2 vs 5.1 ± 1.5, 0.6 ± 0.01 vs 5.1 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.3 vs 2.0 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.4 vs 3.4 ± 0.6, 0.8 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.3, 1.1 ± 1.2 vs 11.8 ± 0.6, P < 0.05), and the total number and percentage of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes (0.01 ± 0.001 vs 0.004 ± 0.00, 0.12 ± 0.04 vs 0.52 ± 0.23, P < 0.01) were higher in the mouse model.
CONCLUSION: TGFβ1 might play a dual role in the development of PBC: it suppresses inflammatory response but operates to enhance fibrogenesis. The aberrant activity of TGF-β1 signaling contributes to the development of PBC.
Primary biliary cirrhosis; Transforming growth factor-β1; Regulatory T cell; Liver
In the title compound, C18H14N2O4, the piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation and the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 13.09 (9)°. In the crystal, molecules are linked along the c axis by C—H⋯π and N⋯π [H(N)–centroid distances = 2.8030 (2) and 3.376 (2) Å] interactions between neighbouring molecules.
Chimeras have been used to study the transmission of genetic material and the resulting genetic variation. In this study, two chimeras, TCC and TTC (where the origin of the outer, middle, and inner cell layers, respectively, of the shoot apical meristem is designated by a ‘T’ for tuber mustard and ‘C’ for red cabbage), as well as their asexual and sexual progeny, were used to analyse the mechanism and the inheritance of the variation induced by grafting. Asexual TCC progeny were obtained by adventitious shoot regeneration, while TTC sexual progeny were produced by self-crossing. This study observed similar morphological variations in both the asexual and sexual progeny, including changes in leaf shape and the pattern of shoot apical meristem termination. The leaf shape variation was stable, while the rate of shoot apical meristem termination in the TTC progenies decreased from 74.52% to 3.01% after three successive rounds of self-crossing. Specific red cabbage small RNAs were found in the asexually regenerated plants (rTTT) that were not present in TTT, indicating that small RNAs might be transmitted from red cabbage to tuber mustard during grafting. Moreover, in parallel with the variations in phenotype observed in the progeny, some conserved miRNAs were differentially expressed in rTTT and TTT, which correlated with changes in expression of their target genes. These results suggest that the change in small RNA expression induced by grafting may be an important factor for introducing graft-induced genetic variations, providing a basis for further investigating the mechanism of graft-induced genetic variation through epigenetics.
Brassica juncea; Brassica oleracea; chimera; grafting variation; inheritance; small RNA.
Forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FOXM1) has been reported to overexpress and correlate with pathogenesis in a variety of human malignancies. However, little research has been done to investigate its clinical significance in gastric cancer.
We examined the expression of FOXM1 in 103 postoperational gastric cancer tissues and 5 gastric cell lines by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis respectively. Data on clinic-pathological features and relevant prognostic factors in these patients were then analyzed. Moreover, the association of FOXM1 expression and chemosensitivity to docetaxel in gastric cancer cells was further explored.
Our study demonstrated that the level of FOXM1 expression was significantly higher in gastric cancer than in para-cancer tissues (P < 0.001) and normal gastric cell lines (P = 0.026). No significant association was found between FOXM1 expression and any clinical pathological features (P > 0.1). FOXM1 amplification was identified as an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (P = 0.001), and its affection is more significant in patients with tumor size larger than 5 cm (P = 0.004), pT3-4 (P = 0.003) or pIII-IV (P = 0.001). Additionally, shown to mediate docetaxel resistance in gastric cancers by our research, FOXM1 was revealed to alter microtubule dynamics in response to the treatment of docetaxel, and the drug resistance could be reversed with FOXM1 inhibitor thiostrepton treatment.
FOXM1 can be a useful marker for predicting patients’ prognosis and monitoring docetaxel response, and might be a new therapeutic target in docetaxel resistant gastric cancer.
FOXM1; Gastric cancer; Prognosis; Docetaxel resistance