Our quantitative proteomic study showed that selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1) was progressively decreased in human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. However, there is little information on expression and function of SELENBP1 during human lung squamous cell cancer (LSCC) carcinogenesis.
iTRAQ-tagging combined with 2D LC-MS/MS analysis was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in the human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. SELENBP1, member of selenoproteins family and progressively downregulated in this process, was selected to further study. Both Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect SELENBP1 expression in independent sets of tissues of bronchial epithelial carcinogenesis, and ability of SELENBP1 for discriminating NBE (normal bronchial epithelium) from preneoplastic lesions from invasive LSCC was evaluated. The effects of SELENBP1 downregulation on the susceptibility of benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P)-induced human bronchial epithelial cell transformation were determined.
102 differentially expressed proteins were identified by quantitative proteomics, and SELENBP1 was found and confirmed being progressively decreased in the human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. The sensitivity and specificity of SELENBP1 were 80% and 79% in discriminating NBE from preneoplastic lesions, 79% and 82% in discriminating NBE from invasive LSCC, and 77% and 71% in discriminating preneoplastic lesions from invasive LSCC, respectively. Furthermore, knockdown of SELENBP1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE cells significantly increased the efficiency of B[a]P-induced cell transformation.
The present data shows for the first time that decreased SELENBP1 is an early event in LSCC, increases B[a]P-induced human bronchial epithelial cell transformation, and might serve as a novel potential biomarker for early detection of LSCC.
How to resect the caudate lobe safely is a major challenge to current liver surgery which requires further study.
Nine cases (6 hepatic cell carcinoma, 2 cavernous hemangioma and 1 intrahepatic cholangiocacinoma) were performed using the anterior transhepatic approach in the isolated complete caudate lobe resection. During the operation, we used the following techniques: the intraoperative routine use of Peng’s multifunction operative dissector (PMOD), inflow and outflow of hepatic blood control, low central venous pressure and selective use of liver hanging maneuver.
There were no perioperative deaths observed after the operation. The median operating time was 230 ± 43.6 minutes, the median intraoperative blood loss was 606.6 ± 266.3 ml and the median length of postoperative hospital stay was 12.6 ± 2.9 days. The incidence of complications was 22.22% (2/9).
PMOD and “curettage and aspiration” technique can be of great help of in the dissection of vessels and parenchyma, clearly making caudate lobe resection safer, easier and faster.
AIM: To assess whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the management of small bowel obstructions (SBOs) secondary to gastric cancer and its role in treatment strategies.
METHODS: The medical records of all of the patients who were admitted for an intestinal obstruction after curative resection for gastric cancer were retrospectively reviewed. PET/CT was performed before a clinical treatment strategy was established for each patient. The patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with no evidence of a tumor recurrence and patients with evidence of a tumor recurrence. Tumor recurrences included a local recurrence, peritoneal carcinomatosis or distant metastases. The primary endpoint was the 1-year survival rate, and other variables included patient demographics, the length of hospital stay, complications, and mortality.
RESULTS: The median time between a diagnosis of gastric cancer and the detection of a SBO was 1.4 years. Overall, 31 of 65 patients (47.7%) had evidence of a tumor recurrence on the PET/CT scan, which was the only factor that was associated with poor survival. Open and close surgery was the main type of surgical procedure reported for the patients with tumor recurrences. R0 resections were performed in 2 patients, including 1 who underwent combined adjacent organ resection. In the group with no evidence of a tumor recurrence on PET/CT, bowel resections were performed in 7 patients, adhesiolysis was performed in 7 patients, and a bypass was performed in 1 patient. The 1-year survival curves according to PET/CT evidence of a tumor recurrence vs no PET/CT evidence of a tumor recurrence were significantly different, and the 1-year survival rates were 8.8% vs 93.5%, respectively. There were no significant differences (P = 0.71) in the 1-year survival rates based on surgical vs nonsurgical management (0% with nonoperative treatment vs 20% after exploratory laparotomy).
CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG PET/CT can be used to identify the causes of bowel obstructions in patients with a history of gastric cancer, and this method is useful for planning the surgical management of these patients.
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography; Small bowel obstructions; Gastric cancer; Clinical treatment strategy
AIM: To investigate the effect of being overweight on the surgical results of patients with gastric cancer.
METHODS: Comprehensive electronic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were conducted. Studies were identified that included patients with surgical complications from gastric cancer who were classified as normal weight [body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2] or overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). The operative time, retrieved lymph nodes, blood loss, and long-term survival were analyzed. A subgroup analysis was conducted based on whether patients received laparoscopic or open gastrectomy procedures. All statistical tests were performed using ReviewerManager 5.1.2 software.
RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 23 studies with 20678 patients (15781 with BMI < 25 kg/m2; 4897 with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Overweight patients had significantly increased operation times [MD: -29.14; 95%CI: -38.14-(-20.21); P < 0.00001], blood loss [MD: -194.58; 95%CI: -314.21-(-74.95); P = 0.001], complications (RR: 0.75; 95%CI: 0.66-0.85; P < 0.00001), anastomosis leakages (RR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.42-0.82; P = 0.002), and pancreatic fistulas (RR: 0.486; 95%CI: 0.34-0.63; P < 0.00001), whereas lymph node retrieval was decreased significantly in the overweight group (MD: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.75-2.62; P < 0.0001). In addition, overweight patients had poorer long-term survival (RR: 1.14; 95%CI: 1.07-1.20; P < 0.0001). No significant difference was detected for the mortality and length of hospital stay.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates that a high BMI not only increases the surgical difficulty and complications but also impairs the long-term survival of patients with gastric cancer.
Overweight; Body mass index; Gastric cancer; Gastrectomy
Gallbladder carcinoma is a malignant tumor with a very low 5-year survival rate because of the difficulty with its early diagnosis and the very poor prognosis of the advanced cancer state. The aims of this study were to determine whether curcumin could induce the apoptosis of a gallbladder carcinoma cell line, GBC-SD, and to clarify its related mechanism.
First, the anti-proliferative activities of curcumin-treated and untreated GBC-SD cells were determined using the MTT and colony formation assays. Then, the early apoptosis of cells was detected by the annexin V/propidium iodide double-staining assay and Hoechst 33342 staining assay. Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential was used to validate the ability of curcumin on inducing apoptosis in GBC-SD cells. Cell cycle changes were detected by flow cytometric analysis. Finally, the expressions of the apoptosis-related proteins or genes caspase-3, PARP, Bcl-2, and Bax were analyzed by western blot and quantitative real time PCR assay. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student’s t-test for comparison of the results obtained from cells with or without curcumin treatment.
The MTT assay revealed that curcumin had induced a dose- and a time-dependent decrease in cell viability. Colony counting indicated that curcumin had induced a dose-dependent decrease in the colony formation ability in GBC-SD cells. Cells treated with curcumin were arrested at the S phase, according to the flow cytometric analysis. A significant induction of both the early and late phases of apoptosis was shown by the annexin V-FITC and PI staining. Morphological changes in apoptotic cells were also found by the Hoechst 33342 staining. After treatment with curcumin fluorescence shifted from red to green as ΔΨm decreased. Furthermore, western blot and quantitative real time PCR assays demonstrated that the curcumin induced apoptosis in GBC-SD cells by regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and activating the expression of cleaved caspase-3.
Taken together, the results indicate that curcumin may be a potential agent for the treatment of gallbladder cancer.
Curcumin; Gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cell; Proliferation; Apoptosis
At present, radical resection remains the only effective treatment for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The surgical approach for R0 resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is complex and diverse, but for the biliary reconstruction after resection, almost all surgeons use Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. A viable alternative to Roux-en-Y reconstruction after radical resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma has not yet been proposed. We report a case of performing duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction after radical resection of Bismuth IIIa hilar cholangiocarcinoma. End-to-end anastomosis between the left hepatic duct and the distal common bile duct was used for the biliary reconstruction, and a single-layer continuous suture was performed along the bile duct using 5-0 prolene. The patient was discharged favorably without biliary fistula 2 wk later. Evidence for tumor recurrence was not found after an 18 mo follow-up. Performing bile duct end-to-end anastomosis in hilar cholangiocarcinoma can simplify the complex digestive tract reconstruction process.
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma; Biliary reconstruction; Duct-to-duct; Radical resection; Digestive tract reconstruction; Hepaticojejunostomy; Bile duct anastomosis
The patatin-related phospholipase A (pPLA) hydrolyzes membrane glycerolipids to produce monoacyl compounds and free fatty acids. Phospholipids are cleaved by pPLAIIα at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and galactolipids, including those containing oxophytodienoic acids, can also serve as substrates. Ablation of pPLAIIα decreased lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine levels, but increased free linolenic acid. pPLAIIα-deficient plants displayed a higher level of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate, as well as the oxylipin-biosynthetic intermediates 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid and 12-oxophytodienoic acid than wild-type (WT) plants. The expression of genes involved in oxylipin production was also higher in the pPLAIIα-deficient mutant than in WT plants. The mutant plants lost water more quickly than WT plants. The stomata of WT and mutant plants responded similarly to abscisic acid. In response to desiccation, the mutant and WT leaves produced abscisic acid at the same rate, but, after 4 h of desiccation, the jasmonic acid level was much higher in mutant than WT leaves. These results indicate that pPLAIIα negatively regulates oxylipin production and suggest a role in the removal of oxidatively modified fatty acids from membranes.
patatin-related phospholipase A; oxidative modified lipids; jasmonate synthesis; water loss; Arabidopsis thaliana
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses.
We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence.
We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form the foundation of future investigations into the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and facilitate the design of new vaccines.
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; Genetic variation; Virulence attenuation; Sequence analysis; Repetitive sequences; Virulence factors
Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has been reported as helpful in identifying hypervolemia. Observation data showed that hypervolemic maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients identified using BIA methods have higher mortality risk. However, it is not known if BIA-guided fluid management can improve MHD patients’ survival. The objectives of the BOCOMO study are to evaluate the outcome of BIA guided fluid management compared with standard care.
This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. More than 1300 participants from 16 clinical sites will be included in the study. The enrolment period will last 6 months, and minimum length of follow-up will be 36 months. MHD patients aged between 18 years and 80 years who have been on MHD for at least 3 months and meet eligibility criteria will be invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomized to BIA arm or control arm in a 1:1 ratio. A portable whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy device (BCM—Fresenius Medical Care D GmbH) will be used for BIA measurement at baseline for both arms of the study. In the BIA arm, additional BCM measurements will be performed every 2 months. The primary intent-to-treat analysis will compare outcomes for a composite endpoint of death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke or incident peripheral arterial occlusive disease between groups. Secondary endpoints will include left ventricular wall thickness, blood pressure, medications, and incidence and length of hospitalization.
Previous results regarding the benefit of strict fluid control are conflicting due to small sample sizes and unstable dry weight estimating methods. To our knowledge this is the first large-scale, multicentre, prospective, randomized controlled trial to assess whether BIS-guided volume management improves outcomes of MHD patients. The endpoints of the BOCOMO study are of utmost importance to health care providers. In order to obtain that aim, the study was designed with very careful important considerations related to the endpoints, sample size, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and so on. For example, annual mortality of Beijing MHD patients was around 10%. To reach statistical significance, the sample size will be very large. By using composite endpoint, the sample size becomes reasonable and feasible. Limiting inclusion to patients with urine volume less than 800 ml/day the day before dialysis session will limit confounding due to residual renal function effects on the measured parameters. Patients who had received BIS measurement within 3 months prior to enrolment are excluded as data from such measurements might lead to protocol violation. Although not all patients enrolled will be incident patients, we will record the vintage of dialysis in the multivariable analysis.
Current Controlled Trials NCT01509937
Hemodialysis; Bioimpedance; Dry weight; Body composition monitor; Randomized controlled trial
With the increase in joint revision surgery after arthroplasty, defects of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated prostheses have been observed increasingly often. These defects adversely affect the prosthetic stability in vivo. This study has analyzed the potential effect of the adhesive strength of HA coating on the stability of HA-coated prostheses in vivo after its implantation.
Material and methods
Sixty experimental rabbits were divided into HA- and Ti-coated groups. HA-coated prostheses were implanted into the bilateral epicondyle of rabbits femurs. Ti-coated prostheses were implanted as control. At different time points(4, 9, and 15 weeks) after implantation, bone tissue samples were fetched out respectively for histomorphometric analysis. Push-out testing was used to detect the ultimate shear strength at the bone-prosthesis interface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis were used to observe the changes in surface composition of the prostheses after the ultimate shear strength testing. The coating adhesive strength of two kinds of coatings were also examined by scratch testing.
Hydroxyapatite coating has an obvious advantage in facilitating osteogenesis and its plays a critical role in the stability of prostheses. However, the ultimate shear strength of HA-coated prostheses is much lower than that of Ti-coated implants (p < 0.01). Further study has demonstrated that the stability of HA-coated prostheses in vivo is affected by the relatively low adhesive strength between coating and substrate.
Obvious advantage in facilitating osteogenesis around HA-coated prostheses is not the only factor that determines the stability of prostheses in vivo.
hydroxyapatite coating; artificial joints; stability; biomechanical; adhesive strength
With the superiority of digital imaging, conventional preoperative acetate templating is gradually being replaced by digital templating in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of digital templating for patients with Crowe type II and III dysplastic hips. In this study, 41 THA patients with Crowe type II or III dysplastic hips and 48 THA patients with other primary diseases were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were fitted with cementless prostheses in 2008. For the THA patients with dysplastic hips, we attempted to restore their hip centres to the position of the true acetabulum. Digital templating was the method chosen to achieve hip centre restoration. The prosthesis prediction accuracy (within ± one size using digital templating) was 20 (48.8%) for the cup size and 30 (73.2%) for the stem size. Meanwhile, for patients with other primary diseases, the accuracy for the cup size within ± one size was 34 (70.8%) and for the stem size accuracy was within ± one size in 38 (79.2%). Between the two patient groups, there was a significant difference in the predicted cup size. In patients with dysplastic hips, the low accuracy of the predicted cup size may have resulted from difficulty in predicting the vertical location of the hip centre. Despite this limitation, preoperative planning using digital templating is a convenient technique for THA patients with Crowe type II and III dysplastic hips.
In the title coordination polymer, [Cd(C8H5N2O2S)2(C10H8N2)]n, the CdII ion is coordinated by a bidentate 2,2-bipyridyl ligand, two O,O′-chelating 2-amino-1,3-benzothiazole-6-carboxylate (ABTC) ligands and one N-bonded ABTC ligand. The resulting CdN3O4 coordination polyhedron approximates to a very distorted pentagonal bipramid with one O and one N atom in axial positions. One of the ABTC ligands is bridging to an adjacent metal atom, generating an infinite chain propagating in . A three-dimensional network is constructed from N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and aromatic π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.641 (2) and 3.682 (3) Å].
Two virtually superimposable molecules comprise the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C27H27N3. The range of dihedral angles between the central 1,3,5-triazine ring and the attached benzene rings is 20.88 (14)–31.36 (14)°, and the shape of each molecule is of a flattened bowl. The crystal packing features weak C—H⋯π bonds and π–π interactions between triazine and benzene rings [centroid–centroid separations = 3.7696 (17) and 3.7800 (18) Å] that result in the formation of supramolecular layers in the ac plane. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin with a minor twin component of 20.7 (3)%.
Mycoplasma, the smallest self-replicating organism with a minimal metabolism and little genomic redundancy, is expected to be a close approximation to the minimal set of genes needed to sustain bacterial life. This study employs comparative evolutionary analysis of twenty Mycoplasma genomes to gain an improved understanding of essential genes. By analyzing the core genome of mycoplasmas, we finally revealed the conserved essential genes set for mycoplasma survival. Further analysis showed that the core genome set has many characteristics in common with experimentally identified essential genes. Several key genes, which are related to DNA replication and repair and can be disrupted in transposon mutagenesis studies, may be critical for bacteria survival especially over long period natural selection. Phylogenomic reconstructions based on 3,355 homologous groups allowed robust estimation of phylogenetic relatedness among mycoplasma strains. To obtain deeper insight into the relative roles of molecular evolution in pathogen adaptation to their hosts, we also analyzed the positive selection pressures on particular sites and lineages. There appears to be an approximate correlation between the divergence of species and the level of positive selection detected in corresponding lineages.
In the zwitterionic title compound, C17H11NO5, the dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 76.90 (7)°. The dihedral angles between the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 64.02 (9) and 21.67 (9)°, the larger angle being associated with an intramolecular N—H⋯Ocarboxyl hydrogen bond, resulting from proton transfer from the carboxylic acid group to the quinoline N atom and giving an S(9) ring motif. In the crystal, molecules are connected by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along the b-axis direction. An overall two-dimensional network structure is formed through π–π interactions between the quinoline rings [minimum ring-centroid separation = 3.6068 (6) Å].
Microsomes are derived mostly from endoplasmic reticulum and are an ideal target to investigate compound metabolism, membrane-bound enzyme functions, lipid-protein interactions, and drug-drug interactions. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of the liver and its diseases, mouse liver microsomes were isolated and enriched with differential centrifugation and sucrose gradient centrifugation, and microsome membrane proteins were further extracted from isolated microsomal fractions by the carbonate method. The enriched microsome proteins were arrayed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and carbonate-extracted microsome membrane proteins with one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE). A total of 183 2DE-arrayed proteins and 99 1DE-separated proteins were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 259 nonredundant microsomal proteins were obtained and represent the proteomic profile of mouse liver microsomes, including 62 definite microsome membrane proteins. The comprehensive bioinformatics analyses revealed the functional categories of those microsome proteins and provided clues into biological functions of the liver. The systematic analyses of the proteomic profile of mouse liver microsomes not only reveal essential, valuable information about the biological function of the liver, but they also provide important reference data to analyze liver disease-related microsome proteins for biomarker discovery and mechanism clarification of liver disease.
In the title complex, [Ir(C17H13N2)2(C5H7O2)], the IrIII atom is hexacoordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry by two C,N-bidentate 2-(5-methyl-3-phenylpyrazin-2-yl)phenyl (mdpp) ligands and one O,O-bidentate acetylacetonate ligand. The dihedral angles between the phenyl rings and the pyrazine ring are 9.56 (14) and 58.99 (14)° for one mdpp ligand and 9.34 (14) and 79.94 (15)° for the other.
Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil bacterium, known for its capability to establish symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) with leguminous plants such as alfalfa. S. meliloti 1021 is the most extensively studied strain to understand the mechanism of SNF and further to study the legume-microbe interaction. In order to provide insight into the metabolic characteristics underlying the SNF mechanism of S. meliloti 1021, there is an increasing demand to reconstruct a metabolic network for the stage of SNF in S. meliloti 1021.
Through an iterative reconstruction process, a metabolic network during the stage of SNF in S. meliloti 1021 was presented, named as iHZ565, which accounts for 565 genes, 503 internal reactions, and 522 metabolites. Subjected to a novelly defined objective function, the in silico predicted flux distribution was highly consistent with the in vivo evidences reported previously, which proves the robustness of the model. Based on the model, refinement of genome annotation of S. meliloti 1021 was performed and 15 genes were re-annotated properly. There were 19.8% (112) of the 565 metabolic genes included in iHZ565 predicted to be essential for efficient SNF in bacteroids under the in silico microaerobic and nutrient sharing condition.
As the first metabolic network during the stage of SNF in S. meliloti 1021, the manually curated model iHZ565 provides an overview of the major metabolic properties of the SNF bioprocess in S. meliloti 1021. The predicted SNF-required essential genes will facilitate understanding of the key functions in SNF and help identify key genes and design experiments for further validation. The model iHZ565 can be used as a knowledge-based framework for better understanding the symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and legumes, ultimately, uncovering the mechanism of nitrogen fixation in bacteroids and providing new strategies to efficiently improve biological nitrogen fixation.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is usually overexpressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and is associated with pathogenesis of NPC. However, the downstream signaling proteins of EGFR in NPC have not yet been completely understood at the system level. The aim of this study was identify novel downstream proteins of EGFR signaling pathway in NPC cells.
We analyzed EGFR-regulated phosphoproteome in NPC CNE2 cells using 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry analysis after phosphoprotein enrichment. As a result, 33 nonredundant phosphoproteins including five known EGFR-regulated proteins and twenty-eight novel EGFR-regulated proteins in CNE2 were identified, three differential phosphoproteins were selectively validated, and two differential phosphoproteins (GSTP1 and GRB2) were showed interacted with phospho-EGFR. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 32 of 33 identified proteins contain phosphorylation modification sites, and 17 identified proteins are signaling proteins. GSTP1, one of the EGFR-regulated proteins, associated with chemoresistance was analyzed. The results showed that GSTP1 could contribute to paclitaxel resistance in EGF-stimulated CNE2 cells. Furthermore, an EGFR signaling network based on the identified EGFR-regulated phosphoproteins were constructed using Pathway Studio 5.0 software, which includes canonical and novel EGFR-regulated proteins and implicates the possible biological roles for those proteins.
The data not only can extend our knowledge of canonical EGFR signaling, but also will be useful to understand the molecular mechanisms of EGFR in NPC pathogenesis and search therapeutic targets for NPC.
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma which is an irreversible blind leading disease and lacks effective remedies. In recent years, POAG has been linked to the gene MYOC encoding myocilin that has been identified to harbor causal mutations. A variety of studies show that the mutant myocilin acts by gain of function. The mutant MYOC protein induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the resultant unfolded protein response (UPR) induces apoptosis in the trabecular meshwork cells, which then leads to an increase in resistance to aqueous humor outflow, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and, ultimately, glaucoma. Culturing human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells at a condition facilitating protein folding promotes secretion of mutant myocilin, normalizes cell morphology and reverses cell lethality.
Presentation of the Hypothesis
We speculate that a complete elimination of mutant myocilin expression in trabecular meshwork cells is safe and that gives the possibility of avoiding the POAG phenotype.
Testing the Hypothesis
We propose RNA interference (RNAi) as a gene silencing therapy to eliminate the mutant myocilin proteins in the trabecular meshwork cells, either in a mutation-dependent or mutation-independent way due to the different engineering of the small interfering (si) RNA.
Implications of the Hypothesis
The RNAi strategy can reverse the pathological process of trabecular meshwork cells and thus treat the POAG caused by myocilin gene mutation. This strategy can also be applicable to many protein-misfolding diseases caused by gain-of-function mutant proteins.
This study was designed to analyze two candidate genes, myocilin (MYOC) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), in a Chinese pedigree of juvenile glaucoma with goniodysgenesis.
In a three-generation family of juvenile glaucoma with goniodysgenesis (13 members), six of them were patients with glaucoma and the rest were asymptomatic. All members of the family underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations. Exons of MYOC and CYP1B1 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and compared with a reference database.
Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and visual function impairment was found in all patients, and goniodysgenesis was noticed in five of them (nine eyes) with relatively transparent corneas. One MYOC heterozygous mutation, c.1109 C>T (P370L), in exon 3 was identified in all six patients but not in the asymptomatic family members. Two CYP1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), g.3947 C>G (R48G) in exon 2 and 372−12 C>T in intron 1, were identified in all six patients and but not in the asymptomatic family members except the proband’s grandmother. Three SNPs were identified, 730 + 35 A>G in intron 2 of MYOC and g.8131 G>C (V432L) and g.8184 T>C (D449D) in exon 3 of CYP1B1.
The presence of a P370L mutation of MYOC in all six glaucoma patients suggests a casual association between this mutation and juvenile glaucoma with goniodysgenesis. The possible role of SNPs of CYP1B1 in the pathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated.
In the title complex, [Cu(C2H3O2)(C10H8N2)2](CH3CH2OSO3)0.5(CH3OSO3)0.5, the CuII ion is bis-chelated by two 2,2′-bipyridine lignds and coordinated by an O atom of an acetate ligand in a CuN4O disorted square-pyramidal environment. In the structure, equal amounts of methyl sulfate and ethyl sulfate anions are disordered on the same crystallographic sites. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H⋯O interactions.