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author:("Li, yijun")
1.  Epimedium Flavonoids Counteract the Side Effects of Glucocorticoids on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis 
Our previous studies demonstrated that the epimedium herb, when simultaneously used with GCs, counteracted suppressive effects of GCs on the HPA axis without adverse influence on the therapeutic action of GCs. Here, total flavones were extracted from the epimedium flavonoids (EFs) and then used to investigate whether EFs provide protective effects on the HPA axis. We found that GCs induced a significant decrease in body weight gain, adrenal gland weight gain, and plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels. After treatment with EFs, body weight gain, adrenal gland weight gain, and plasma corticosterone level were significantly restored, whilst plasma ACTH level was partially elevated. EFs were also shown to promote cell proliferation in the outer layer of adrenal cortex and to enhance the migration of newly divided cells toward the inner layer. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) was measured, and EFs significantly upregulated IGF-II expression. Our results indicated that EFs counteract the suppression of the HPA axis induced by GCs. This may involve both the ACTH and IGF-II pathways and thereby promote regeneration of the adrenal cortex suggesting a potential clinical application of EFs against the suppressive effects of GCs on the HPA axis.
doi:10.1155/2013/938425
PMCID: PMC3794657  PMID: 24174984
2.  Inhibition of TNF-α Improves the Bladder Dysfunction That Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes  2012;61(8):2134-2145.
Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) is common and affects 80% of diabetic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying DBD remain elusive because of a lack of appropriate animal models. We demonstrate DBD in a mouse model that harbors hepatic-specific insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 deletions (double knockout [DKO]), which develops type 2 diabetes. Bladders of DKO animals exhibited detrusor overactivity at an early stage: increased frequency of nonvoiding contractions during bladder filling, decreased voided volume, and dispersed urine spot patterns. In contrast, older animals with diabetes exhibited detrusor hypoactivity, findings consistent with clinical features of diabetes in humans. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily genes were upregulated in DKO bladders. In particular, TNF-α was upregulated in serum and in bladder smooth muscle tissue. TNF-α augmented the contraction of primary cultured bladder smooth muscle cells through upregulating Rho kinase activity and phosphorylating myosin light chain. Systemic treatment of DKO animals with soluble TNF receptor 1 (TNFRI) prevented upregulation of Rho A signaling and reversed the bladder dysfunction, without affecting hyperglycemia. TNFRI combined with the antidiabetic agent, metformin, improved DBD beyond that achieved with metformin alone, suggesting that therapies targeting TNF-α may have utility in reversing the secondary urologic complications of type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/db11-1763
PMCID: PMC3402324  PMID: 22688336
3.  Strain Field Mapping of Dislocations in a Ge/Si Heterostructure 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e62672.
Ge/Si heterostructure with fully strain-relaxed Ge film was grown on a Si (001) substrate by using a two-step process by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The dislocations in the Ge/Si heterostructure were experimentally investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The dislocations at the Ge/Si interface were identified to be 90° full-edge dislocations, which are the most efficient way for obtaining a fully relaxed Ge film. The only defect found in the Ge epitaxial film was a 60° dislocation. The nanoscale strain field of the dislocations was mapped by geometric phase analysis technique from the HRTEM image. The strain field around the edge component of the 60° dislocation core was compared with those of the Peierls–Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. Comparison results show that the Foreman model with a = 1.5 can describe appropriately the strain field around the edge component of a 60° dislocation core in a relaxed Ge film on a Si substrate.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062672
PMCID: PMC3633871  PMID: 23626845
4.  A randomized controlled trial of long term effect of BCM guided fluid management in MHD patients (BOCOMO study): rationales and study design 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:120.
Background
Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has been reported as helpful in identifying hypervolemia. Observation data showed that hypervolemic maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients identified using BIA methods have higher mortality risk. However, it is not known if BIA-guided fluid management can improve MHD patients’ survival. The objectives of the BOCOMO study are to evaluate the outcome of BIA guided fluid management compared with standard care.
Methods
This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. More than 1300 participants from 16 clinical sites will be included in the study. The enrolment period will last 6 months, and minimum length of follow-up will be 36 months. MHD patients aged between 18 years and 80 years who have been on MHD for at least 3 months and meet eligibility criteria will be invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomized to BIA arm or control arm in a 1:1 ratio. A portable whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy device (BCM—Fresenius Medical Care D GmbH) will be used for BIA measurement at baseline for both arms of the study. In the BIA arm, additional BCM measurements will be performed every 2 months. The primary intent-to-treat analysis will compare outcomes for a composite endpoint of death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke or incident peripheral arterial occlusive disease between groups. Secondary endpoints will include left ventricular wall thickness, blood pressure, medications, and incidence and length of hospitalization.
Discussions
Previous results regarding the benefit of strict fluid control are conflicting due to small sample sizes and unstable dry weight estimating methods. To our knowledge this is the first large-scale, multicentre, prospective, randomized controlled trial to assess whether BIS-guided volume management improves outcomes of MHD patients. The endpoints of the BOCOMO study are of utmost importance to health care providers. In order to obtain that aim, the study was designed with very careful important considerations related to the endpoints, sample size, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and so on. For example, annual mortality of Beijing MHD patients was around 10%. To reach statistical significance, the sample size will be very large. By using composite endpoint, the sample size becomes reasonable and feasible. Limiting inclusion to patients with urine volume less than 800 ml/day the day before dialysis session will limit confounding due to residual renal function effects on the measured parameters. Patients who had received BIS measurement within 3 months prior to enrolment are excluded as data from such measurements might lead to protocol violation. Although not all patients enrolled will be incident patients, we will record the vintage of dialysis in the multivariable analysis.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials NCT01509937
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-120
PMCID: PMC3489516  PMID: 23006960
Hemodialysis; Bioimpedance; Dry weight; Body composition monitor; Randomized controlled trial
5.  Attribution retraining group therapy for outpatients with major depression disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a pilot study☆ 
Journal of Biomedical Research  2011;25(5):348-355.
The aim of this present study is to examine the efficacy of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT) and to compare the responses of outpatients with major depression disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We carried out a prospective uncontrolled intervention study with a 8-weeks of ARGT on sixty three outpatients with MDD, GAD or OCD. Hamilton rating scale for depression, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale, attribution style questionnaire, self-esteem scale, index of well-being, and social disability screening schedule were administered before and after treatment. Significant improvement in symptoms and psychological and social functions from pre- to posttreatment occurred for all participants. The changes favored MDD patients. Our study suggested that ARGT may improve the symptoms and psychological-social functions of MDD, GAD, and OCD patients. MDD patients showed the best response.
doi:10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60046-8
PMCID: PMC3596731  PMID: 23554710
attribution retraining; group psychotherapy; major depression disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder

Results 1-5 (5)