Metabolic syndrome (MetS) confers increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both vitamin D3 and adipocytokines (especially adiponectin and leptin) have a great impact on CVD and MetS. In vitamin D3 metabolism, the vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) are two key enzymes. This study aimed to examine the influence of vitamin D3 CYP27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on adipocytokines and MetS. Cross-sectional data and DNA samples were collected from male volunteers (n = 649, age: 55.7 ± 4.7 years). Two tagging SNPs, CYP27A1 rs4674344 and CYP27B1 rs10877012, were selected from the HapMap project. MetS was significantly associated with the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP (P = 0.04) and the ratio of adiponectin/leptin (A/L ratio) was most correlated to the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, appearing to be significantly lower in T-carriers than in AA subjects (3.7 ± 4.0 versus 5.1 ± 6.0, P = 0.001) and significantly negatively associated after adjustment. For each MetS component associated with the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, the A/L ratios were significantly negative in preclinical stage (condition not meeting the individual criteria), except the blood pressure. In conclusion, CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, A/L ratio, and MetS are significantly associated and T-carriers might have a higher risk of developing MetS due to low A/L ratios in the preclinical stage.
Inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD) and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Recently, urinary proteins were found to be useful markers for reflecting inflammation status of different organs. To identify potential biomarker for diagnosis of CAD, we performed one-dimensional SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Among the proteins differentially expressed in urine samples, monocyte antigen CD14 was found to be consistently expressed in higher amounts in the CAD patients as compared to normal controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to analyze the concentrations of CD14 in urine and serum, we confirmed that urinary CD14 levels were significantly higher in patients (n = 73) with multi-vessel and single vessel CAD than in normal control (n = 35) (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis further showed that urinary CD14 concentration level is associated with severity or number of diseased vessels and SYNTAX score after adjustment for potential confounders. Concomitantly, the proportion of CD14+ monocytes was significantly increased in CAD patients (59.7 ± 3.6%) as compared with healthy controls (14.9 ± 2.1%) (P < 0.001), implicating that a high level of urinary CD14 may be potentially involved in mechanism(s) leading to CAD pathogenesis. By performing shotgun proteomics, we further revealed that CD14-associated inflammatory response networks may play an essential role in CAD. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated that release of CD14 in urine coupled with more CD14+ monocytes in CAD patients is significantly correlated with severity of CAD, pointing to the potential application of urinary CD14 as a novel noninvasive biomarker for large-scale diagnostic screening of susceptible CAD patients.
The objective of the Aliskiren Trial on Acute Heart Failure Outcomes (ASTRONAUT) was to determine whether aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, would improve post-discharge outcomes in patients with hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) with reduced ejection fraction. Pre-specified subgroup analyses suggested potential heterogeneity in post-discharge outcomes with aliskiren in patients with and without baseline diabetes mellitus (DM).
Methods and results
ASTRONAUT included 953 patients without DM (aliskiren 489; placebo 464) and 662 patients with DM (aliskiren 319; placebo 343) (as reported by study investigators). Study endpoints included the first occurrence of cardiovascular death or HHF within 6 and 12 months, all-cause death within 6 and 12 months, and change from baseline in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at 1, 6, and 12 months. Data regarding risk of hyperkalaemia, renal impairment, and hypotension, and changes in additional serum biomarkers were collected. The effect of aliskiren on cardiovascular death or HHF within 6 months (primary endpoint) did not significantly differ by baseline DM status (P = 0.08 for interaction), but reached statistical significance at 12 months (non-DM: HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64–0.99; DM: HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.91–1.47; P = 0.03 for interaction). Risk of 12-month all-cause death with aliskiren significantly differed by the presence of baseline DM (non-DM: HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50–0.94; DM: HR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.15–2.33; P < 0.01 for interaction). Among non-diabetics, aliskiren significantly reduced NT-proBNP through 6 months and plasma troponin I and aldosterone through 12 months, as compared to placebo. Among diabetic patients, aliskiren reduced plasma troponin I and aldosterone relative to placebo through 1 month only. There was a trend towards differing risk of post-baseline potassium ≥6 mmol/L with aliskiren by underlying DM status (non-DM: HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.71–1.93; DM: HR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.30–4.42; P = 0.07 for interaction).
This pre-specified subgroup analysis from the ASTRONAUT trial generates the hypothesis that the addition of aliskiren to standard HHF therapy in non-diabetic patients is generally well-tolerated and improves post-discharge outcomes and biomarker profiles. In contrast, diabetic patients receiving aliskiren appear to have worse post-discharge outcomes. Future prospective investigations are needed to confirm potential benefits of renin inhibition in a large cohort of HHF patients without DM.
Aliskiren; Diabetes; Outcomes; Post-discharge
The optimal revascularization strategy for patients with impaired glomerular filtration rate (IGFR) has not been established in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the prognosis and impact of IGFR and invasive strategy on the cardiovascular outcomes in the ACS population.
In a Taiwan national-wide registry, 3093 ACS patients were enrolled. The invasive strategy was defined as patients with ST-elevation ACS (STE-ACS) undergoing primary angioplasty or fibrinolysis or coronary angiography with intent to revascularization performed within 72 hours of symptom onset in non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). IGFR was defined as an estimated GFR of less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Primary endpoint was a composite of death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke at one year.
Patients with IGFR (n = 1226) had more comorbidities but received less evidence-based medications during admission than those without IGFR (n = 1867). The primary endpoint-free survival rate is lower in the IGFR patients, in the whole, STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS population (all log-rank tests p < 0.01). Cox regression analysis revealed IGFR subjects had higher primary endpoint after adjusting by age, sex, medication at discharge and traditional risk factors (all p < 0.01). Kaplan–Meier curves showed IGFR patients without invasive strategy had the worst outcome in the STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS population (both p < 0.01). The invasive strategies, either with early angiography only or angioplasty, were associated with reduced primary endpoints among IGFR patients in the NSTE-ACS population (both p ≦ 0.024).
IGFR patients suffering from ACS had poor prognosis and an invasive strategy could improve cardiovascular outcome in the NSTE-ACS population.
Acute coronary syndrome; Chronic kidney disease; Invasive; Revascularization; Angiography
Atherothrombotic diseases including cerebrovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), contribute to the major causes of death in the world. Although several studies showed the association between polyvascular disease and poor cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in Asian population, there was no large-scale study to validate this relationship in this population.
Methods and Results
This retrospective cohort study included patients with a diagnosis of CVD, CAD, or PAD from the database contained in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Bureau during 2001–2004. A total of 19954 patients were enrolled in this study. The atherothrombotic disease score was defined according to the number of atherothrombotic disease. The study endpoints included acute coronary syndrome (ACS), all strokes, vascular procedures, in hospital mortality, and so on. The event rate of ischemic stroke (18.2%) was higher than that of acute myocardial infarction (5.7%) in our patients (P = 0.0006). In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of each increment of atherothrombotic disease score in predicting ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were 1.41, 1.66, 1.30, and 1.14, respectively (P≦0.0169).
This large population-based longitudinal study in patients with atherothrombotic disease demonstrated the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke was higher than that of subsequent AMI. In addition, the subsequent adverse CV events including ACS, all stroke, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were progressively increased as the increase of atherothrombotic disease score.
Unequal arterial stiffness had been associated with cardiovascular risks. We investigated whether an association existed between unequal arterial stiffness indicated by bilateral brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) difference and ankle-brachial index (ABI), baPWV, echocardiographic parameters and interarm and interankle systolic blood pressure (BP) differences. A total of 1111 patients referred for echocardiographic examination were included in this study. The BPs, ABI and baPWV were measured simultaneously by an ABI-form device. The ΔbaPWV was defined as absolute value of difference between bilateral baPWV. We performed three multivariate analyses for determining the factors associated with a ΔbaPWV ≧ 185 cm/s (90 percentile of ΔbaPWV) (model 1: significant variables in univariate analysis and ABI <0.9 and baPWV; model 2: significant variables in univariate analysis and left ventricular mass index [LVMI]; model 3: significant variables in univariate analysis and interankle systolic BP difference ≧ 15 mmHg). The ABI <0.9 and high baPWV (both P<0.001) in model 1, high LVMI (P = 0.021) in model 2 and an interankle systolic BP difference ≧ 15 mmHg (P = 0.026) in model 3 were associated with a ΔbaPWV ≧ 185 cm/s, but the interarm systolic BP difference ≧ 10 mmHg was not (P = NS). Our study demonstrated ABI <0.9, high baPWV, high LVMI and an interankle systolic BP difference ≧ 15 mmHg were associated with unequal arterial stiffness.
Matrix metalloproteinases play a role in regulating cardiac remodeling. We previously reported an association between tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) expression and mitral valve (MV) disease. However, the determinants and prognostic value of mitral TIMP2 after MV surgery are unknown.
This retrospective study of 164 patients after MV surgery in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan assessed mitral TIMP2 on a semiquantitative scale (0–2) by immunohistochemical staining. The primary endpoints were the composite of cardiovascular death and heart failure admission.
Mean age was 50.4±13.7 years. After a mean follow-up period of 101±59 months, primary endpoints had occurred in 25 (15.2%) subjects. Patients with and without primary endpoint events significantly differed in terms of age (56.6±14.4 vs. 49.2±13.4 years, respectively; p = 0.013) and left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD) (39.7±8.2 vs. 35.5±7.5 mm, p = 0.010) at surgery. The TIMP2 had a significant dose-dependent association with development of a primary endpoint (p = 0.002). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that TIMP2 expression has a significant positive association with primary endpoint-free survival (log-rank test; p = 0.004). Cox regression analysis showed that independent predictors of primary endpoints were TIMP2 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.65; p = 0.003), age (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02–1.09; p = 0.003) and LVESD (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01–1.10; p = 0.020).
The lack of mitral TIMP2 expression is associated with increases in cardiovascular death and heart failure following MV surgery.
Patients with coronary ectasia (CE) usually have coexisting coronary stenosis resulting in myoischemia. Coronary collateral plays an important role in protecting myocardium from ischemia and reducing cardiovascular events. However, limited studies investigate the role of CE in coronary collaterals development.
We evaluated 1020 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography and 552 patients with significant coronary artery disease (SCAD), defined as diameter stenosis more than 70%, were finally analyzed. CE is defined as the ectatic diameter 1.5 times larger than adjacent reference segment. Rentrop collateral score was used to classify patients into poor (grades 0 and 1) or good (grades 2 and 3) collateral group.
73 patients (13.2%) had CE lesions which were most located in the right coronary artery (53.4%). Patients with CE had a lower incidence of diabetes (43.8% vs 30.1%, p = 0.03), higher body mass index (25.4±3.5 vs 26.7±4.6, p = 0.027) and poorer coronary collateral (58.2% vs 71.2%, p = 0.040). Patients with poor collateral (n = 331) had a higher incidence of CE (15.7% vs 9.5%, p = 0.040) and fewer diseased vessels numbers (1.96±0.84 vs 2.48±0.69, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed diabetes (odd ratio (OR) 0.630, p = 0.026), CE (OR = 0.544, p = 0.048), and number of diseased vessels (OR = 2.488, p<0.001) were significant predictors of coronary collaterals development.
The presence of CE was associated with poorer coronary collateral development in patients with SCAD.
Oxidative stress (OS) is related to vascular inflammation possibly, contributing to the development of coronary ectasia (CE). Base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair are the main DNA repair pathways that can help to remove 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG), a marker of OS. Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) is a key enzyme of the BER pathway and catalyzes the removal of 8-OHdG. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between hOGG1 Ser326Cys gene polymorphism and CE in a Chinese population. Five-hundred forty-seven patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography in a tertiary medical center were recruited. The angiographic definition of CE is the diameter of the ectatic segment being more than 1.5 times larger compared with an adjacent healthy reference segment. The gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The urine 8OHdG concentration was measured using a commercial ELISA kit. The distribution of hOGG1 Ser326Cys genotypes was significantly different between CE and non-CE groups (p = 0.033). The odds ratio of CE development for the Ser to the Cys variant was 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–2.31, p = 0.033). Both univariate and logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in the dominant model with CE development (p = 0.009 and 0.011, respectively). Urine 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher in subjects carrying the hOGG1 Ser variant than in those with the Cys/Cys genotype (p < 0.03). In conclusion, our study suggests that the hOGG1 Ser326Cys gene variant might play a role in susceptibility to the development of CE.
coronary ectasia; 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase; polymorphism
The efficacy of clopidogrel is inconclusive in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Furthermore, CKD patients are prone to bleeding with antiplatelet therapy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of clopidogrel in patients with ACS and CKD.
In a Taiwan national-wide registry, 2819 ACS patients were enrolled. CKD is defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The primary endpoints are the combined outcomes of death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke at 12 months.
Overall 949 (33.7%) patients had CKD and 2660 (94.36%) patients received clopidogrel treatment. CKD is associated with increased risk of the primary endpoint at 12 months (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.82 to 3.15, p<0.01). Clopidogrel use is associated with reduced risk of the primary endpoint at 12 months (HR 0.42, 95% CI: 0.29–0.60, p<0.01). Cox regression analysis showed that clopidogrel reduced death and primary endpoints for CKD population (HR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.21–0.61 and HR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.30–0.77, respectively, both p<0.01). Patients with clopidogrel(−)/CKD(−), clopidogrel(+)/CKD(+) and clopidogrel(−)/CKD(+) have 2.4, 3.0 and 10.4 fold risk to have primary endpoints compared with those receiving clopidogrel treatment without CKD (all p<0.01). Clopidogrel treatment was not associated with increased in-hospital Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) bleeding in CKD population.
Clopidogrel could decrease mortality and improve cardiovascular outcomes without increasing risk of bleeding in ACS patients with CKD.
Increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with the occurrence and severity of acute coronary syndrome. We investigated whether CRP can be generated in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) after exposure to the most electronegative subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), L5, which is atherogenic to ECs. Because L5 and CRP are both ligands for the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), we also examined the role of LOX-1.
Methods and Results
Plasma LDL samples isolated from asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [LDL-C] levels, 154.6±20 mg/dL; n = 7) patients and normocholesterolemic (LDL-C levels, 86.1±21 mg/dL; P<0.001; n = 7) control individuals were chromatographically resolved into 5 subfractions, L1-L5. The L5 percentage (L5%) and the plasma L5 concentration ([L5] = L5% × LDL-C) in the patient and control groups were 8.1±2% vs. 2.3±1% (P<0.001) and 12.6±4 mg/dL vs. 1.9±1 mg/dL (P<0.001), respectively. In hypercholesterolemic patients treated with atorvastatin for 6 months (10 mg/day), [L5] decreased from 12.6±4 mg/dL to 4.5±1.1 mg/dL (P = 0.011; n = 5), whereas both [L5] and L5% returned to baseline levels in 2 noncompliant patients 3 months after discontinuation. In cultured human aortic ECs (HAECs), L5 upregulated CRP expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner up to 2.5-fold (P<0.01), whereas the least electronegative subfraction, L1, had no effect. DiI-labeled L1, internalized through the LDL receptor, became visible inside HAECs within 30 seconds. In contrast, DiI-labeled L5, internalized through LOX-1, became apparent after 5 minutes. L5-induced CRP expression manifested at 30 minutes and was attenuated by neutralizing LOX-1. After 30 minutes, L5 but not L1 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both L5-induced ROS and CRP production were attenuated by ROS inhibitor N-acetyl cysteine.
Our results suggest that CRP, L5, and LOX-1 form a cyclic mechanism in atherogenesis and that reducing plasma L5 levels with atorvastatin disrupts the vascular toxicity of L5.
In addition to adipocytokines, estradiol (E2) and vitamin D have been reported to affect insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis and body weight. However, studies about the impact of E2 and vitamin D on metabolic syndrome (MetS) are still limited. The aim of this study is to clarify the roles of circulating E2 and vitamin D on the risk of MetS in middle-aged Taiwanese males. A total of 655 male volunteers, including 243 subjects with MetS (mean age: 56.7±5.8 years) and 412 normal controls (mean age: 55.1±3.6 years), were evaluated. Subjects with MetS had significantly lower circulating E2, 1,25(OH)2D3, and adiponectin, and higher leptin than those without MetS (P<0.001 for all comparisons). E2 and 1,25(OH)2D3 were significantly associated with 4 individual components of MetS; more than adiponectin and leptin that were only associated with 3 individual components. In multivariate regression analysis, E2 (beta = −0.216, P<0.001) and 1,25(OH)2D3 (beta = 0.067, P = 0.045) were still significant predictors of MetS independent of adiponectin and leptin. Further large studies are needed to confirm our preliminary results and elucidate the possible mechanism.
Coronary collateral circulation plays an important role in protecting myocardium from ischemia and reducing cardiovascular events. Low High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is a strong risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. It was recently reported to be associated with poor coronary collateral development in Turkish population. Hence, we investigated the influence of HDL-C on coronary collateral formation in Chinese population.
We evaluated 970 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography, and 501 patients with significant coronary artery disease (SCAD) were finally analyzed. The collateral scoring system developed by Rentrop was used to classify patient groups as those with poor or good collaterals.
The patients with poor collaterals had fewer diseased vessels (1.97 ± 0.84 vs 2.47 ± 0.68, p < 0.001) and lower diffuse score (2.65 ± 1.63 vs 3.76 ± 1.78, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in HDL-C and other variables between good and poor collaterals. Multivariate analysis showed only number of diseased vessels (odd ratio 0.411, p < 0.001) was a significant predictor of poor collateral development.
The extent of CAD severity but not HDL-C level was the most powerful predictor of coronary collateral formation in our Chinese population with SCAD.
Coronary artery disease; Coronary collateral circulation; High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) has been increasing in Western countries, and some populations, including Asians, have a higher incidence. Delayed diagnosis and early treatment influence the outcome of CH. We investigated the incidence and clinical characteristics of CH in Taiwan.
In this retrospective database study we identified cases of CH diagnosed during 1997–2008 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Patients who had a Serious Accidents and Diseases certificate were included in the incidence calculation. We focused on CH patients who were born during 1997–2003 and determined their age at diagnosis and CH-related clinical features. Mental retardation and physiological delays were evaluated with respect to age at diagnosis.
A total of 1482 cases were identified. Incidence during the 12-year period was 5.02 per 10 000 births. Among 1115 patients, the most common clinical features of CH were developmental delay (9.6%), constipation (11.6%), and delayed physiological development (9.1%). Congenital anomalies of the heart (7.7%), epilepsy (2.7%), and infantile cerebral palsy (3.2%) were also noted. Survival analysis showed that the risks of mental retardation (hazard ratio [HR], 3.180) and delayed physiological development (HR, 1.908) were greater when age at diagnosis was greater than 1 year.
CH incidence was higher in Taiwan than in Western countries. Early diagnosis may decrease the risk of mental and physiological delay.
congenital hypothyroidism; epidemiology; early diagnosis
Systolic time interval (STI) is an established noninvasive technique for the assessment of cardiac function. Brachial STIs can be automatically determined by an ankle-brachial index (ABI)-form device. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether the STIs measured from ABI-form device can represent those measured from echocardiography and to compare the diagnostic values of brachial and echocardiographic STIs in the prediction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%. A total of 849 patients were included in the study. Brachial pre-ejection period (bPEP) and brachial ejection time (bET) were measured using an ABI-form device and pre-ejection period (PEP) and ejection time (ET) were measured from echocardiography. Agreement was assessed by correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot. Brachial STIs had a significant correlation with echocardiographic STIs (r = 0.644, P<0.001 for bPEP and PEP; r = 0.850, P<0.001 for bET and ET; r = 0.708, P<0.001 for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET). The disagreement between brachial and echocardiographic STIs (brachial STIs minus echocardiographic STIs) was 28.55 ms for bPEP and PEP, -4.15 ms for bET and ET and -0.11 for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET. The areas under the curve for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET in the prediction of LVEF <50% were 0.771 and 0.765, respectively. Brachial STIs were good alternatives to STIs obtained from echocardiography and also helpful in prediction of LVEF <50%. Brachial STIs automatically obtained from an ABI-form device may be helpful for evaluation of left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
Background: Areca nut chewing is associated with the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular mortality. Although a few case reports or case series have suggested the link between areca nut chewing and cardiac arrhythmias, information about the relationship between areca nut chewing and atrial fibrillation (AF) is lacking. Thus, a nationwide ecological study was conducted to investigate this.
Methods: Two national datasets, the nationwide population-based 2005 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset (NHIRD) and the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), were used for analyses. The clinical characteristics, inhabited area and medical histories for 375,360 eligible males were retrieved from the 2005 NHIRD. Health related behaviors including areca nut chewing, cigarette smoking, infrequent vegetable eating, and exercise habit were collected from the 2005 NHIS. The prevalence of AF and the areca nut chewing rate were evaluated by multivariate analysis.
Results: Of the 375,360 males (mean age, 44 years old), 1,326 (0.35%) were diagnosed with AF. The higher areca nut chewing rate, the higher prevalence rate of AF in Taiwan (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.558, p = 0.007). After adjusting for other covariates, the current areca nut chewing rate was found to be independently associated with the prevalence of AF. The adjusted odd ratio for areca nut chewing was 1.02 (95% CI = 1.00-1.04) in risk of AF prevalence.
Conclusions: Areca nut chewing is independently associated with the prevalence of AF in Taiwanese men. However, further exploration of the underlying mechanisms is necessary.
atrial fibrillation; areca nut chewing.
Background. Atrial fibrillation (AF) and vascular disease share several risk factors and the two diseases often coexist. Heart rate (HR) is reported to be a major determinant of arterial stiffness. AF patients often have a transiently or persistently rapid HR. Hence, this study was to assess whether AF was significantly associated with arterial stiffness and HR could significantly influence the relationship between AF and arterial stiffness. Besides, we also determine the main correlates of arterial stiffness in AF patients and see whether HR was correlated with arterial stiffness in these patients.
Methods. We included 166 AF and 1336 non-AF patients from subjects arranged for echocardiographic examinations. Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV).
Results. Compared to non-AF patients, AF patients had a higher baPWV (p <0.001). In a multivariate model, including covariates of age, sex, blood pressures and so on, the presence of AF was significantly associated with baPWV (β = 0.079, P = 0.001). However, further adjustment for HR made this association disappear (β = 0.005, P = 0.832). In addition to age and systolic blood pressure, increased HR (β = 0.309, p <0.001) was a major determinant of increased baPWV in our AF patients.
Conclusions. This study demonstrated the presence of AF was associated with increased baPWV, but this association became insignificant after further adjustment for HR, which suggested HR could significantly influence the relationship between AF and baPWV. Besides, HR was positively correlated with arterial stiffness in our AF patients.
atrial fibrillation; arterial stiffness; pulse wave velocity; heart rate
Background: The association between increased arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) may be influenced by left ventricular performance. P wave dispersion is not only a significant determinant of left ventricular performance, but is also correlated with LVDD. This study is designed to compare left ventricular diastolic function among patients divided by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and corrected P wave dispersion (PWDC) and assess whether the combination of baPWV and PWDC can predict LVDD more accurately.
Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 270 patients and classified them into four groups according to the median values of baPWV and PWDC. LVDD was defined as impaired relaxation and pseudonormal/restrictive mitral inflow patterns.
Results: The ratio of transmitral E wave velocity to early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E/Ea) was higher in group with higher baPWV and PWDC than in the other groups (all p <0.001). The prevalence of LVDD was higher in group with higher baPWV and PWDC than in the two groups with lower baPWV (p ≤ 0.001). The baPWV and PWDC were correlated with E/Ea and LVDD in multivariate analysis (p ≤ 0.030). The addition of baPWV and PWDC to a clinical mode could significantly improve the R square in prediction of E/Ea and C statistic and integrated discrimination index in prediction of LVDD (p ≤ 0.010).
Conclusions: This study showed increased baPWV and PWDC were correlated with high E/Ea and LVDD. The addition of baPWV and PWDC to a clinical model improved the prediction of high E/Ea and LVDD. Screening patients by means of baPWV and PWDC might help identify the high risk group of elevated left ventricular filling pressure and LVDD.
brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity; P wave dispersion; left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.
Increased arterial stiffness is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), but this association may be influenced by left ventricular (LV) performance. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is not only a significant determinant of LV performance, but is also correlated with LVDD. This study is designed to compare LV diastolic function among patients divided by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and electrocardiography (ECG)-determined LVH and to assess whether increased baPWV and ECG-determined LVH are independently associated with LVDD.
This cross-sectional study enrolled 270 patients and classified them into four groups according to the median value of baPWV and with/without ECG-determined LVH. The baPWV was measured using an ABI-form device. ECG-determined LVH was defined by Sokolow-Lyon criterion. LVDD was defined as impaired relaxation, pseudonormal, and restrictive mitral inflow patterns. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were patients with lower baPWV and without ECG-determined LVH, lower baPWV but with ECG-determined LVH, higher baPWV but without ECG-determined LVH, and higher baPWV and with ECG-determined LVH respectively.
Early diastolic mitral velocity (Ea) was gradually decreased from group 1 to group 4 (p≦0.027). Patients in group 4 had the highest prevalence of LVDD (all p<0.001). After multivariate analysis, both baPWV and ECG-determined LVH were independent determinants of Ea (β = −0.02, P<0.001; β = −1.77, P<0.001 respectively) and LVDD (odds ratio = 1.02, P = 0.011 and odds ratio = 3.53, P = 0.013 respectively).
Our study showed the group with higher baPWV and ECG-determined LVH had the lowest Ea and highest prevalence of LVDD. In addition, both baPWV and ECG-determined LVH were independently associated with Ea and LVDD. Hence, assessment of arterial stiffness by baPWV and LVH by ECG may be useful in identifying the high risk group of LVDD.
Inappropriate left ventricular mass index (LVM) may develop as a response to particular hemodynamic and metabolic alterations. Inappropriate LVM and peripheral artery disease (PAD) characterized by abnormally low or high ankle-brachial index (ABI) are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, in whom there may be a close and cause-effect relationship. The aim of this study is to assess whether CKD and abnormal ABI has an independent and additive association with inappropriate LVM. A total of 1110 patients were included in the study. Inappropriate LVM was defined as observed LVM more than 28% of the predicted value. The ABI was measured using an ABI-form device. PAD was defined as ABI <0.9 or >1.3 in either leg. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.644; P = 0.011) and PAD (OR, 2.082; P = 0.002) were independently associated with inappropriate LVM. The interaction between eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 and PAD on inappropriate LVM was statistically significant (P = 0.044). Besides, eGFR<45 ml/min/1.73 m2 (change in observed/predicted LVM, 19.949; P<0.001) and PAD (change in observed/predicted LVM, 11.818; P = 0.003) were also significantly associated with observed/predicted LVM. Our findings show that eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 and PAD are independently and additively associated with inappropriate LVM and observed/predicted LVM. Assessments of eGFR and ABI may be useful in identifying patients with inappropriate LVM.
Nicorandil is an antianginal agent with nitrate-like and ATP-sensitive potassium channel activator properties. After activation of potassium channels, potassium ions are expelled out of the cells, which lead to membrane hyperpolarization, closure of voltage-gated calcium channels, and finally vasodilation. We present a uremic case suffering from repeated junctional bradycardia, especially before hemodialysis. After detailed evaluation, nicorandil was suspected to be the cause of hyperkalemia which induced bradycardia. This case reminds us that physicians should be aware of this potential complication in patients receiving ATP-sensitive potassium channel activator.
Abnormally low and high ankle-brachial indices (ABIs) are associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the mechanisms responsible for the association are not fully known. This study is designed to assess whether there is a significant correlation between abnormal ABI and echocariographic parameters in patients with CKD stages 3–5. A total of 684 pre-dialysis CKD patients were included in the study. The ABI was measured using an ABI-form device. Patients were classified into ABI <0.9, ≥0.9 to <1.3, and ≥1.3. Clinical and echocariographic parameters were compared and analyzed. Compared with patients with ABI of ≥0.9 to <1.3, the values of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were higher in patients with ABI <0.9 and ABI ≥1.3 (P≤0.004). After the multivariate analysis, patients with ABI <0.9 (β = 0.099, P = 0.004) and ABI ≥1.3 (β = 0.143, P<0.001) were independently associated with increased LVMI. Besides, increased LVMI (odds ratio, 1.017; 95% confidence interval, 1.002 to 1.033; P = 0.031) was also significantly associated with ABI <0.9 or ABI ≥1.3. Our study in patients of CKD stages 3–5 demonstrated abnormally low and high ABIs were positively associated with LVMI. Future studies are required to determine whether increased LVMI is a causal intermediary between abnormal ABI and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD.
Coronary collateral circulation plays an important role to protect myocardium from ischemia, preserve myocardial contractility and reduce cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poor coronary collateral development and cardiovascular outcome. However, limited research investigates the predictors for collateral development in the CKD population.
We evaluated 970 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography and 202 patients with CKD, defined as a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, were finally analyzed. The collateral scoring system developed by Rentrop was used to classify patients into poor (grades 0 and 1) or good (grades 2 and 3) collateral group.
The patients with poor collateral (n = 122) had a higher incidence of hypertension (82% vs 63.8%, p = 0.005), fewer diseased vessels numbers (2.1 ± 0.9 vs 2.6 ± 0.6, p < 0.001) and a trend to be diabetic (56.6% vs. 43.8%, p = 0.085) or female sex (37.7% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.067). Multivariate analysis showed hypertension (odd ratio (OR) 2.672, p = 0.006), diabetes (OR 1.956, p = 0.039) and diseased vessels numbers (OR 0.402, p < 0.001) were significant predictors of poor coronary collaterals development. Furthermore, hypertension and diabetes have a negative synergistic effect on collateral development (p = 0.004 for interaction).
In the CKD population hypertension and diabetes might negatively influence the coronary collaterals development.
Chronic kidney disease; Coronary artery disease; Coronary collateral circulation, Hypertension, Diabetes
The P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as noninvasive tools to assess for left atrial enlargement. There are limited studies to evaluate whether P wave parameters are independently associated with decline in renal function. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess whether P wave parameters are independently associated with progression to renal end point of ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This longitudinal study included 166 patients. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected by heart rate, i.e. corrected P wave dispersion (PWdisperC) and corrected P wave maximum duration (PWdurMaxC). Heart function and structure were measured from echocardiography. Clinical data, P wave parameters, and echocardiographic measurements were compared and analyzed. Forty-three patients (25.9%) reached renal end point. Kaplan-Meier curves for renal end point-free survival showed PWdisperC > median (63.0 ms) (log-rank P = 0.004) and PWdurMaxC > median (117.9 ms) (log-rank P<0.001) were associated with progression to renal end point. Multivariate forward Cox-regression analysis identified increased PWdisperC (hazard ratio [HR], 1.024; P = 0.001) and PWdurMaxC (HR, 1.029; P = 0.001) were independently associated with progression to renal end point. Our results demonstrate that increased PWdisperC and PWdurMaxC were independently associated with progression to renal end point. Screening patients by means of PWdisperC and PWdurMaxC on 12 lead ECG may help identify a high risk group of rapid renal function decline.
An interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference of 10 mmHg or more have been associated with peripheral artery disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether an association exists between this difference and ankle-brachial index (ABI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and echocardiographic parameters. A total of 1120 patients were included in the study. The bilateral arm blood pressures were measured simultaneously by an ABI-form device. The values of ABI and baPWV were also obtained from the same device. Clinical data, ABI<0.9, baPWV, echocariographic parameters, and an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg were compared and analyzed. We performed two multivariate forward analyses for determining the factors associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg [model 1: significant variables in univariate analysis except left ventricular mass index (LVMI); model 2: significant variables in univariate analysis except ABI<0.9 and baPWV]. The ABI<0.9 and high baPWV in model 1 and high LVMI in model 2 were independently associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg. Female, hypertension, and high body mass index were also associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg. Our study demonstrated that ABI<0.9, high baPWV, and high LVMI were independently associated with an interarm SBP difference of 10 mmHg or more. Detection of an interarm SBP difference may provide a simple method of detecting patients at increased risk of atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy.