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1.  Can Radiographic Morphometric Parameters for the Hip Be Assessed on MRI? 
Background
Although morphometric hip parameters measured on radiographs are valuable tools guiding diagnosis and therapy in patients with hip disorders, some clinicians use MRI for such measurements, although it is unclear whether the parameters assessed on MRI differ from those assessed on radiographs.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether the lateral center-edge angle (LCE), Tönnis angle, extrusion index, and anterior center-edge angle (ACE) are similar on MRI and radiography.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the imaging data of 103 hips from 103 patients: 46 with femoroacetabular impingement and 57 with hip dysplasia. We manually measured the LCE, Tönnis angle, extrusion index, and ACE from radiographs and MRI in all 103 hips. Four straight coronal (Ant-10 mm, Ant-5 mm, Center, and Post-5 mm), three straight sagittal (S-Med-5 mm, S-Center, S-Lat-5 mm), and three 25º oblique sagittal (OS-Med-5 mm, OS-Center, OS-Lat-5 mm) reformats were reconstructed from a three-dimensional isotropic morphologic MRI sequence. MRI measurements were compared against the gold standard radiographic measurements.
Results
We found good agreement for the LCE angle, Tönnis angle, and extrusion index between radiographic and coronal slice MRI measurements. The mean differences between radiographic and MRI measurements were 5º or less or 5% or less (for the extrusion index) in all coronal MRI slices. However, the differences between ACE angles on sagittal MRI slices and radiographs ranged from 5° to 28º.
Conclusions
LCE, Tönnis angle, and extrusion index can be measured on MRI with comparable results to radiography. The ACE angle on radiographs cannot be estimated reliably from MRI.
Clinical Relevance
MRI provides similar morphometric measurements as radiography for most hip parameters, except for the ACE angle.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2654-3
PMCID: PMC3563814  PMID: 23100186
2.  Is the Damage of Cartilage a Global or Localized Phenomenon in Hip Dysplasia, Measured by dGEMRIC? 
Background
The mechanism of damage in osteoarthritis is believed to be multifactorial where mechanical and biological factors are important in its initiation and progression. Hip dysplasia is a classic model of increased mechanical loading on cartilage attributable to insufficient acetabular coverage that leads to osteoarthritis. If the damage is all attributable to direct mechanical damage then one initially would expect only local, not global changes.
Questions/purposes
We hypothesize that in hip dysplasia although the elevated cumulative contact stresses are localized, the damage to cartilage is biologically mediated, therefore, biochemical changes will be global.
Methods
Thirty-two patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia were scanned using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. We used a high-resolution three-dimensional dGEMRIC technique to characterize the distribution of cartilage damage in dysplastic hips. High-resolution isotropic acquisition was reformatted around the femoral neck axis and the dGEMRIC index was calculated separately for femoral and acetabular cartilages. Joint space widths also were evaluated in each reformatted slice. Each hip was characterized by the presence or absence of joint migration and by Tönnis grade.
Results
The global dGEMRIC index correlated with the dGEMRIC indices of individual regions with the highest correlations occurring in the anterosuperior to posterosuperior regions. The corresponding correlations for joint space width were uniformly lower, suggesting that tissue loss is a more local phenomenon. Higher Tönnis grades and hips with joint migration were associated with lower dGEMRIC indices.
Conclusions
The dGEMRIC index shows a global decrease, whereas tissue loss is more localized. This suggests that hip osteoarthritis in acetabular dysplasia is a biologically mediated event that affects the entire joint.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2633-8
PMCID: PMC3528925  PMID: 23079789
3.  Anterior Delayed Gadolinium-enhanced MRI of Cartilage Values Predict Joint Failure After Periacetabular Osteotomy 
Background
Several available compositional MRIs seem to detect early osteoarthritis before radiographic appearance. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) has been most frequently used in clinical studies and reportedly predicts premature joint failure in patients undergoing Bernese periacetabular osteotomies (PAOs).
Questions/Purposes
We asked, given regional variations in biochemical composition in dysplastic hips, whether the dGEMRIC index of the anterior joint would better predict premature joint failure after PAOs than the coronal dGEMRIC index as previously reported.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 43 hips in 41 patients who underwent Bernese PAO for hip dysplasia. Thirty-seven hips had preserved joints after PAOs and six were deemed premature failures based on pain, joint space narrowing, or subsequent THA. We used dGEMRIC to determine regional variations in biochemical composition. Preoperative demographic and clinical outcome score, radiographic measures of osteoarthritis and severity of dysplasia, and dGEMRIC indexes from different hip regions were analyzed in a multivariable regression analysis to determine the best predictor of premature joint failure. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 32 months; range, 24–46 months).
Results
The two cohorts were similar in age and sex distribution. Severity of dysplasia was similar as measured by lateral center-edge, anterior center-edge, and Tönnis angles. Preoperative pain, joint space width, Tönnis grade, and coronal and sagittal dGEMRIC indexes differed between groups. The dGEMRIC index in the anterior weightbearing region of the hip was lower in the prematurely failed group and was the best predictor.
Conclusions
Success of PAO depends on the amount of preoperative osteoarthritis. These degenerative changes are seen most commonly in the anterior joint. The dGEMRIC index of the anterior joint may better predict premature joint failure than radiographic measures of hip osteoarthritis and coronal dGEMRIC index.
Level of Evidence
Level II, prognostic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2519-9
PMCID: PMC3492640  PMID: 22907475
4.  Low Early Failure Rates Using a Surgical Dislocation Approach in Healed Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease 
Background
Hip deformity secondary to Legg-Calvé Perthes disease (LCPD) may result in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and ultimately osteoarthritis. Observations made with the surgical hip dislocation approach have improved our understanding of the pathologic mechanics of FAI. However, owing to concerns about complications related to the vascularity, the role of surgical hip dislocation in the treatment of healed LCPD remains controversial.
Questions/purposes
We present an algorithm to treat deformities associated with healed LCPD and asked (1) whether femoral head-neck osteochondroplasty and other procedures performed with the surgical hip dislocation approach provide short-term clinical improvement; and (2) is the complication rate low enough to be acceptable.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 29 patients (19 males, 10 females; mean age, 17 years; range, 9–35 years) with symptomatic LCPD between 2001 and 2009. All patients underwent a surgical hip dislocation approach and femoral head-neck osteochondroplasty and 26 patients had 37 additional procedures performed. Clinical improvement was assessed using the WOMAC index. The minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 3 years; range, 12–70 months).
Results
WOMAC scores improved at final followup (8 to 4 for pain, 21 to 13 for function, and 4 to 2 for the stiffness subscales). No patients had osteonecrosis, implant failure, deep infection, or nonunion. Three patients underwent THA at 1, 3, and 6 years after their index procedure.
Conclusions
Using the surgical hip dislocation approach as a tool to dynamically inspect the hip for causes of FAI, we were able to perform a variety of procedures to treat the complex deformities of healed LCPD. In the short term, we found improvement in WOMAC scores with a low complication rate.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2187-1
PMCID: PMC3830106  PMID: 22125243
5.  Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: Relevant Pathophysiological Findings With Open Surgery 
Background
Traditionally arthrotomy has rarely been performed during surgery for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). As a result, most pathophysiological information about the articular surfaces was derived clinically and radiographically. Novel insights regarding deformity-induced damage and epiphyseal perfusion became available with surgical hip dislocation.
Questions/purposes
We (1) determined the influence of chronicity of prodromal symptoms and severity of SCFE deformity on severity of cartilage damage. (2) In surgically confirmed disconnected epiphyses, we determined the influence of injury and time to surgery on epiphyseal perfusion; and (3) the frequency of new bone at the posterior neck potentially reducing perfusion during epimetaphyseal reduction.
Methods
We reviewed 116 patients with 119 SCFE and available records treated between 1996 and 2011. Acetabular cartilage damage was graded as +/++/+++ in 109 of the 119 hips. Epiphyseal perfusion was determined with laser-Doppler flowmetry at capsulotomy and after reduction. Information about bone at the posterior neck was retrieved from operative reports.
Results
Ninety-seven of 109 hips (89%) had documented cartilage damage; severity was not associated with higher slip angle or chronicity; disconnected epiphyses had less damage. Temporary or definitive cessation of perfusion in disconnected epiphyses increased with time to surgery; posterior bone resection improved the perfusion. In one necrosis, the retinaculum was ruptured; two were in the group with the longest time interval. Posterior bone formation is frequent in disconnected epiphyses, even without prodromal periods.
Conclusions
Addressing the cause of cartilage damage (cam impingement) should become an integral part of SCFE surgery. Early surgery for disconnected epiphyses appears to reduce the risk of necrosis. Slip reduction without resection of posterior bone apposition may jeopardize epiphyseal perfusion.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, retrospective case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-2818-9
PMCID: PMC3676602  PMID: 23397314
6.  Patients With Unstable Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Have Antecedent Symptoms 
Background
The characteristics of patients who sustain unstable slipped capital femoral epiphyses (SCFEs) are not well described compared to their counterparts who sustain stable SCFE. Although patients with unstable slips are usually identified owing to acute symptoms, it is unclear whether these patients have premonitory symptoms that could heighten the awareness of treating physicians to the possibility of an unstable slip and lead to timely diagnosis and treatment.
Questions/purpose
We determined whether most patients experienced pain and limp before developing an unstable SCFE.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 582 patients and identified 82 (41 boys, 41 girls; 85 hips) with unstable SCFEs. Patient records were reviewed for sex, age at onset, weight at onset, and presence and location of pain and/or limp before the unstable slip. Boys averaged 13 years of age at the time occurrence and weighed on average in the 77th percentile. Girls averaged 12 years of age at the time of occurrence and weighed on average in the 79th percentile.
Results
For all patients, 73 of 82 (88%) had pain in their hips, thighs, or knees for an average of 42 days before sustaining unstable SCFEs. Sex distribution was equal for patients with unstable SCFEs.
Conclusions
Patients who sustained unstable SCFEs had premonitory pain in the limb. Early recognition and an appropriate diagnosis provide a critical opportunity to prevent a morbid unstable SCFE.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, diagnostic study, See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3042-3
PMCID: PMC3676584  PMID: 23657881
7.  Diffusion-weighted MRI Reveals Epiphyseal and Metaphyseal Abnormalities in Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease: A Pilot Study 
Background
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCP) is thought to be associated with ischemic events in the femoral head. However, the types and patterns of reperfusion after these ischemic events are unclear.
Purposes
We therefore determined whether (1) there would be any age-related diffusion changes; (2) diffusion-weighted MR imaging would reveal ischemic damage; and (3) diffusion changes are correlated with prognostic MR findings in patients with LCP.
Methods
We prospectively performed conventional, perfusion, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging studies in 17 children with unilateral LCP. We then measured the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the epiphysis and the metaphysis, and compared them with those of the contralateral normal side. Based on perfusion MR imaging, we assessed reperfusion to the epiphysis as either periphyseal or transphyseal. We studied T2-signal intensity changes in the metaphysis and the presence of focal physeal irregularity. We correlated diffusion changes with reperfusion to the epiphysis, T2-signal intensity change, and focal physeal irregularity.
Results
Normal diffusion decreased with age. In LCP hips, epiphyseal diffusion increased early and remained elevated through the healing stage. Six of the 17 patients who had a metaphyseal ADC greater than 50% over the normal side had 13 times greater odds of having an association with transphyseal reperfusion to the epiphysis. The increase of metaphyseal ADC also was associated with an increased T2-signal intensity in the metaphysis and presence of focal physeal irregularity.
Conclusions
Diffusion-weighted MR imaging can be used as a complimentary modality to evaluate ischemic tissue damage with a potential prognostic value in patients with LCP.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-1931-x
PMCID: PMC3171554  PMID: 21660596
8.  Physical Activity Level Improves After Periacetabular Osteotomy for the Treatment of Symptomatic Hip Dysplasia 
Background
Hip pain secondary to acetabular dysplasia can prevent participation in recreational activities.
Questions/Purposes
We retrospectively evaluated the physical activity level and pain after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of symptomatic hip dysplasia.
Methods
Forty-seven female and four male patients with a mean age of 27 years underwent a PAO. Physical activity (UCLA) and pain (WOMAC) were assessed preoperatively, at 1 year, and at minimum 2 years postoperatively. Multivariable linear regression identified substantial, independent factors associated with postoperative activity level.
Results
The UCLA activity scores were on average higher at 1 year and remained higher at minimum 2 years when compared with preoperative scores. Mean postoperative WOMAC pain scores assessed at 1 year and at least 2 years were lower than mean preoperative scores. Age and preoperative physical activity level were strong independent predictors for activity level at 1 year and at minimum 2 years after surgery. Postoperative pain level was a moderate predictor for the level of activity at minimum 2-year followup.
Conclusions
Physical activity level improves after PAO. Younger age and higher activity levels before surgery and lower level of pain after surgery are predictive factors for postoperative level of activity in the short term. The data presented here may be useful to counsel the active young adult with symptomatic hip dysplasia about the improvement of level of activity to be expected after PAO.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2578-y
PMCID: PMC3563783  PMID: 23212768
9.  Surgical Dislocation in the Management of Pediatric and Adolescent Hip Deformity 
The surgical dislocation approach is useful in assessing and treating proximal femoral hip deformities commonly due to pediatric conditions. We sought to demonstrate the efficacy and problems associated with this technique. Diagnoses included slipped capital femoral epiphysis, Perthes disease, developmental dysplasia of the hip, osteonecrosis, and exostoses. Through this approach, femoral head-neck osteoplasty (22), intertrochanteric osteotomy (eight), femoral head-neck osteoplasty plus intertrochanteric osteotomy (15), femoral neck osteotomy (five), open reduction and internal fixation of an acute slipped capital femoral epiphysis with callus resection (five), open reduction and internal fixation of an acetabular fracture (one), trapdoor procedure (one), and acetabular rim osteoplasty (one) were performed. The average patient age was 16 years. The minimum followup was 12 months (average, 41.6 months; range, 12–73 months). Patients with Perthes disease and SCFE had preoperative and postoperative WOMAC scores of 9.6 and 5.1, and 7.9 and 3.5 respectively. In patients with unstable SCFEs, the average postoperative WOMAC score was 1.2. Seven patients underwent THAs and two patients underwent hip fusion. Complications in the 58 procedures included four cases of osteonecrosis: three after femoral neck osteotomy and one after intertrochanteric osteotomy. The surgical dislocation technique can be utilized to effectively treat these deformities and improve short-term symptoms. Although the technique is demanding, we believe surgical dislocation offers sufficient advantages in assessing and treating these complex deformities that it justifies judicious application.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective study, case series. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0591-y
PMCID: PMC2635463  PMID: 19002743
10.  Capital Realignment for Moderate and Severe SCFE Using a Modified Dunn Procedure 
Moderate to severe slipped capital femoral epiphysis leads to premature osteoarthritis resulting from femoroacetabular impingement. We believe surgical correction at the site of deformity through capital reorientation is the best procedure to fully correct the deformity but has traditionally been associated with high rates of osteonecrosis. We describe a modified capital reorientation procedure performed through a surgical dislocation approach. We followed 40 patients for a minimum of 1 year and 3 years from two institutions. No patient developed osteonecrosis or chondrolysis. Slip angle was corrected to 4° to 8° and the mean alpha angle after correction was 40.6°. Articular cartilage damage, full-thickness loss, and delamination were observed at the time of surgery, especially in the stable slips. This technique appears to have an acceptable complication rate and appears reproducible for full correction of moderate to severe slipped capital femoral epiphyses with open physes.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0687-4
PMCID: PMC2635450  PMID: 19142692
11.  A functional difficulty and functional pain instrument for hip and knee osteoarthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2009;11(4):R107.
Introduction
The objectives of this study were to develop a functional outcome instrument for hip and knee osteoarthritis research (OA-FUNCTION-CAT) using item response theory (IRT) and computer adaptive test (CAT) methods and to assess its psychometric performance compared to the current standard in the field.
Methods
We conducted an extensive literature review, focus groups, and cognitive testing to guide the construction of an item bank consisting of 125 functional activities commonly affected by hip and knee osteoarthritis. We recruited a convenience sample of 328 adults with confirmed hip and/or knee osteoarthritis. Subjects reported their degree of functional difficulty and functional pain in performing each activity in the item bank and completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to assess scale uni-dimensionality, and IRT methods were used to calibrate the items and examine the fit of the data. We assessed the performance of OA-FUNCTION-CATs of different lengths relative to the full item bank and WOMAC using CAT simulation analyses.
Results
Confirmatory factor analyses revealed distinct functional difficulty and functional pain domains. Descriptive statistics for scores from 5-, 10-, and 15-item CATs were similar to those for the full item bank. The 10-item OA-FUNCTION-CAT scales demonstrated a high degree of accuracy compared with the item bank (r = 0.96 and 0.89, respectively). Compared to the WOMAC, both scales covered a broader score range and demonstrated a higher degree of precision at the ceiling and reliability across the range of scores.
Conclusions
The OA-FUNCTION-CAT provided superior reliability throughout the score range and improved breadth and precision at the ceiling compared with the WOMAC. Further research is needed to assess whether these improvements carry over into superior ability to measure change.
doi:10.1186/ar2760
PMCID: PMC2745788  PMID: 19589168
12.  Extraarticular Fractures after Periacetabular Osteotomy 
Extraarticular fractures of the pelvic ring after periacetabular osteotomy could impair stability of the acetabular fragment and cause poor clinical and radiographic outcomes. We evaluated 17 patients (17 hips) with fractures of either the ipsilateral os pubis (n = 12) or os ischium (n = 5) during the postoperative period after periacetabular osteotomy. Ischial fractures seemed more debilitating with two of five resulting in painful nonunions for which additional surgery was performed. In contrast, only one patient with pubic fracture had additional surgery. Ischial fractures took almost twice as long to achieve resolution of symptoms compared with pubic fractures, and when left untreated, asymptomatic nonunions developed in three of five. However, we observed no effect on acetabular fragment positioning or long-term clinical outcome. It is essential to be aware of this potential complication and realize it could be accompanied by substantial morbidity for patients during the rehabilitation period after periacetabular osteotomy, but does not seem to influence the longer-term outcome.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0280-x
PMCID: PMC2505263  PMID: 18465184
13.  Concomitant Impact of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;55(1):132-140.
Purpose
The present study aimed to investigate the impact of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and renal dysfunction on clinical outcomes in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.
Materials and Methods
The study involved a retrospective cohort of 8332 patients admitted with AMI. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and hs-CRP: group I, no renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2) with low hs-CRP (≤2.0 mg/dL); group II, no renal dysfunction with high hs-CRP; group III, renal dysfunction with low hs-CRP; and group IV, renal dysfunction with high hs-CRP. We compared major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a 1-year follow-up period.
Results
The 4 groups demonstrated a graded association with increased MACE rates (group I, 8.8%; group II, 13.8%; group III, 18.6%; group IV, 30.1%; p<0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, mortality at 12 months increased in groups II, III, and IV compared with group I [hazard ratio (HR) 2.038, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.450-2.863, p<0.001; HR 3.003, 95% CI 2.269-3.974, p<0.001; HR 5.087, 95% CI 3.755-6.891, p<0.001].
Conclusion
High hs-CRP, especially in association with renal dysfunction, is related to the occurrence of composite MACE, and indicates poor prognosis in AMI patients.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.1.132
PMCID: PMC3874927  PMID: 24339298
C-reactive protein; glomerular filtration rate; myocardial infarction
15.  Do Plain Radiographs Correlate With CT for Imaging of Cam-type Femoroacetabular Impingement? 
Background
Three-dimensional imaging (CT and MRI) is the gold standard for detecting femoral head-neck junction malformations in femoroacetabular impingement, yet plain radiographs are used for initial diagnostic evaluation. It is unclear, however, whether the plain radiographs accurately reflect the findings on three-dimensional imaging.
Questions/Purposes
We therefore: (1) investigated the correlation of alpha angle measurements on plain radiographs and radial reformats of CT scans; (2) determined which radiographic views are most sensitive and specific in detecting head-neck deformities present on CT scans; and (3) determined if specific radiographic views correlated with specific locations on the radial oblique CT scan.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 41 surgical patients with preoperative CT scans (radial oblique reformats) and plain radiographs (AP pelvis, 45° Dunn, frog lateral, and crosstable lateral). Alpha angles were measured on plain radiographs and CT reformats.
Results
The complete radiographic series was 86% to 90% sensitive in detecting abnormal alpha angles on CT. The maximum alpha angle on plain radiographs was greater than that of CT reformats in 61% of cases. Exclusion of the crosstable lateral did not affect the sensitivity (86%–88%). The Dunn view was most sensitive (71%–80%). The frog lateral showed the best specificity (91%–100%). Substantial correlations (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.64–0.75) between radiograph and radial oblique CT position were observed, including AP/12:00 (superior), Dunn/1:00 (anterolateral), frog/3:00 (anterior), and crosstable/3:00 (anterior).
Conclusions
For diagnostic and treatment purposes, a three-view radiographic hip series (AP pelvis, 45° Dunn, and frog lateral) effectively characterizes femoral head-neck junction malformations.
Level of Evidence
Level II, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2510-5
PMCID: PMC3492627  PMID: 22930210
16.  Differential Prognostic Impacts of Diabetes over Time Course after Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(12):1749-1755.
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of diabetes on short- and mid-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Between October 2005 and December 2009, a total of 22,347 patients with AMI from a nationwide registry was analyzed. At the time point of the day 30 after AMI onset, landmark analyses were performed for the development of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, re-infarction and revascularization. In this cohort, 6,131 patients (27.4%) had diabetes. Short-term MACEs, which occurred within 30 days of AMI onset, were observed in 1,364 patients (6.1%). Among the 30-day survivors (n = 21,604), mid-term MACEs, which occurred between 31 and 365 days after AMI onset, were observed in 1,181 patients (5.4%). After adjustment for potential confounders, diabetes was an independent predictor of mid-term MACEs (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.08-1.45; P = 0.002), but not of short-term MACEs (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.93-1.44; P = 0.167). Diabetes is a poor prognostic factor for mid-term clinical outcomes but not for short-term outcomes in AMI patients. Careful monitoring and intensive care should be considered in diabetic patients, especially following the acute stage of AMI.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.12.1749
PMCID: PMC3857370  PMID: 24339704
Diabetes Mellitus; Myocardial Infarction; Prognosis
17.  A Prospective, Randomized Comparison of Promus Everolimus-Eluting and TAXUS Liberte Paclitaxel-Eluting Stent Systems in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Eligible for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The PROMISE Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(11):1609-1614.
We aimed comparing two-year clinical outcomes of the Everolimus-Eluting Promus and Paclitaxel-Eluting TAXUS Liberte stents used in routine clinical practice. Patients with objective evidence of ischemia and coronary artery disease eligible for PCI were prospectively randomized to everolimus-eluting stent (EES) or paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) groups. The primary end-point was ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization (TVR) at 2 yr after intervention, and the secondary end-point was a major adverse cardiac event (MACE), such as death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), TVR or stent thrombosis. A total of 850 patients with 1,039 lesions was randomized to the EES (n=425) and PES (n=425) groups. Ischemic-driven TVR at 2 yr was 3.8% in the PES and 1.2% in the EES group (P for non-inferiority=0.021). MACE rates were significantly different; 5.6% in PES and 2.5% in EES (P = 0.027). Rates of MI (0.8% in PES vs 0.2% in EES, P = 0.308), all deaths (1.5% in PES vs 1.2% in EES, P = 0.739) and stent thrombosis (0.3% in PES vs 0.7% in EES, P = 0.325) were similar. The clinical outcomes of EES are superior to PES, mainly due to a reduction in the rate of ischemia-driven TVR.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.11.1609
PMCID: PMC3835502  PMID: 24265523
Everolimus-Eluting Stent; Paclitaxel-Eluting Stent
18.  A Case of Extrinsic Compression of the Left Main Coronary Artery Secondary to Pulmonary Artery Dilatation 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(10):1543-1548.
Extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) secondary to pulmonary artery dilatation is a rare syndrome. Most cases of pulmonary artery hypertension but no atherosclerotic risk factors rarely undergo coronary angiography, and hence, diagnoses are seldom made and proper management is often delayed in these patients. We describe a patient that presented with pulmonary hypertension, clinical angina, and extrinsic compression of the LMCA by the pulmonary artery, who was treated successfully by percutaneous coronary intervention. Follow-up coronary angiography showed patent stent in the LMCA in the proximity of the dilated main pulmonary artery. This case reminds us that coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention should be considered in pulmonary hypertension patients presenting with angina or left ventricular dysfunction.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.10.1543
PMCID: PMC3792613  PMID: 24133364
Pulmonary Artery Dilatation; Coronary Arteries; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
19.  Prevalence of extracardiac findings in the evaluation of ischemic heart disease by multidetector computed tomography 
Objective
Multidector computed tomography (MDCT) is now commonly used for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Because MDCT images include many non-cardiac organs and the patient population evaluated is highly susceptible to extracardiac diseases, this study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of extracardiac findings in the MDCT evaluation of ischemic heart disease.
Methods
From March 2007 to March 2008, a total of six-hundred twenty patients, who underwent 64-slice MDCT evaluations for chest pain, or dyspnea, were enrolled in this study. Cardiac and non-cardiac findings were comprehensively evaluated by a radiologist.
Results
Enrolled patients included 306 men (49.4%), with a mean age of 66 years. Significant coronary artery stenosis was found in 41.6% of the patients. A total of 158 extracardiac findings were observed in 110 (17.7%) patients. Commonly involved extracardiac organs were lung (36.7%), hepatobiliary system (21.5%), thyroid (19.6%), kidney (10.8%), spine (9.7%) and breast (0.6%). Of those 110 patients, 50 (45.5%) patients underwent further diagnostic investigations. Malignant disease was detected in three (2.7%) patients (lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and thyroid cancer).
Conclusions
Extracardiac findings are frequently present and should be a concern in the MDCT evaluation of chest pain syndrome.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1671-5411.2013.03.006
PMCID: PMC3796697  PMID: 24133511
Extracardiac findings; Computed tomography; Ischemic heart disease; Malignant disease
20.  Clinical Stability of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis does not Correlate with Intraoperative Stability 
Background
The most important objective of clinical classifications of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is to identify hips associated with a high risk of avascular necrosis (AVN) — so-called unstable or acute slips; however, closed surgery makes confirmation of physeal stability difficult. Performing the capital realignment procedure in SCFE treatment we observed that clinical estimation of physeal stability did not always correlate with intraoperative findings at open surgery. This motivated us to perform a systematic comparison of the clinical classification systems with the intraoperative observations.
Questions/purposes
We asked: (1) Is the classification of an acute versus chronic slip based on the duration of symptoms sensitive and specific in detecting intraoperative disrupted physes in patients with SCFE? (2) Is the stable/unstable classification system based on clinical symptoms sensitive and specific in detecting intraoperative disrupted physes in patients with SCFE?
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 82 patients with SCFE treated by open surgery between 1996 and 2009. We classified the clinical stability of all hips using the classifications based on onset of symptoms and on function. We classified intraoperative stability as intact or disrupted. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of two classification systems to determine intraoperative stability.
Results
Complete physeal disruption at open surgery was seen in 28 of the 82 hips (34%). With classification as acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic, the sensitivity for disrupted physes was 82% and the specificity was 44%. With the classification of Loder et al., the values were 39% and 76%, respectively.
Conclusion
Current clinical classification systems are limited in accurately diagnosing the physeal stability in SCFE.
Level of Evidence
Level III, retrospective diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2339-y
PMCID: PMC3392371  PMID: 22487880
21.  One-Year Clinical Outcomes among Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(8):519-526.
Background and Objectives
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the clinical outcome of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with MetS has not been well examined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of AMI patients with MetS.
Subjects and Methods
We evaluated a total of 6352 AMI patients who had successful percutaneous coronary interventions and could be identified for MetS between 2005 and 2008 at 51 hospitals participating in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. They were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of MetS: the MetS group (n=2493, 39.2%) versus the Non-MetS group (n=3859, 60.8%). In addition, 4049 AMI patients with high levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (≥100 mg/dL) among them, were divided into the MetS group (n=1561, 38.6%) versus the Non-MetS group (n=2488, 61.4%).
Results
In the overall population, there was no significant difference in 12-month the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rate between the 2 groups. However, the MetS group showed a significantly higher 12-month MACE rate in the high LDL-C population. Multivariate analysis showed that MetS was an independent prognostic factor for 12-month MACE {hazard ratio (HR) 1.607, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.027 to 2.513, adjusted p=0.038} and for 12-month target vessel revascularization (HR 1.564, 95% CI 1.092 to 2.240, adjusted p=0.015) in the high LDL-C population.
Conclusion
MetS patients with AMI in the overall population showed no significant difference in 12-month clinical outcomes. However, in patients with higher LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL, they showed significantly worse clinical outcome than Non-MetS patients. Therefore, it is important to ascertain the presence of MetS in AMI patients, and more aggressive therapy should be strongly considered for AMI patient with MetS.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2013.43.8.519
PMCID: PMC3772296  PMID: 24044010
Metabolic syndrome; Myocardial infarction; Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol
22.  Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Elderly Patients with Renal Dysfunction: Results from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(7):1027-1033.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on short- and long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in elderly (>75 yr old) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with renal dysfunction. As part of Korea AMI Registry (KAMIR), elderly patients with AMI and renal dysfunction (GFR<60 mL/min) received either medical (n=439) or PCI (n=1,019) therapy. Primary end point was in-hospital death. Secondary end point was MACE during a 1 month and 1 yr follow-up. PCI group showed a significantly lower incidence of in-hospital death (20.0% vs 14.3%, P=0.006). Short-term and long-term MACE rates were higher in medical therapy group (31.9% vs 19.0%; 57.7% vs 31.3%, P<0.001), and this difference was mainly attributed to cardiac death (29.3% vs 17.6%; 51.9% vs 25.0%, P<0.001). MACE-free survival time after adjustment was also higher in PCI group on short-term (hazard ratio, 0.67; confidence interval, 0.45-0.98; P=0.037) and long-term follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.61, confidence interval, 0.45-0.83; P=0.002). In elderly AMI patients with renal dysfunction, PCI therapy yields favorable in-hospital and short-term and long-term MACE-free survival.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.7.1027
PMCID: PMC3708073  PMID: 23853485
Acute Myocardial Infarction; Renal Dysfunction; Elderly; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Major Adverse Cardiac Event
23.  Changes in smoking behavior and adherence to preventive guidelines among smokers after a heart attack 
Objective
Risk factor modification is key to preventing subsequent cardiac events after a heart attack. This study was designed to investigate the disparity between preventive guidelines and clinical practice among smoking patients.
Methods
The study was carried out in smokers admitted with myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 275 patients who had been regularly followed for over one year after MI were randomly selected and enrolled in this study. We investigated changes in smoking behavior and the adherence rate to ACC/AHA Guidelines for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease at the time of, and one year after, the index event.
Results
The study population consisted of 275 patients (97.1% males) with a mean age of 57.0 ± 11.2 years. Achievement of target goals at one year was as follows: smoking cessation, 52.3%; blood pressure, 83.9%; HbA1c, 32.7%; lipid profile, 65.5%; and body mass index (BMI), 50.6%. Over one year, 80% of the patients attempted to quit smoking; 27% of them re-started smoking within one month after discharge while 65% succeeded in cessation of smoking. At one year, only 52% of the patients overall had stopped smoking. From the multivariate logistic analysis including smoking patterns and clinical characteristics, the severity of coronary artery disease was the only independent predictor for smoking cessation (Relative risk (RR): 1.230; P = 0.022).
Conclusions
Only a small percentage of MI patients adhere to guidelines for secondary prevention and a sizable proportion fail to stop smoking. These findings underscore the need for an effective patient education system.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1671-5411.2013.02.006
PMCID: PMC3708054  PMID: 23888174
Coronary artery disease; Myocardial infarction; Prevention; Smoking
24.  Seven-Year Clinical Outcomes of Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Bare-Metal Stent: A Matched Analysis From A Real World, Single Center Registry 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(3):396-401.
The aim of this study is to compare clinical outcomes for seven years, between sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and bare metal stent (BMS). During the BMS and drug-eluting stent (DES) transition period (from April 2002 to April 2004), 434 consecutive patients with 482 lesions underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, using BMS or SES. Using propensity score matching, 186 patients with BMS and 166 patients with SES were selected. Seven year clinical outcomes of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), such as cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization (TVR), and angiographic definite stent thrombosis (ST) were compared. At one-year follow up, patients with SES showed significantly lower MACE (9.1% in BMS vs 3.0% in SES, P = 0.024). However, cumulative MACE for 7 yr was not significantly different between two groups (24.7% in BMS vs 17.4% in SES, P = 0.155). There was no significant difference in MI, TVR, death and ST. The TVR were gradually increased from 1 to 7 yr in SES, on the contrary to that of BMS. In conclusion, although SES showed better clinical outcomes in the early period after implantation, it did not show significant benefits in the long-term follow up, compared with that of BMS.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.3.396
PMCID: PMC3594603  PMID: 23486987
Drug-Eluting Stents; Bare-Metal Stents; Long-term
25.  Does Previous Reconstructive Surgery Influence Functional Improvement and Deformity Correction After Periacetabular Osteotomy? 
Background
The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is commonly used to surgically treat residual acetabular dysplasia. However, the degree to which function and radiographic deformity are corrected in patients with more severe deformities that have undergone previous reconstructive pelvic or femoral osteotomies is unclear.
Questions/purposes
We evaluated hip pain and function, radiographic deformity correction, complications, reoperations, and early failures (conversion to THA) associated with PAO in hips treated with previous reconstructive hip surgery.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 63 patients who had undergone 67 PAOs after a previous reconstructive hip procedure. We compared preoperative hip scores and radiographic parameters with postoperative values at most recent followup. We recorded complications, need for nonarthroplasty revision surgery, and failures. Minimum followup was 2 years.
Results
Five of the 67 hips (8%) were converted to THA between 24 and 118 months. The average followup for the remaining 62 hips was 60 months (range, 24–147 months). The average Harris hip score improved 11 points, and postoperatively, 83% of the hips had pain component scores of greater than 30 (none, slight, or mild pain). Radiographically, there were improvements in lateral center-edge angle (25°), anterior center-edge angle (23°), Tönnis angle (17°), and medialization of the hip center (8 mm). Complications occurred in 13 hips (19%). Seven hips (10%) underwent a subsequent surgical procedure to address residual pain or deformity.
Conclusions
PAO performed after previous reconstructive hip surgery improves hip function and corrects residual dysplasia deformities. These procedures are inherently more complex than primary PAO and are associated with a considerable risk of perioperative complications, reoperations, and early treatment failures.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2158-6
PMCID: PMC3254768  PMID: 22042717

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