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1.  Increased Phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR in the Obstructed Kidney of Rats with Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(3):108-112.
The present study aimed to investigate changes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the obstructed kidney of rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally obstructed by ligation of the left proximal ureter for 7 days. Control rats were treated in the same way except that no ligature was made. The expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mTOR were determined in the kidney by semiquantitative immunoblotting. The protein expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, Bax, and Bcl-2 were also determined in the kidney. The phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR was increased in the kidney of ureteral obstruction rats compared with the control. In the obstructed kidney, the protein expression of TGF-β1 and Bax was also increased, whereas Bcl-2 expression was decreased. In conclusion, the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR was increased in the obstructed kidney of rats with UUO.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.3.108
PMCID: PMC3881205  PMID: 24400212
mTOR protein, rat; Ureteral Obstruction; Fibrosis; Apoptosis
2.  Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Sepsis and Septic Shock: Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(4):965-972.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to investigate clinical characteristics and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with sepsis and septic shock. Additionally, we explored whether the severity of AKI affects on the clinical outcomes.
Materials and Methods
Data were collected retrospectively in a single center. Among 5680 patients who visited emergency department from January to December 2010, 992 patients with sepsis and septic shock were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups, patients who developed AKI or not, to compare the baseline characteristics, and laboratory and physiologic data. Patients with AKI were subdivided according to its stages for survival analysis.
Results
AKI was developed in 57.7% of patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that development of septic AKI was associated with older age, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, presence of shock, positive blood culture results, and low white blood cell and platelet counts. Hospital mortality was higher in AKI group. Crude Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated reduced 30-day survival rate was significantly associated with the severity of acute kidney injury.
Conclusion
The development of septic AKI was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Furthermore, the severity of AKI was associated with increased mortality.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.4.965
PMCID: PMC3663224  PMID: 23709433
Acute kidney injury; mortality; risk factors; sepsis; septic shock
3.  Serratia marcescens Peritonitis in a Diabetic Patient Receiving Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis 
Infection & Chemotherapy  2013;45(1):105-107.
We report a case of Serratia marcescens peritonitis in a 45-year-old man with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient presented with abdominal pain and cloudy dialysate. Empiric antibiotic therapy was initiated intraperitoneally with cefazolin and ceftazidime for 5 days. Cultures of the dialysate revealed S. marcescens, and the treatment was subsequently changed to gentamicin and ceftazidime. Oral ciprofloxacin was also added. The patient's abdominal pain and the dialysate white blood cell (WBC) count, however, did not improve. The indwelling CAPD catheter was therefore removed. This is an unusual case report in the Korean literature of S. marcescens peritonitis in a patient receiving CAPD.
doi:10.3947/ic.2013.45.1.105
PMCID: PMC3780930  PMID: 24265957
Serratia marcescens; Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; Peritonitis
4.  Activation of the Renal PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in a DOCA-Salt Model of Hypertension 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2012;48(3):150-154.
The present study investigated the changes that occurred in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the kidney as a result of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Rats were implanted with DOCA strips (200 mg/kg) 1 week after unilateral nephrectomy and were then supplied with 0.9% saline to drink. Four weeks after DOCA implantation, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by use of the tail-cuff method. The expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mTOR, as well as the protein expression levels of ED-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2, were then examined in the kidney by semiquantitative immunoblotting. DOCA-salt hypertensive rats were found to have significantly increased SBP as well as an increased kidney weight-to-body weight ratio. Moreover, the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR was increased in the kidney of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats compared with the control, as was the protein expression of ED-1, COX-2, TGF-β1, and α-SMA. The expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax were increased significantly, whereas Bcl-2 expression was decreased. In conclusion, the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR was increased in the kidney of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2012.48.3.150
PMCID: PMC3539094  PMID: 23323219
Deoxycorticosterone; Hypertension; Kidney
5.  Hypercalcemia in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2012;48(2):128-129.
A 59-year-old female with diabetes mellitus presented with hypercalcemia and polycythemia. Her serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were increased, and Tc-99m sesta-MIBI scanning showed hot uptake in the lower portion of the left thyroid lobe. After parathyroidectomy, her calcium, iPTH, and polycythemia were normalized. In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of polycythemia and hypercalcemia should also include the possibility of a parathyroid tumor in addition to other neoplasms.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2012.48.2.128
PMCID: PMC3434793  PMID: 22977755
Hypercalcemia; Polycythemia vera; Parathyroid tumor
6.  Perirenal Fluid Collection after Kidney Transplantation 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2012;48(1):57-59.
A 30-year-old male presented with pitting edema. He had received a kidney transplantation 3 months previously. His serum creatinine level was increased, and a renal ultrasound showed hypoechoic fluid collection in the perirenal space and pelvic cavity. We conducted sono-guided percutaneous drainage of the fluid collected in the pelvic cavity. The chemistry of the peritoneal fluid was more equivalent to serum chemistry values than to urinary values. Simple aspiration and treatment with antibiotics were performed. We have presented a case of lymphocele after kidney transplantation. This case suggests that physicians should remember how to differentiate the pelvic cavity fluid collection in patients who have received a kidney transplant.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2012.48.1.57
PMCID: PMC3341439  PMID: 22570817
Lymphocele; Kidney; Transplantation
7.  Incomplete Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis with Nephrocalcinosis 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2011;47(3):170-172.
We report the case of a female patient with incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis with nephrocalcinosis. She was admitted to the hospital because of acute pyelonephritis. Imaging studies showed dual medullary nephrocalcinosis. Subsequent evaluations revealed hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia with normal acid-base status. A modified tubular acidification test with NH4Cl confirmed a defect of urine acidification, which is compatible with incomplete distal tubular acidosis. We treated our patient with potassium citrate, which corrects hypokalemia and prevents further deposition of calcium salts.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2011.47.3.170
PMCID: PMC3252506  PMID: 22247918
Renal tubular acidosis; Nephrocalcinosis; Kidney
8.  Altered Regulation of Renal Nitric Oxide and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Systems in Lipopolysaccharide-induced Kidney Injury 
Nitric oxide (NO) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) may induce vascular relaxation by increasing the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), an important mediator of vascular tone during sepsis. This study aimed to determine whether regulation of NO and the ANP system is altered in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced kidney injury. LPS (10 mg.kg-1) was injected in the tail veins of male Sprague-Dawley rats; 12 hours later, the kidneys were removed. Protein expression of NO synthase (NOS) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) was determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. As an index of synthesis of NO, its stable metabolites (nitrite/nitrate, NOx) were measured using colorimetric assays. mRNA expression of the ANP system was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To determine the activity of guanylyl cyclase (GC), the amount of cGMP generated in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and ANP was calculated. Creatinine clearance decreased and fractional excretion of sodium increased in LPS-treated rats compared with the controls. Inducible NOS protein expression increased in LPS-treated rats, while that of endothelial NOS, neuronal NOS, and NEP remained unchanged. Additionally, urinary and plasma NOx levels increased in LPS-treated rats. SNP-stimulated GC activity remained unchanged in the glomerulus and papilla in the LPS-treated rats. mRNA expression of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-C decreased in LPS-treated rats, while that of ANP and NPR-A did not change. ANP-stimulated GC activity reduced in the glomerulus and papilla. In conclusion, enhancement of the NO/cGMP pathway and decrease in ANP clearance were found play a role in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced kidney injury.
doi:10.4196/kjpp.2011.15.5.273
PMCID: PMC3222796  PMID: 22128259
Lipopolysaccharide; Atrial natriuretic peptide; Nitric oxide; Guanylyl cyclase
9.  Hyponatremia in a Patient with a Sellar Mass 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2011;47(2):122-123.
A 59-year-old man with confused mental status was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory reports showed him to have severe hyponatremia, and additional studies revealed panhypopituitarism. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a sellar cystic lesion, which consisted of a Rathke cleft cyst. Thus, the mass effect of the Rathke cleft cyst resulted in panhypopituitarism and finally induced euvolemic hyponatremia. On the basis of these results, supplementation with thyroid hormone and glucocorticoid was started, and the patient's serum sodium level was gradually corrected and maintained within the normal range. Here, we report this case of euvolemic hyponatremia caused by a Rathke cleft cyst.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2011.47.2.122
PMCID: PMC3214876  PMID: 22111072
Rathke cleft cyst; Hyponatremia; Panhypopituitarism
10.  Pleural Effusion in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2011;47(1):43-44.
A 34-year-old female presented with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated by peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) complained of a dry cough. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed massive right hydrothorax. Because the glucose concentration of pleural fluid was markedly high compared with that of serum, we performed isotope and contrast peritoneography. We used CT for localizing it. MRI was also trying to show transdiaphragmatic leakage in peritoneoflural fistula. Temporary discontinuation of CAPD, tetracycline instillation into the pleural space and surgical patch grafting of the diaphragmatic leak have all been described. A novel method may be video-assisted talc pleurodesis.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2011.47.1.43
PMCID: PMC3214860  PMID: 22111056
Pleural effusion; Dialysis; Kidney
11.  Changes in Endothelin Receptor Type B and Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase in Puromycin Aminonucleoside-Induced Nephrotic Syndrome 
The collecting duct endothelin (ET) system, which involves ET-1 and its two receptors, may play a role in the regulation of renal sodium in association with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system. We determined whether sodium retention is associated with changes in the endothelin and NOS systems at different stages (i.e., a sodium retaining stage and a compensatory stage) of nephrotic syndromes. On day 7 after puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) injection, urinary sodium excretion was decreased, ascites had developed, and there was a positive sodium balance. ET-1 mRNA expression was increased in the inner medulla of the kidney, whereas protein expression of ET receptor type B (ETBR) was unchanged. The expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) was decreased in the inner medulla. On day 14, urinary sodium excretion was unchanged compared with controls. The expression of ETBR increased, while nNOS expression in the inner medulla was comparable to controls. These findings suggest that decreased nNOS plays a role in the development of sodium retention in the nephrotic syndrome. Recovery of nNOS and increased renal ETBR synthesis may promote sodium excretion in later stages of the nephrotic syndrome (on day 14).
doi:10.4196/kjpp.2010.14.4.223
PMCID: PMC2933438  PMID: 20827336
Nephrotic syndrome; Endothelin receptor type B; Nitric oxide synthase; Puromycin aminonucleoside
12.  Impact of Renal Dysfunction on Clinical Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;50(4):537-545.
Purpose
The present study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes and to investigate prognostic factors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with renal dysfunction (RD).
Materials and Methods
The study was a retrospective cohort of 648 adult patients admitted with ACS between October 2005 and December 2006. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was classified into 4 levels: 1) normal, GFR greater than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2; 2) mild RD, GFR of 60 to 90 mL/min/1.73 m2; 3) moderate RD, GFR of 30 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; and 4) severe RD, GFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Primary end points were death and complication in hospital courses. Secondary end points were major adverse cardiac event (MACE) during follow-up.
Results
The median follow-up was 505 ± 183 days, the mean age was 63 ± 12 years, and 71.8 percent of the group were men. A graded association was observed between severity of RD and clinical outcomes. Severe RD independently predicted MACE [hazard ratio, 2.731; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.058 to 7.047, p = 0.038]. Low hemoglobin level was also an independent risk factor for MACE (hazard ratio, 1.155; 95% CI, 1.020 to 1.307, p = 0.022). Use of lipid-lowering therapy (hazard ratio, 0.456; 95% CI, 0.242 to 0.857, p = 0.015) was associated with reduced risk for MACE.
Conclusion
Severe RD and low hemoglobin level were an independent risk factors for the mortality and complications of ACS, while lipid-lowering therapy was associated with reduced risk.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2009.50.4.537
PMCID: PMC2730617  PMID: 19718403
Acute coronary syndrome; glomerular filtration rate; risk factors
13.  Changes of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide System in Rats with Puromycin Aminonucleoside-Induced Nephrotic Syndrome 
Sodium retention is a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome. We investigated whether sodium retention is associated with changes of natriuretic peptide system at different stages (i.e., a sodium retaining stage and a compensatory stage) of nephrotic syndrome. At day 7 after PAN (puromycin aminonucleoside) injection, the urinary excretion of sodium was decreased, along with the development of ascites and positive sodium balance. The plasma and urinary ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) immunoreactivities were increased. ANP mRNA expression was increased in the heart and kidney, whereas that of NPR (natriuretic peptide receptor)-A and NPR-C mRNA was decreased in the kidney. The expression of NEP was decreased in the kidney. At day 14, urinary excretion of sodium did not differ from the control. The plasma ANP level and heart ANP mRNA expression returned to their control values. The expression of ANP mRNA in the kidney was increased in association with increased urinary ANP immunoreactivities. The expression of NPR-A in the kidney became normal, whereas that of NPR-C kept decreased. The expression of NEP (neutral endopeptidase) remained decreased. These findings suggest that the increased renal ANP synthesis in association with decreased metabolism via NEP and NPR-C may play a compensatory role against the development of sodium retention in nephrotic syndrome. The decreased of NPR-A expression in the kidney may contribute to the ANP resistance at day 7. The subsequent recovery of NPR-A expression may play a role in promoting sodium excretion in later stage (at day 14).
doi:10.4196/kjpp.2009.13.1.1
PMCID: PMC2766717  PMID: 19885019
Nephrotic syndrome; Natriuretic peptide; Puromycin aminonucleoside
14.  Effects of Antioxidant Drugs in Rats with Acute Renal Injury 
Acute renal failure is mainly caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury or nephrotoxic drugs, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play an important role. Therefore, antioxidants are expected to decrease the vulnerability of renal injury associated with oxidative challenges. α-Lipoic acid (α-LA), potent antioxidant, could act as ROS scavengers, iron chelators and enzyme modulators. In rats with acute renal injury, dysregulation of aquaporin (AQP) water channels and sodium transporters has been noted. I/R injury or cisplatin induced marked down-regulation of AQP1, AQP2 and AQP3 water channels, and type-3 Na-H exchanger, Na,K-ATPase, and Na-K-2Cl cotransporters, in association with impairment of urinary concentration and tubular sodium reabsorption. Treatment with α-LA prevented the dysregulation of AQP channels and sodium transporters, along with improved urinary concentrating capability and renal sodium reabsorption.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2007.5.1.23
PMCID: PMC3894502  PMID: 24459496
Aquaporins; Reperfusion injury; Sodium transporters; Thioctic acid
15.  Hypernatemia : Successful Treatment 
Hypernatremia reflects a net water loss or a hypertonic sodium gain, with inevitable hyperosmolality. Severe symptoms are usually evident only with acute and large increases in plasma sodium concentrations to above 158-160 mmol/l. Importantly, the sensation of intense thirst that protects against severe hypernatremia in health may be absent or reduced in patients with altered mental status or with hypothalamic lesions affecting their sense of thirst and in infants and elderly people. Non-specific symptoms such as anorexia, muscle weakness, restlessness, nausea, and vomiting tend to occur early. More serious signs follow, with altered mental status, lethargy, irritability, stupor, and coma. Acute brain shrinkage can induce vascular rupture, with cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, in the vast majority of cases, the onset of hypertonicity is low enough to allow the brain to adapt and thereby to minimize cerebral dehydration. Organic osmolytes accumulated during the adaptation to hypernatremia are slow to leave the cell during rehydration. Therefore, if the hypernatremia is corrected too rapidly, cerebral edema results as the relatively more hypertonic ICF accumulates water. To be safe, the rate of correction should not exceed 12 mEq/liter/day.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2006.4.2.66
PMCID: PMC3894528  PMID: 24459489
Hypernatremia; Cell volume regulation; Diabetes insipidus
16.  Dysregulation of ENaC in Animal Models of Nephrotic Syndrome and Liver Cirrhosis 
Nephrotic syndrome and liver cirrhosis are common clinical manifestations, and are associated with avid sodium retention leading to the development of edema and ascites. However, the mechanism for the sodium retention is still incompletely understood and the molecular basis remains undefined. We examined the changes of sodium (co)transporters and epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in the kidneys of experimental nephrotic syndrome and liver cirrhosis. The results demonstrated that puromycin- or HgCl2-induced nephrotic syndrome was associated with 1) sodium retention, decreased urinary sodium excretion, development of ascites, and increased plasma aldosterone level; 2) increased apical targeting of ENaC subunits in connecting tubule and collecting duct segments; and 3) decreased protein abundance of type 2 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD2). Experimental liver cirrhosis was induced in rats by CCl4 treatment or common bile duct ligation. An increased apical targeting of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits in connecting tubule, and cortical and medullary collecting duct segments in sodium retaining phase of liver cirhosis but not in escape phase of sodium retention. Immunolabeling intensity of 11βHSD2 in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct was significantly reduced in sodium retaining phase of liver cirrhosis, and this was confirmed by immunoblotting. These observations therefore strongly support the view that the renal sodium retention associated with nephrotic syndrome and liver cirrhosis is caused by increased sodium reabsorption in the aldosterone sensitive distal nephron including the connecting tubule and collecting duct, and increased apical targeting of ENaC subunits plays a role in the development of sodium retention in nephrotic syndrome and liver cirrhosis.
doi:10.5049/EBP.2006.4.1.23
PMCID: PMC3894541  PMID: 24459482
Edema; Sodium retention; Epithelial sodium channel; Aldosterone sensitive distal nephron
17.  Concomitant Impact of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;55(1):132-140.
Purpose
The present study aimed to investigate the impact of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and renal dysfunction on clinical outcomes in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.
Materials and Methods
The study involved a retrospective cohort of 8332 patients admitted with AMI. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and hs-CRP: group I, no renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2) with low hs-CRP (≤2.0 mg/dL); group II, no renal dysfunction with high hs-CRP; group III, renal dysfunction with low hs-CRP; and group IV, renal dysfunction with high hs-CRP. We compared major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a 1-year follow-up period.
Results
The 4 groups demonstrated a graded association with increased MACE rates (group I, 8.8%; group II, 13.8%; group III, 18.6%; group IV, 30.1%; p<0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, mortality at 12 months increased in groups II, III, and IV compared with group I [hazard ratio (HR) 2.038, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.450-2.863, p<0.001; HR 3.003, 95% CI 2.269-3.974, p<0.001; HR 5.087, 95% CI 3.755-6.891, p<0.001].
Conclusion
High hs-CRP, especially in association with renal dysfunction, is related to the occurrence of composite MACE, and indicates poor prognosis in AMI patients.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.1.132
PMCID: PMC3874927  PMID: 24339298
C-reactive protein; glomerular filtration rate; myocardial infarction
18.  Incidence, Predictive Factors, and Clinical Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury after Gastric Surgery for Gastric Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82289.
Background
Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), a serious surgical complication, is common after cardiac surgery; however, reports on AKI after noncardiac surgery are limited. We sought to determine the incidence and predictive factors of AKI after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and its effects on the clinical outcomes.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study of 4718 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2011. Postoperative AKI was defined by serum creatinine change, as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline.
Results
Of the 4718 patients, 679 (14.4%) developed AKI. Length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rates, and in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% versus 0.2%) were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without. AKI was also associated with requirement of renal replacement therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender; hypertension; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; hypoalbuminemia (<4 g/dl); use of diuretics, vasopressors, and contrast agents; and packed red blood cell transfusion were independent predictors for AKI after gastric surgery. Postoperative AKI and vasopressor use entailed a high risk of 3-month mortality after multiple adjustments.
Conclusions
AKI was common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. We identified several factors associated with postoperative AKI; recognition of these predictive factors may help reduce the incidence of AKI after gastric surgery. Furthermore, postoperative AKI in patients with gastric cancer is an important risk factor for short-term mortality.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082289
PMCID: PMC3857284  PMID: 24349249
19.  Correction: Paricalcitol Attenuates 4-Hydroxy-2-Hexenal-Induced Inflammation and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):10.1371/annotation/ae0a1951-1b75-4a4f-865b-86acc4351139.
doi:10.1371/annotation/ae0a1951-1b75-4a4f-865b-86acc4351139
PMCID: PMC3806936  PMID: 24204479
20.  Antiapoptotic Effect of Paricalcitol in Gentamicin-induced Kidney Injury 
While the anti-apoptotic effect of paricalcitol has been demonstrated in various animal models, it is not yet clear whether paricalcitol attenuates the apoptosis in gentamicin (GM)-induced kidney injury. We investigated the effect of paricalcitol on apoptotic pathways in rat kidneys damaged by GM. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1) Control group (n=8), where only vehicle was delivered, 2) GM group (n=10), where rats were treated with GM (150 mg/kg/day) for 7 days, 3) PARI group (n=10), where rats were co-treated with paricalcitol (0.2 µg/kg/day) and GM for 7 days. Paricalcitol attenuated renal dysfunction by GM administration in biochemical profiles. In terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining, increased apoptosis was observed in GM group, which was reversed by paricalcitol co-treatment. Immunoblotting using protein samples from rat cortex/outer stripe of outer medulla showed increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved form of caspase-3 in GM group, both of which were reversed by paricalcitol. The phosphorylated Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression was increase in GM, which was counteracted by paricalcitol. The protein expression of p-Akt and nitro-tyrosine was also enhanced in GM-treated rats compared with control rats, which was reversed by paricalcitol co-treatment. Paricalcitol protects GM-induced renal injury by antiapoptotic mechanisms, including inhibition of intrinsic apoptosis pathway and JNK.
doi:10.4196/kjpp.2013.17.5.435
PMCID: PMC3823957  PMID: 24227945
Apoptosis; Gentamicin; Kidney; Paricalcitol
21.  Clinical Impact of Hospital-Acquired Anemia in Association with Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75583.
Background
Hospital-acquired anemia (HAA) is common in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is an independent indicator of long-term mortality in these patients. However, limited information exists regarding the development and prognostic impact of HAA associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in AMI patients.
Methods and Results
We retrospectively analyzed 2,289 patients with AMI, and excluded those with anemia at admission. The study population included 1,368 patients, of whom 800 (58.5%) developed HAA. Age, Hgb level at admission, Length of hospital stay, documented in-hospital bleeding and use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, presence of CKD and occurrence of AKI were significantly associated with the development of HAA. HAA was significantly associated with higher 3-year mortality (4.8% and 11.4% for non-HAA and HAA patients, respectively; P < 0.001). After adjustment for multivariable confounders, the risk for long-term mortality was increased in HAA patients with AKI and/or CKD but not in HAA patients without AKI and/or CKD, compared to non-HAA patients (HAA patients without AKI and CKD, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–2.56; HAA patients with either AKI or CKD, HR: 2.80, 95% CI: 1.37–5.73; HAA patients with AKI and CKD, HR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.28–8.24; compared with the non-HAA group).
Conclusion
AKI and CKD were strongly associated with the development of HAA in AMI patients. HAA, when accompanied by AKI or CKD, is an independent risk predictor for long-term mortality in AMI patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075583
PMCID: PMC3782440  PMID: 24086579
22.  Proteinuria as a Risk Factor for Mortality in Patients with Colorectal Cancer 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(5):1194-1201.
Purpose
We investigated the effects of proteinuria and renal insufficiency on all-cause mortality in patients with colorectal cancer, with special emphasis on cancer staging and cancer-related deaths.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. In protocol 1, patients were classified into four groups based on the operability of cancer and proteinuria: group 1, early-stage cancer patients (colorectal cancer stage ≤3) without proteinuria; group 2, early-stage cancer patients with proteinuria; group 3, advanced-stage cancer patients without proteinuria (colorectal cancer stage=4); and group 4, advanced-stage cancer patients with proteinuria. In protocol 2, patients were classified into four similar groups based on cancer staging and renal insufficiency (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2009, 3379 patients were enrolled in this cohort and followed until May 1, 2012 or until death.
Results
The number of patients with proteinuria was 495 (14.6%). The prevalence of proteinuria was higher in advanced-stage cancer (n=151, 22.3%) than in early-stage cancer patients (n=344, 12.7%). After adjusting for age, gender and other clinical variables, the proteinuric, early-stage cancer group was shown to be associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.67 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.38-2.01, compared with non-proteinuric early-stage cancer patients. However, renal insufficiency was not associated with colorectal cancer mortality.
Conclusion
Proteinuria is an important risk factor for cancer mortality, especially in relatively early colorectal cancer.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.5.1194
PMCID: PMC3743186  PMID: 23918569
Cancer; death; proteinuria; GFR; stage
23.  Gross Hematuria Associated with Genitourinary Tuberculosis 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):48-49.
A 27-year-old man presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of massive gross hematuria and urinary retention. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging showed uneven, dilated calices and a narrowing of the renal pelvis in the left kidney; in addition, a large hematoma was noted in the urinary bladder. An emergency cystoscopy was performed following detection of the hematoma and blood clots were removed. A lesional biopsy, a tuberculosis (TB) culture, and urine cytology showed positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The clinical manifestations of genitourinary tuberculosis are nonspecific and are usually detected at a chronic stage. In conclusion, we report an unusual cause of acute kidney injury associated with a subacute stage of genitourinary tuberculosis that caused mucosal erosion and bleeding in the bladder.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.48
PMCID: PMC3651987  PMID: 23678478
Tuberculosis; Acute kidney injury; Hematuria
24.  Rapid Decrease of Intact Parathyroid Hormone Could Be a Predictor of Better Response to Cinacalcet in Hemodialysis Patients 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(2):453-463.
Purpose
Cinacalcet is effective for treating refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), but little is known about the response rates and clinical factors influencing the response.
Materials and Methods
A prospective, single-arm, multi-center study was performed for 24 weeks. Cinacalcet was administered to patients with intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level greater than 300 pg/mL. Cinacalcet was started at a dose of 25 mg daily and titrated until 100 mg to achieve a serum iPTH level <300 pg/mL (primary end point). Early response to cinacalcet was defined as a decrease of iPTH more than 50% within one month.
Results
Fifty-seven patients were examined. Based on the magnitude of iPTH decrease, patients were divided into responder (n=47, 82.5%) and non-responder (n=10, 17.5%) groups. Among the responders, 38 achieved the primary end point, whereas 9 patients showed a reduction in serum iPTH of 30% or more, but did not reach the primary end point. Compared to non-responders, responders were significantly older (p=0.026), female (p=0.041), and diabetics (p<0.001). Additionally, early response was observed more frequently in the responders (30/47, 63.8%), of whom the majority (27/30, 90.0%) achieved the primary end point. Multivariate analysis showed that lower baseline iPTH levels [odds ratio (OR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-0.99], the presence of diabetes (OR 46.45, CI 1.92-1125.6) and early response (OR 21.54, CI 2.94-157.7) were significant clinical factors affecting achievement of iPTH target.
Conclusion
Cinacalcet was effective in most hemodialysis patients with refractory SHPT. The presence of an early response was closely associated with the achievement of target levels of iPTH.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.2.453
PMCID: PMC3575968  PMID: 23364981
Cinacalcet; end-stage renal disease; hemodialysis; parathyroid hormone; secondary hyperparathyroidism
25.  EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a patient with primary Sjögren’s syndrome and membranous glomerulonephritis 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:149.
Background
Sjögren’s syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease in which lymphatic cells destroy the salivary and lacrimal glands. Glomerulonephritis is thought to be a rare occurrence in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Furthermore, concurrent glomerular involvement and lymphoma in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome has seldom been reported.
Case presentation
A 52-year-old woman with primary Sjögren’s syndrome developed membranous glomerulonephritis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). She was diagnosed with Sjögren’s syndrome based on the dry eyes, dry mouth, positive anti-nuclear antibody test, anti-Ro (SS-A) antibody, salivary gland biopsy, and salivary scintigraphy. Moreover, renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of membranous glomerulonephritis. Three months later, her small bowel was perforated with pneumoperitoneum, and the biopsy revealed Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL.
Conclusions
We observed the first case of primary Sjögren’s syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr Virus-positive DLBCL and membranous glomerulonephritis. Because of the possibility of malignancy-associated membranous glomerulonephritis in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome, we should be careful and examine such patients for hidden malignancy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-149
PMCID: PMC3519503  PMID: 23151312
Primary Sjögren’s syndrome; Membranous glomerulonephritis; EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

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