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2.  Does PFNA II Avoid Lateral Cortex Impingement for Unstable Peritrochanteric Fractures? 
Background
Proximal femoral nail antirotation devices (PFNAs) are considered biomechanically superior to dynamic hip screws for treating unstable peritrochanteric fractures and reportedly have a lower complication rate. The PFNA II was introduced to eliminate lateral cortex impingement encountered with the PFNA. However, it is unclear whether the new design in fact avoids lateral cortex impingement without compromising stability of fixation and fracture healing.
Questions/Purposes
We therefore asked whether the PFNA II: (1) eliminates the lateral cortex impingement and fracture displacement experienced with PFNA; and (2) provides stable fracture fixation with a low major complication rate for unstable fractures in European patients.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients with an unstable peritrochanteric fracture, 58 treated with PFNA and 50 with PFNA II. We compared nail positioning, major and minor complication rates, operative and fluoroscopy time, blood transfused, time to mobilization, hospital stay, fracture union, and Harris hip score. The minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 13 months; range, 12–18 months).
Results
In the PFNA II group we encountered no impingement on the lateral cortex and no patients with lateral fragment or loss of reduction at insertion, whereas with the PFNA group, we had 10 and five cases, respectively. Fracture union occurred in all patients treated with PFNA II without mechanical failures. PFNA II cases were associated with a slightly shorter surgical time than PFNA cases (23 minutes versus 27 minutes, respectively).
Conclusion
PFNA II avoided lateral cortex impingement experienced with PFNA, providing fast and stable fixation of the unstable peritrochanteric fractures.
Level of Evidence
Level III, retrospective comparative study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2445-x
PMCID: PMC3462868  PMID: 22760601
3.  Analysis of kidney dysfunction in orthopaedic patients 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:101.
Backround
This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence of kidney dysfunction (KD) and to identify potential risk factors contributing to development of KD in orthopaedic population following an elective or emergency surgery.
Methods
A total of 1025 patients were admitted in our institution over a period of one year with various indications. Eight hundred and ninety-three patients (87.1%) had a surgical procedure. There were 42 (52.5%) male and 38 (47.5%) female with a mean age of 72 years (range: 47 to 87 years). We evaluated the following potential risk factors: age, comorbidities, shock, hypotension, heart failure, medications (antibiotics, NSAIDs, opiates), rhabdomyolysis, imaging contrast agents and pre-existing KD.
Results
The overall incidence of KD was 8.9%. Sixty-eight patients developed acute renal injury (AKI) and 12 patients developed acute on chronic kidney disease (CKD). In sixty-six (82.5%) patients renal function was reversed to initial preoperative status. Perioperative dehydration (p = 0.002), history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.003), pre-existing KD (p = 0.004), perioperative shock (p = 0.021) and administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p = 0.028) or nephrotoxic antibiotics (p = 0.037) were statistically significantly correlated with the development of postoperative KD and failure to gain the preoperative renal function.
Conclusion
We conclude that every patient with risk factor for postoperative KD should be under closed evaluation and monitoring.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-101
PMCID: PMC3483193  PMID: 22943390
Kidney dysfunction (KD); Orthopaedic population; Surgical procedure
4.  Posterior Instrumentation for Occipitocervical Fusion 
Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability.
doi:10.2174/1874325001105010209
PMCID: PMC3139273  PMID: 21772931
Occipitocervical fusion; craniocervical instability; spine; reconstruction; posterior procedures.
5.  Treatment of Unstable Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures by Indirect Reduction and Posterior Stabilization: Short-Segment Versus Long-Segment Stabilization 
In order to compare short-segment stabilization with long-segment stabilization for treating unstable thoracolumbar fractures, we studied fifty patients suffered from unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures. Thirty of them were managed with long-segment posterior transpedicular instrumentation and twenty patients with short-segment stabilization. The mean follow up period was 5.2 years. Pre-operative and post-operative radiological parameters, like the Cobb angle, the kyphotic deformation and the Beck index were evaluated. A statistically significant difference between the two under study groups was noted for the Cobb angle and the kyphotic deformation, while, as far as the Beck index is concerned, no significant difference was noted. In conclusion, either the long-segment or the short-segment stabilization is able for reducing the segmental kyphosis and the vertebral body deformation postoperatively. However, as time goes by, the long-segment stabilization is associated with better results as far as the radiological parameters, the indexes and the patient’s satisfaction are concerned.
doi:10.2174/1874325001004010007
PMCID: PMC2822149  PMID: 20177428
Transpedicular instrumentation; short-segment; long-segment; radiological parameters; spine.
6.  Surgical outcome after spinal fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis 
Background
Ankylosing spondylitis is a rheumatic disease in which spinal and sacroiliac joints are mainly affected. There is a gradual bone formation in the spinal ligaments and ankylosis of the spinal diarthroses which lead to stiffness of the spine.
The diffuse paraspinal ossification and inflammatory osteitis of advanced Ankylosing spondylitis creates a fused, brittle spine that is susceptible to fracture. The aim of this study is to present the surgical experience of spinal fractures occurring in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis and to highlight the difficulties that exist as far as both diagnosis and surgical management are concerned.
Methods
Twenty patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis were operated due to a spinal fracture. The fracture was located at the cervical spine in 7 cases, at the thoracic spine in 9, at the thoracolumbar junction in 3 and at the lumbar spine in one case. Neurological defects were revealed in 10 patients. In four of them, neurological signs were progressively developed after a time period of 4 to 15 days. The initial radiological study was negative for a spinal fracture in twelve patients. Every patient was assessed at the time of admission and daily until the day of surgery, then postoperatively upon discharge.
Results
Combined anterior and posterior approaches were performed in three patients with only posterior approaches performed on the rest. Spinal fusion was seen in 100% of the cases. No intra-operative complications occurred. There was one case in which superficial wound inflammation occurred. Loosening of posterior screws without loss of stability appeared in two patients with cervical injuries.
Frankel neurological classification was used in order to evaluate the neurological status of the patients. There was statistically significant improvement of Frankel neurological classification between the preoperative and postoperative evaluation. 35% of patients showed improvement due to the operation performed.
Conclusion
The operative treatment of these injuries is useful and effective. It usually succeeds the improvement of the patients' neurological status. Taking into consideration the cardiovascular problems that these patients have, anterior and posterior stabilization aren't always possible. In these cases, posterior approach can be performed and give excellent results, while total operation time, blood loss and other possible complications are decreased.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-10-96
PMCID: PMC2745354  PMID: 19646282
7.  Cauda equina compression in an achondroplastic dwarf. Is complex anterior and posterior surgical intervention necessary? 
Scoliosis  2008;3:18.
We report the case of an achondroplastic dwarf who presented with partial paraplegia due to cauda equina compression. The patient had marked thoracolumbar kyphosis and spinal stenosis at L2–L3. Although only posterior decompression is recommended in the literature for the treatment of achondroplastic patients presenting with neurological problems, a staged anterior and posterior decompression and stabilization was considered necessary for the treatment of this particular patient due to the presence of kyphosis. Satisfactory clinical results were achieved and sustained for six years following this complex operation.
doi:10.1186/1748-7161-3-18
PMCID: PMC2621120  PMID: 19055836

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