Coronary collateral circulation plays an important role in protecting myocardium from ischemia and reducing cardiovascular events. Low High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is a strong risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. It was recently reported to be associated with poor coronary collateral development in Turkish population. Hence, we investigated the influence of HDL-C on coronary collateral formation in Chinese population.
We evaluated 970 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography, and 501 patients with significant coronary artery disease (SCAD) were finally analyzed. The collateral scoring system developed by Rentrop was used to classify patient groups as those with poor or good collaterals.
The patients with poor collaterals had fewer diseased vessels (1.97 ± 0.84 vs 2.47 ± 0.68, p < 0.001) and lower diffuse score (2.65 ± 1.63 vs 3.76 ± 1.78, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in HDL-C and other variables between good and poor collaterals. Multivariate analysis showed only number of diseased vessels (odd ratio 0.411, p < 0.001) was a significant predictor of poor collateral development.
The extent of CAD severity but not HDL-C level was the most powerful predictor of coronary collateral formation in our Chinese population with SCAD.
Coronary artery disease; Coronary collateral circulation; High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Atherosclerosis shares common pathogenic features with myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke. BRCA-1 associated protein (BRAP), a newly identified risk gene for MI, aggravates the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to test the association between the BRAP gene and stroke in a Taiwanese population.
A total of 1,074 stroke patients and 1,936 controls were genotyped for the functional SNP rs11066001. In our previous studies, the rare allele of this SNP has been repeatedly shown to exert a recessive effect. Therefore, in the current study, we tested for the same recessive model. First, the genotype distributions between all the controls and all the stroke cases were compared. Then to reduce heterogeneity, we explored several population subsets by selecting young stroke subjects (using 45 years of age as the cutoff point), age- and sex-comparable controls, plaque-free controls, and stroke subtypes.
We did not find any significant association for the entire data set (OR = 0.94, p = 0.74) or for the subset analyses using age- and sex-comparable controls (p = 0.70) and plaque-free controls (p = 0.91). Analyses of the four stroke subtypes also failed to show any significant associations (p = 0.42 – 0.98). For both young and old subjects, the GG genotype of rs11066001 was similar in the stroke cases and unmatched controls (8.1% vs. 9.4% in young subjects and 8.0% vs. 7.8% in old subjects). Comparing stroke cases with plaque-free controls also failed to find any significant association.
The BRAP polymorphism may not play an important role in ischemic stroke in the studied population.
BRAP; Polymorphism; Cerebral infarction; Myocardial infarction; Young stroke
Coronary collateral circulation plays an important role to protect myocardium from ischemia, preserve myocardial contractility and reduce cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poor coronary collateral development and cardiovascular outcome. However, limited research investigates the predictors for collateral development in the CKD population.
We evaluated 970 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography and 202 patients with CKD, defined as a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, were finally analyzed. The collateral scoring system developed by Rentrop was used to classify patients into poor (grades 0 and 1) or good (grades 2 and 3) collateral group.
The patients with poor collateral (n = 122) had a higher incidence of hypertension (82% vs 63.8%, p = 0.005), fewer diseased vessels numbers (2.1 ± 0.9 vs 2.6 ± 0.6, p < 0.001) and a trend to be diabetic (56.6% vs. 43.8%, p = 0.085) or female sex (37.7% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.067). Multivariate analysis showed hypertension (odd ratio (OR) 2.672, p = 0.006), diabetes (OR 1.956, p = 0.039) and diseased vessels numbers (OR 0.402, p < 0.001) were significant predictors of poor coronary collaterals development. Furthermore, hypertension and diabetes have a negative synergistic effect on collateral development (p = 0.004 for interaction).
In the CKD population hypertension and diabetes might negatively influence the coronary collaterals development.
Chronic kidney disease; Coronary artery disease; Coronary collateral circulation, Hypertension, Diabetes
Genomewide scans of bipolar disorder (BP) have not produced consistent linkage findings. Follow-up studies using enlarged samples and enhanced marker density can bolster or refute claims of linkage and pave the way to gene discovery. We conducted linkage and association analyses, using a ~3-cM density map of 10 candidate regions, in a large BP pedigree sample (865 individuals from 56 pedigrees). The candidate regions were identified in a previous 10-cM genome-wide scan using a subset of this sample (373 individuals from 40 pedigrees). The present sample consists of the expanded original pedigrees (‘core’ pedigrees) and 16 additional pedigrees. We obtained experiment-wide significant linkage on chromosome 7q34 (LOD score 3.53, p<0.001), substantially stronger than that observed in the genome-wide scan. Support for linkage was sustained on chromosomes 2p13, 4q31, 8q13, 13q32, 14q21 and 17q11, though at a more modest level. Family-based association analysis was consistent with the linkage results at all regions with linkage evidence, except 4q an 8q, but the results fell short of statistical significance. Three of the previously implicated regions – 9q31, 10q21 and 10q24 – showed substantial reduction in evidence of linkage. Our results strongly support 7q34 as a region harboring susceptibility locus for BP. Somewhat lesser, yet notable support was obtained for 2p13, 4q31, 8q13, 13q32, 14q21 and 17q11. These regions could be considered prime candidates for future gene finding efforts.
bipolar; linkage; genome scan; follow-up
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
The genetic influence on carotid atherosclerotic plaque is mostly unknown. This study examines the association between carotid plaque and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected genes implicated in inflammation and endothelial function.
A total of 43 genes (197 SNPs) involved in inflammation and endothelial function were interrogated in 287 Dominicans from the Northern Manhattan Study (mean age 64±7 years, 58% women) who had undergone high-resolution B-mode ultrasound for examination of carotid plaque. Using an additive genetic model, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted, a within gene haplotype analysis was performed and interactions between genes were examined. Results were validated in an independent set of 301 Dominicans.
Carotid plaque was present in 143(47%) participants. Nine genes had at least one SNP associated (p≤0.01) with carotid plaque phenotypes: TNF, NOS2A, IL6R, TNFSF4, PPARA, IL1A, TLR4, ITGA2, HABP2. SNPs in TNFSF4, PPARA, TLR4, ITGA2, and HABP2 were also implicated with the same carotid phenotype in the validation analysis. Haplotype analysis revealed an additional gene of interest, VCAM1.
We report novel associations between variations in ten genes involved in inflammation and endothelial function and carotid plaque phenotypes in a Dominican sample, with replication for five genes in an independent Dominican sample.
candidate gene; single nucleotide polymorphisms; carotid plaque; inflammation; Caribbean Hispanic
Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) has been implied in the development of myopia according to previous studies investigating FGF2 in the sclera and retinal pigment epithelium. This study measured retinal FGF2 gene expression in an animal model and also tested for the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FGF2 and high myopia.
The guinea pigs were assigned to 2 groups: form deprivation myopia (FDM) for two weeks and normal control (free of form deprivation). Biometric measurement was performed and FGF2 expression levels were compared among the FDM eyes, the fellow eyes of the FDM group and the normal eyes in retina. We also enrolled 1,064 cases (≤-6.0 D) and 1,001 controls (≥-1.5 D) from a Chinese population residing in Taiwan. Six tagging SNPs were genotyped to test for an association between genotypes and high myopia.
The FDM eyes had the most prominent changes of refraction and axial length. Compared with the mRNA levels of FGF2 in the normal eyes, the FDM eyes had the highest levels of mRNA (p=0.0004) followed by the fellow eyes (p=0.002). The FDM and normal eyes became more myopic compared with the fellow eyes, but the fellow eyes became more hyperopic (p=0.004) in the end of the experiment which may be due to its relatively short axial length when compared with normal eyes (p=0.05). The SNP genotypes were all in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. However, none of the SNPs were significantly associated with high myopia (all p values >0.1).
We identified a significant change of FGF2 expression in the FDM eyes but FGF2 genetic variants are unlikely to influence susceptibility to myopia. There may be a systemic effect to influence gene expression and refraction on the fellow eyes, which may perturb emmetropization in the fellow eyes. Our data also suggest using normal eyes rather than the fellow eyes as the control eyes when study the form deprivation myopia.
The BRCA-1 associated protein gene (BRAP) was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study we aimed to decipher the association between the BRAP polymorphism and carotid atherosclerosis and the mechanism underlying its proatherogenic effect. A total of 1749 stroke/MI-free volunteers received carotid ultrasonic examinations for the measurement of intima-medial thickness (IMT) and plaque. The promoter polymorphism rs11066001 was selected because it affects the transcription of BRAP. We found that the GG genotype was associated with a 1.58-fold increased risk for having at least one plaque compared to carrying the A allele (P = 0.021). When subjects were divided by the cutoff value of IMT above the mean plus 1 standard deviation, there was an overrepresentation of the GG genotype in the subjects with thicker IMT (P = 0.004). The expression of BRAP increased significantly when human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). HASMCs were transfected with small interfering RNA against BRAP or scrambled sequences before treatment with LPS. Knockdown of BRAP led to attenuated HASMC proliferation and reduced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in response to LPS. Downregulation of BRAP did not affect the protein levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), but prohibited its nuclear translocation. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed an interaction between BRAP and the two major components of the IKK signalosome, IκBβ and IKKβ. Collectively, BRAP conferred a risk for carotid plaque and IMT. Inflammatory stimuli upregulated BRAP expression, and BRAP activated inflammatory cascades by regulating NF-κB nuclear translocation.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, spine and peripheral joints. The aetiology of ankylosing spondylitis is still unclear. Previous studies have indicated that genetics factors such as human leukocyte antigen HLA-B27 associates to AS susceptibility. We carried out a case-control study to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of ORAI1 gene, a major component of store-operated calcium channels that involved the regulation of immune system, is a susceptibility factor to AS in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 361 AS patients fulfilled the modified New York criteria and 379 controls from community. Five tagging single nucleotides polymorphisms (tSNPs) at ORAI1 were selected from the data of Han Chinese population in HapMap project. Clinical statuses of AS were assessed by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Index (BAS-G). Our results indicated that subjects carrying the minor allele homozygote (CC) of the promoter SNP rs12313273 or TT homozygote of the SNP rs7135617 had an increased risk of HLA-B27 positive AS. The minor allele C of 3′UTR SNP rs712853 exerted a protective effect to HLA-B27 positive AS. Furthermore, the rs12313273/rs7135617 pairwise allele analysis found that C-G (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.27, 2.25; p = 0.0003) and T-T (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.36, 2.27; p<0.0001) haplotypes had a significantly association with the risk of HLA-B27-positive AS in comparison with the T-G carriers. This is the first study that indicate haplotypes of ORAI1 (rs12313273 and rs7135617) are associated with the risk of HLA-B27 positive AS.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized by systemic vasculitis with unknown etiology. Previous studies from Japan indicated that a gene polymorphism of ITPKC (rs28493229) is responsible for susceptibility to KD. We collected DNA samples from 1,531 Taiwanese subjects (341 KD patients and 1,190 controls) for genotyping ITPKC. In this study, no significant association was noted for the ITPKC polymorphism (rs28493229) between the controls and KD patients, although the CC genotype was overrepresented. We further combined our data with previously published case/control KD studies in the Taiwanese population and performed a meta-analysis. A significant association between rs28493229 and KD was found (Odds Ratio:1.36, 95% Confidence Interval 1.12–1.66). Importantly, a significant association was obtained between rs28493229 and KD patients with aneurysm formation (P = 0.001, under the recessive model). Taken together, our results indicated that C-allele of ITPKC SNP rs28493229 is associated with the susceptibility and aneurysm formation in KD patients in a Taiwanese population.
Chromosome 9p21 has recently been shown to be a risk region for a broad range of vascular diseases. Since carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque are independent predictors for vascular diseases, the association between 9p21 and these two phenotypes was investigated.
Carotid segment-specific IMT and plaques were obtained in 1083 stroke- and myocardial infarction-free volunteers. We tested the genotypes and haplotypes of key single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 9p21 for the associations with carotid IMT and plaque. Multivariate permutation analyses demonstrated that carriers of the T allele of SNP rs1333040 were significantly associated with thicker common carotid artery (CCA) IMT (p = 0.021) and internal carotid artery (ICA) IMT (p = 0.033). The risk G allele of SNP rs2383207 was associated with ICA IMT (p = 0.007). Carriers of the C allele of SNP rs1333049 were found to be significantly associated with thicker ICA IMT (p = 0.010) and the greater risk for the presence of carotid plaque (OR = 1.57 for heterozygous carriers; OR = 1.75 for homozygous carriers). Haplotype analysis showed a global p value of 0.031 for ICA IMT and 0.115 for the presence of carotid plaque. Comparing with the other haplotypes, the risk TGC haplotype yielded an adjusted p value of 0.011 and 0.017 for thicker ICA IMT and the presence of carotid plaque respectively. Further analyzing the data separated by sex, the results were significant only in men but not in women.
Chromosome 9p21 had a significant association with carotid atherosclerosis, especially ICA IMT. Furthermore, such genetic effect was in a gender-specific manner in the Han Chinese population.
Background and Purpose
The aim was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) a risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular disease.
Probands were selected from Caribbean Hispanic subjects of the population-based Northern Manhattan Study. CIMT was measured by high resolution B-mode ultrasound and expressed as the mean (IMTx) and mean of the maximum (IMTm). Variance components methodology was used to detect linkage using SOLAR and calculate locus-specific heritability. Ordered-subset Analysis was done based on history of hypertension and total cholesterol levels.
Among 100 Dominican families, 1390 subjects had CIMT measured (848 females; mean age 46.2 years). CIMT had a heritability of 0.65 after adjusting for age, ageˆ2, sex, cigarette pack-years, waist hip ratio, and BMI. Adjusted maximum multipoint LOD scores > 2 were found on chromosomes 14q (D14S606) and 7p (D7S817). Linkage to chromosome 14q was significantly increased in a subset of families with the greatest history of hypertension (MLOD=4.12). The QTL on Ch14q accounted for 0.21 of the heritability of IMTm, and on Ch7p 0.27 of the heritability of BIFm.
Several QTLs for CIMT were found on chromosomes 7p and 14q. The QTL on 14q replicates a suggestive linkage peak delimited in the Framingham Heart Study. These QTLs accounted for a substantial amount of trait heritability and warrant further fine mapping.
Carotid Disease; Genetics; Linkage; Quantitative Traits; Risk Factors
The phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene was reported as a susceptibility gene to stroke. The genetic effect might be attributed to its role in modulating the atherogenic process in the carotid arteries. Using carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque index as phenotypes, the present study sought to determine the influence of this gene on subclinical atherosclerosis.
Carotid ultrasonography was performed on 1013 stroke-free subjects who participated in the health screening programs (age 52.6 ± 12.2; 47.6% men). Genotype distribution was compared among the high-risk (plaque index ≥ 4), low-risk (index = 1-3), and reference (index = 0) groups. We analyzed continuous IMT data and further dichotomized IMT data using mean plus one standard deviation as the cutoff level. Because the plaque prevalence and IMT values displayed a notable difference between men and women, we carried out sex-specific analyses in addition to analyzing the overall data. Rs702553 at the PDE4D gene was selected because it conferred a risk for young stroke in our previous report. Previous young stroke data (190 cases and 211 controls) with an additional 532 control subjects without ultrasonic data were shown as a cross-validation for the genetic effect.
In the overall analyses, the rare homozygote of rs702553 led to an OR of 3.1 (p = 0.034) for a plaque index ≥ 4. When subjects were stratified by sex, the genetic effect was only evident in men but not in women. Comparing male subjects with plaque index ≥ 4 and those with plaque index = 0, the TT genotype was over-represented (27.6% vs. 13.4%, p = 0.008). For dichotomized IMT data in men, the TT genotype had an OR of 2.1 (p = 0.032) for a thicker IMT at the common carotid artery compared with the (AA + AT) genotypes. In women, neither IMT nor plaque index was associated with rs702553. Similarly, SNP rs702553 was only significant in young stroke men (OR = 1.8, p = 0.025) but not in women (p = 0.27).
The present study demonstrates a sex-differential effect of PDE4D on IMT, plaque index and stroke, which highlights its influence on various aspects of atherogenesis.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) is involved in the upper airway remodeling process. We hypothesized that genetic variants of the MMP-9 gene are associated with cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis.
We conducted a case-control study where 203 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and 730 controls were enrolled. Three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one promoter functional SNP rs3918242 were selected. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested for each SNP, and genetic effects were evaluated according to three inheritance modes. Haplotype analysis was also performed. Permutation was used to adjust for multiple testing.
All four SNPs were in HWE. The T allele of promoter SNP rs3918242 was associated with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis under the dominant (nominal p = 0.023, empirical p = 0.022, OR = 1.62) and additive models (nominal p= 0.012, empirical p = 0.011, OR = 1.60). The A allele of rs2274756 has a nominal p value of 0.034 under the dominant model and 0.020 under the additive model. Haplotype analysis including the four SNPs showed a global p value of 0.015 and the most significant haplotype had a p value of 0.0045. We did not see any SNP that was more significant in the recurrent cases.
We concluded that MMP-9 gene polymorphisms may influence susceptibility to the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis in Chinese population.
Background and Purpose
Atherosclerosis is a complex disorder with hereditary and environmental causes. Carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (IMT) is a useful measure of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine the association between carotid IMT and functional promoter variants of stromelysin-1 (MMP3: −1612 5A>6A), interleukin-6 (IL6: −174G>C), and hepatic lipase (HL: −480C>T) genes.
B-mode carotid ultrasound was performed among 87 subjects (mean age, 70 ± 12 years; 55% women; 60% Caribbean-Hispanic, 25% black, and 13% white) from the Northern Manhattan Prospective Cohort Study. Carotid IMT was calculated as a composite measure (mean of the maximum IMT in the bifurcation, the common carotid artery, and the internal carotid artery).
For all polymorphisms, genotype distribution was not significantly different from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequencies of the rare alleles were as follows: MMP3 −1612 5A>6A, 0.31 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.39); IL6 −174 G>C, 0.20 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.25); and HL −480 C>T, 0.45 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.50). Carotid IMT in the sample was 0.78±0.18 mm. Subjects with the MMP3 genotype 6A6A had 8% greater mean carotid IMT than the other MMP3 genotypes combined (0.95±0.17 versus 0.87±0.15 mm; P=0.04). Subjects with the IL6 genotype GG had 11% greater IMT (0.85±0.17 versus 0.76±0.16 mm; P=0.03), and those with the HL genotype CC had 13% greater IMT (0.87±20 versus 0.76±0.18 mm; P=0.02) than the other genotypes combined. Adjustment for other risk factors did not change these associations.
Carotid IMT is higher among subjects homozygous for functional variants in genes related to matrix deposition (MMP3 −16126A), inflammation (IL6 −174G), and lipid metabolism (HL −480C). These associations were independent of race-ethnicity and some environmental exposures. Further studies are needed to confirm these genotype-phenotype associations.
genetics; interleukin-6; intima-media thickness; lipase; stromelysin 1; ultrasonography
Background and Purpose
Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a strong predictor of stroke and myocardial infarction. The object of this study was to determine the association between carotid IMT and 702 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 145 genes.
B-mode carotid ultrasound was performed among 408 Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. The common carotid artery IMT and bifurcation IMT were phenotypes of interest. Genetic effects were evaluated by the multivariate regression model adjusting for traditional vascular risk factors. For each individual, we calculated a gene risk score (GRS) defined as the total number of the significant single nucleotide polymorphisms in different genes. Subjects were then divided into 3 GRS categories using the 2 cutoff points: mean GRS ±1 SD.
We identified 6 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms in 6 genes for common carotid artery IMT and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 genes for bifurcation IMT using the probability value of 0.005 as the significant level. There were no common significant genes for both phenotypes. The most significant genes were the tissue plasminogen activator (P=0.0005 for common carotid artery IMT) and matrix metallopeptidase-12 genes (P=0.0004 for bifurcation IMT). Haplotype analysis did not yield a more significant result. Subjects with GRS ≥9 had significantly increased IMT than those with GRS ≤5 (P<0.001). GRS was an independent predictor of both common carotid artery IMT (P=2.3×10−9) and bifurcation MT (P=7.2×10−8).
Multiple genes contributed to the variation in carotid IMT. IMT in different carotid segments may be regulated by different sets of susceptibility genes.
atherosclerosis; carotid intima-media thickness; genetics; polymorphism
Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a non-invasive measure of endothelial function. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with traditional vascular risk factors and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The importance of genetic contribution to FMD and baseline brachial artery diameter has not been shown in Hispanic populations. The purpose of this study was to estimate the heritability of FMD.
Flow mediated dilation and brachial artery diameter were measured in a subset of Caribbean Hispanic families from the ongoing Northern Manhattan Family Study (NOMAFS), which studies the contribution of genetics to stroke and cardiovascular risk factors. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability of FMD was estimated using variance component methods.
The current data include 620 subjects (97 probands and 523 relatives) from 97 families. The age and sex-adjusted heritability of brachial artery diameter was 0.57 (p < 0.01). The age- and sex-adjusted heritability of FMD was 0.20 (p = 0.01). After additional adjustment for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking, lipid, diabetes mellitus, medication, and baseline brachial artery diameter, the heritability of FMD was 0.17 (p = 0.01).
We found modest heritability of FMD. FMD might be a reasonable phenotype for further investigation of genetic contribution to atherosclerosis.
Flow-mediated dilation; Endothelial function; Atherosclerosis; Heritability; Genetics
Stroke continues to kill disproportionately more Blacks and Hispanics than Whites in the United States. Racial/ethnic variations in the incidence of stroke and prevalence of stroke risk factors are probably explained by both genetic and environmental influences. Family studies can help identify genetic predisposition to stroke and potential stroke precursors. Few studies have evaluated the heritability of these stroke risk factors among non-White populations, and none have focused on Caribbean Hispanic populations. The aim of the Northern Manhattan Family Study (NOMAFS) is to investigate the gene-environment interaction of stroke risk factors among Caribbean Hispanics. The unique recruitment and methodologic approaches used in this study are relevant to the design and conduct of genetic aggregation studies to investigate complex genetic disorders in non-White populations. The aim of this paper is to describe the NOMAFS and report enrollment and characteristics of the participants. The NO-MAFS will provide a data resource for the exploration of the genetic determinants of highly heritable stroke precursor phenotypes that are less complex than the stroke phenotype. Understanding the gene environment interaction is the critical next step toward the development of new and unique approaches to disease prevention and interventions.
Stroke; Hispanic; Genetics
To identify candidate genes in relation to plasma lipid levels in Caribbean Hispanics.
Design and methods:
A total of 114 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 17 lipid-related genes were genotyped in 477 Caribbean Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). Analyses for each SNP and haplotype were performed to evaluate the associations with four lipid traits: high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC).
We identified 19 SNPs at 10 genes that were significantly related to lipids (p<0.01), including nine involved in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, and one involved in bile acid synthesis. Three genes, namely the apolipoprotein A5, apolipoprotein B and cytochrome p450 polypeptide 7A1 genes, accounted for the largest proportion of variation in HDL-C/TG, TC and LDL-C respectively.
The cumulative effects of multiple genetic variants led to a substantially better prediction of inter-individual variations in lipid levels.
Gene; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Reverses cholesterol transport pathway; Lipids; Haplotype
Background and Purpose
Both carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and obesity are independent determinants of stroke and cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of obesity is higher in Hispanics. The genetic basis of IMT and obesity has not been well-characterized in Caribbean Hispanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic and environmental contributions to IMT and obesity in this population.
The data included 440 subjects from 77 Caribbean Hispanic families. Mean IMT and maximum IMT were measured in the internal carotid artery, common carotid artery, and carotid bifurcation. The total IMT was calculated as the mean value of IMT at all segments. Obesity phenotypes included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and skin-fold thickness. Variance component methods were used to estimate age-adjusted and sex-adjusted heritability. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test for genetic and environmental correlations between IMT and obesity.
Heritabilities for IMT ranged from 9% to 40%, with the highest for total maximum IMT and lowest for internal carotid artery maximum IMT. Heritabilities for BMI, waist circumference, WHR, and skin-fold thickness were 44%, 47%, 5%, and 36%, respectively. There were significant genetic, but not environmental, correlations between IMT and BMI, waist circumference, and skin-fold thickness. There were no genetic or environmental correlations between IMT and WHR.
We found a substantial genetic contribution to IMT, BMI, waist circumference, and skin-fold thickness. Obesity and IMT may share common genetic factors. Future gene mapping studies are warranted to identify genes predisposing to IMT and obesity in this population.
carotid arteries; genetics; obesity; stroke
Background and Purpose
Reduced arterial distensibility has been introduced as a novel risk factor for atherosclerosis. The importance of the genetic contribution to variation in distensibility is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate heritability of carotid distensibility.
The ongoing Northern Manhattan Family Study recruits high-risk Caribbean Hispanic families to study genetic effects on stroke/cardiovascular risk factors. The distensibility metrics (strain, stiffness, distensibility, and elastic modulus) were measured from the right common carotid artery, and the heritability for each was estimated. Variance component methods were used to estimate age- and sex-adjusted heritability. Correlations were calculated to evaluate the relationship between distensibility phenotypes and intimamedia thickness (IMT) at each carotid segment.
The current data included 88 probands and 605 relatives from 88 families. Age- and sex-adjusted heritability was 25% for strain, 17% for distensibility, 20% for stiffness, and 20% for elastic modulus. Without adjustment for covariates, strong correlations were found between distensibility metrics and IMT: the absolute values of correlation coefficients were between 0.2 and 0.5, and all P values were <0.001. However, the correlation coefficients were reduced substantially after adjusting for age and sex.
These results suggested that genetic factors explained a moderate proportion of the variability of carotid distensibility. The correlations between distensibility and IMT were mainly attributable to age and sex effects. The regulation of carotid distensibility and IMT may reflect different underlying genetic and environmental mechanisms.
atherosclerosis; carotid arteries; genetics
Although there have been studies of the genetic risk factors in the development of stroke, there have been few investigations of role of genes in the cerebral response to ischemia. The brain responds to ischemia in a series of reactions that ultimately influence the volume of a stroke that, in general, correlates with disability. We hypothesize that polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in these reactions could act as modifiers of this response and impact stroke volume. One of the pathways participating in the cerebral ischemic response involves reactive oxygen species which can cause oxidative damage to nucleic acids. DNA repair mechanisms are in place to protect against such damage and imply a role for DNA repair genes in the response of the brain to ischemia and are potential candidate genes for further investigation.
We studied two common polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene, XRCC1, C26304T and G28152A, in 134 well characterized patients with non lacunar ischemic strokes. We also performed a case control association study with 113 control patients to assess whether these variants represent risk factors in the development of ischemic stroke.
Independent of etiology, the "T" allele of the C26304T polymorphism is significantly associated with larger stroke volumes (T-test analysis, p < 0.044; multivariate regression analysis, β = 0.23, p < 0.008). In the case control association study, we found that neither of these polymorphisms represented a risk factor for the development of stroke.
Our study suggests a major gene effect of the "T" allele of the C26304T polymorphism modulating the cerebral response to ischemia in non lacunar ischemic stroke.
We performed linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping analyses to compare the power between microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Chromosome-wide analyses were performed for a quantitative electrophysiological phenotype, ttth1, on chromosome 7. Multipoint analysis of microsatellite markers using the variance component (VC) method showed the highest LOD score of 4.20 at 162 cM, near D7S509 (163.7 cM). Two-point analysis of SNPs using the VC method yielded the highest LOD score of 3.98 in the Illumina SNP data and 3.45 in the Affymetrix SNP data around 152–153 cM. In family-based single SNP and SNP haplotype LD analysis, we identified seven SNPs associated with ttth1. We searched for any potential candidate genes in the location of the seven SNPs. The SNPs rs1476640 and rs768055 are located in the FLJ40852 gene (a hypothetical protein), and SNP rs1859646 is located in the TAS2R5 gene (a taste receptor). The other four SNPs are not located in any known or annotated genes. We found the high density SNP scan to be superior to microsatellites because it is effective in downstream fine mapping due to a better defined linkage region. Our study proves the utility of high density SNP in genome-wide mapping studies.
Family studies are often conducted in a cross-sectional manner without long-term follow-up data. The relative contribution of a gene to a specific trait could change over the lifetime. The Framingham Heart Study offers a unique opportunity to investigate potential gene × time interaction. We performed linkage analysis on the body mass index (BMI) measured in 1970, 1978, and 1986 for this project.
We analyzed the data in two different ways: three genome-wide linkage analyses on each exam, and one genome-wide linkage analysis on the mean of the three measurements. Variance-component linkage analyses were performed by the SOLAR program. Genome-wide scans show consistent evidence of linkage of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 3, 6, 9, and 16 in three measurements with a maximum multipoint LOD score > 2.2. However, only chromosome 9 has a LOD score = 2.14 when the mean values were analyzed. More interestingly, we found potential gene × environment interactions: increasing LOD scores with age on chromosomes 3, 9, and 16 and decreasing LOD scores on chromosome 6 in the three exams.
The results indicate two points: 1) it is possible that a gene (or genes) influencing BMI is (are) up- or down-regulated as people aged due to aging process or changes in lifestyle, environments, or genetic epistasis; 2) using mean values from longitudinal data may reduce the power to detect linkage and may have no power to detect gene × time, and/or gene × gene interactions.
The recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is frequent within the first year of curative resection surgery and may be unavoidable. microRNAs have been suggested to play roles in carcinogenesis and cancer recurrence. We recently identified microRNA-29c (miRNA-29c) as a predictor of early recurrence in CRC. In the present study, we further investigated the functions and serum level of miRNA-29c in relation to early recurrence of CRC.
First we further confirmed overexpression of miRNA-29c in non-early relapse subjects. Gain-of-function in vitro studies were used to evaluate the effect of miRNA-29c on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle progression. The colon cancer cell line Caco2 and a stable clone overexpressing miRNA-29c were xenografted to evaluate the in vivo effect of miRNA-29c in null mice. Finally, circulating miRNA-29c was investigated as a potential biomarker for identifying early relapse.
miRNA-29c expression significantly decreased during early relapse compared to non-early relapse in UICC stage II and III CRC patients (P = 0.021). In vitro studies showed that overexpression of miRNA-29c inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The cell cycle studies also revealed that miRNA-29c caused an accumulation of the G1 and G2 population. In vivo, miRNA-29c suppressed tumor growth in null mice. The serum miRNA-29c increased significantly in early relapsed patients compared to non-early elapsed patients (P = 0.012).
miRNA-29c shows anti-tumorigenesis activity, and preoperative circulating miRNA-29c levels can be used to predict postoperative early relapse of CRC.