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1.  Prognostic Value of Left Atrium Remodeling after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with ST Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(3):236-242.
The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between left atrial (LA) size and outcome after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to evaluate dynamic changes in LA size during long-term follow-up. Echocardiographic analyses were performed on 253 AMI patients (174 male and 79 female, 65.4 ± 13.7 yr) undergoing PCI. These subjects were studied at baseline and at 12 months. Clinical follow-up were done at 30.8 ± 7.5 months. We assessed LA volume index (LAVI) at AMI-onset and at 12-month. Change of LAVI was an independent predictor of new onset of atrial fibrillation or hospitalization for heart failure (P = 0.002). Subjects who survived the 12-month period displayed an increased LAVI mean of 1.86 ± 4.01 mL/m2 (from 26.1 ± 8.6 to 28.0 ± 10.1 mL/m2, P < 0.001). The subject group that displayed an increased LAVI correlated with a low left ventricular ejection fraction, large left ventricle systolic and diastolic dimensions and an enlarged LA size. In conclusion, change of LAVI is useful parameter to predict subsequent adverse cardiac event in AMI patients. Post-AMI echocardiographic evaluation of LAVI provides important prognostic information that is significantly greater than that obtained from clinical and laboratory parameters alone.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.3.236
PMCID: PMC3286768  PMID: 22379332
Echocardiography; Myocardial Infarction; Heart atria; Remodeling; Prognosis
2.  A Novel Risk Stratification Model for Patients with Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR): Limitation of the TIMI Risk Scoring System 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2011;47(1):20-26.
The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score (TRS) has proven value in predicting prognosis in unstable angina/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) as well as in ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The TRS system has little implication, however, in the extent of myocardial damage in high-risk patients with NSTEMI. A total of 1621 patients (63.6±12.2 years; 1043 males) with NSTEMI were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR). We analyzed the risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during a 6-month follow-up period. The TRS system showed good correlation with MACE for patients in the low and intermediate groups but had poor correlation when the high-risk group was included (p=0.128). The MACE rate was 3.8% for TRS 1, 9.4% for TRS 2, 10.7% for TRS 3, and 12.3% for TRS 4 (HR=1.29, p=0.026). Among the biomarkers and clinical risk factors, elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (HR=2.61, p=0.001) and Killip class above III showed good correlation with MACE (HR=0.302, p<0.001). Therefore, we revised an alternative clinical scoring system by including these two variables that reflect left ventricular dysfunction: age > 65 years, history of ischemic heart disease, Killip class above III, and elevated pro-BNP levels above the 75th percentile. This modified scoring system, when tested for validity, showed good predictive value for MACE (HR=1.64, p<0.001). Compared with the traditional TRS, the novel alternative scoring system based on age, history of ischemic heart disease, Killip class, and NT-proBNP showed a better predictive value for 6-month MACE in high-risk patients with NSTEMI.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2011.47.1.20
PMCID: PMC3214861  PMID: 22111052
Angina, unstable; Mortality; Myocardial Infarction
3.  Clinical Benefit of Low Molecular Weight Heparin for ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitor 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(11):1601-1608.
The efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with low dose unfractionated heparin (UFH) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with or without glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitor compared to UFH with or without Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor has not been elucidated. Between October 2005 and July 2007, 2,535 patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PCI in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) were assigned to either of two groups: a group with Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (n=476) or a group without Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (n=2,059). These groups were further subdivided according to the use of LMWH with low dose UFH (n=219) or UFH alone (n=257). The primary end points were cardiac death or myocardial infarction during the 30 days after the registration. The primary end point occurred in 4.1% (9/219) of patients managed with LMWH during PCI and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor and 10.8% (28/257) of patients managed with UFH and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (odds ratio [OR], 0.290; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.132-0.634; P=0.006). Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) with major bleeding was observed in LMHW and UFH with Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (1/219 [0.5%] vs 1/257 [0.4%], P=1.00). For patients with STEMI managed with a primary PCI and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor, LMWH is more beneficial than UFH.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.11.1601
PMCID: PMC2966997  PMID: 21060749
Myocardial Infarction; Heparin; Blood Platelets; Prognosis
4.  Relationship Between Obesity and N-Terminal Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level as a Prognostic Value After Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Korean Circulation Journal  2010;40(11):558-564.
Background and Objectives
Recently, the prognostic value of N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in acute coronary syndrome has been demonstrated in many studies. However, NT-proBNP levels are influenced by various factors such as sex, age, renal function, heart failure severity, and obesity. NT-proBNP concentrations tend to decrease with higher body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of obesity on NT-proBNP as a predictive prognostic factor in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.
Subjects and Methods
Using data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (January 2005 to September 2008), 2,736 AMI patients were included in this study. These patients were divided into men (n=1,972, 70%) and women (n=764, 30%), and were grouped according to their BMIs. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during 1 year clinical follow-up were evaluated.
Results
NT-proBNP was significantly higher in lower BMI (p<0.001). Mean NT-proBNP levels of each obesity group were 2,393±4,022 pg/mL in the lean group (n=875), 1,506±3,074 pg/mL in the overweight group (n=724) and 1,100±1,137 pg/mL in the obese group (n=1,137) (p<0.01). NT-proBNP was an independent prognostic factor of AMI in obese patients by multivariative analysis of independent risk factors of MACE (p=0.01).
Conclusion
NT-proBNP is lower in obese AMI patients than in non-obese AMI patients, but NT-proBNP is still of independent prognostic value in obese AMI patients.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2010.40.11.558
PMCID: PMC3008826  PMID: 21217932
Brain natriuretic peptide; Obesity; Myocardial infarction
5.  Clinical Effects of Hypertension on the Mortality of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(5):800-806.
The incidence of ischemic heart disease has been increased rapidly in Korea. However, the clinical effects of antecedent hypertension on acute myocardial infarction have not been identified. We assessed the relationship between antecedent hypertension and clinical outcomes in 7,784 patients with acute myocardial infarction in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry during one-year follow-up. Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease were more prevalent in hypertensives (n=3,775) than nonhypertensives (n=4,009). During hospitalization, hypertensive patients suffered from acute renal failure, shock, and cerebrovascular event more frequently than in nonhypertensives. During follow-up of one-year, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events was higher in hypertensives. In multi-variate adjustment, old age, Killip class ≥III, left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg on admission, post procedural TIMI flow grade ≤2, female sex, and history of hypertension were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality. However antecedent hypertension was not significantly associated with one-year mortality. Hypertension at the time of acute myocardial infarction is associated with an increased rate of in-hospital mortality.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.5.800
PMCID: PMC2752759  PMID: 19794974
Hypertension; Myocardial infarction; Mortality
6.  Predictors of Plaque Progression in Hypertensive Angina Patients with Achieved Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Less Than 70 mg/dL after Rosuvastatin Treatment 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2015;51(3):120-128.
We evaluated the impact of achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations <70 mg/dL on plaque progression in statin-treated hypertensive angina patients by use of virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). The effects of 10 mg of rosuvastatin on plaque progression were evaluated in 78 patients who achieved LDL-C <70 mg/dL with statin treatment. The patients were divided into plaque progressors (n=30) and plaque regressors (n=40) on the basis of the baseline minimum lumen area (MLA) site at the 9-month follow-up. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) [creatinine clearance (CrCl) <60 mL/min)] and current smoking was higher in progressors than in regressors (90.0% vs. 31.3%, p<0.001, and 40.0% vs. 12.5%, p=0.005, respectively). Baseline CrCl was significantly lower and baseline apolipoprotein (apo) B/A1 was significantly higher in progressors than in regressors (21±13 mL/min vs. 70±20 mL/min, p<0.001, and 0.77±0.23 vs. 0.65±0.16, p=0.011, respectively). Absolute and relative fibrotic areas at the MLA site increased in progressors; by contrast, these areas decreased in regressors from baseline to follow-up. CKD [odds ratio (OR): 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-2.53, p=0.013], smoking (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.23-2.22, p=0.038), and apoB/A1 (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.12-1.40, p=0.023), but not any VH-IVUS parameters, were independent predictors of plaque progression at follow-up. In conclusion, clinical factors including CKD, smoking, and apoB/A1 rather than plaque components detected by VH-IVUS are associated with plaque progression in hypertensive angina patients who achieve very low LDL-C after statin treatment.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2015.51.3.120
PMCID: PMC4697112  PMID: 26730363
Coronary disease; Hypertension; Plaque; Lipids; Ultrasonography,Interventional
7.  Temporal trends and in-hospital outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in nonagenarians with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction 
Background/Aims:
Data regarding the outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in nonagenarians are very limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the temporal trends and in-hospital outcomes of primary PCI in nonagenarian STEMI patients.
Methods:
We retrospectively reviewed data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) from November 2005 to January 2008, and from the Korea Working Group on Myocardial Infarction (KorMI) from February 2008 to May 2010.
Results:
During this period, the proportion of nonagenarians among STEMI patients more than doubled (0.59% in KAMIR vs. 1.35% in KorMI), and the rate of use of primary PCI also increased (from 62.5% in KAMIR to 81.0% in KorMI). We identified 84 eligible study patients for which the overall in-hospital mortality rate was 21.4% (25.0% in KAMIR vs. 20.3% in KorMI, p = 0.919). Multivariate analysis identified two independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, namely a final Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow < 3 (odds ratio [OR], 13.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2 to 59.0; p < 0.001) and cardiogenic shock during hospitalization (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 30.3; p = 0.013).
Conclusions:
The number of nonagenarian STEMI patients who have undergone primary PCI has increased. Although a final TIMI flow < 3 and cardiogenic shock are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, primary PCI can be performed with a high success rate and an acceptable in-hospital mortality rate.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2015.30.6.821
PMCID: PMC4642011  PMID: 26552457
In-hospital outcomes; Aged, 90 and over; Myocardial infarction; Percutaneous coronary intervention
8.  The Prognostic Value of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Dependent upon the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2015;30(7):903-910.
The prognostic value of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been questioned even though it is an accurate marker of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the prognostic impact of LVEF in patients with AMI with or without high-grade mitral regurgitation (MR). A total of 15,097 patients with AMI who received echocardiography were registered in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) between January 2005 and July 2011. Patients with low-grade MR (grades 0-2) and high-grade MR (grades 3-4) were divided into the following two sub-groups according to LVEF: LVEF ≤ 40% (n = 2,422 and 197, respectively) and LVEF > 40% (n = 12,252 and 226, respectively). The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), cardiac death, and all-cause death during the first year after registration. Independent predictors of mortality in the multivariate analysis in AMI patients with low-grade MR were age ≥ 75 yr, Killip class ≥ III, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide > 4,000 pg/mL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥ 2.59 mg/L, LVEF ≤ 40%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, PCI was an independent predictor in AMI patients with high-grade MR. No differences in primary endpoints between AMI patients with high-grade MR (grades 3-4) and EF ≤ 40% or EF > 40% were noted. MR is a predictor of a poor outcome regardless of ejection fraction. LVEF is an inadequate method to evaluate contractile function of the ischemic heart in the face of significant MR.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.7.903
PMCID: PMC4479944  PMID: 26130953
Mitral Regurgitation; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction
9.  Role of Intravascular Ultrasound in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Korean Circulation Journal  2015;45(4):259-265.
Rupture of a vulnerable plaque and subsequent thrombus formation are important mechanisms leading to the development of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Typical intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) features of AMI include plaque rupture, thrombus, positive remodeling, attenuated plaque, spotty calcification, and thin-cap fibroatheroma. No-reflow phenomenon was attributable to the embolization of thrombus and plaque debris that results from mechanical fragmentation of the vulnerable plaque by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Several grayscale IVUS features including plaque rupture, thrombus, positive remodeling, greater plaque burden, decreased post-PCI plaque volume, and tissue prolapse, and virtual histology-IVUS features such as large necrotic corecontaining lesion and thin-cap fibroatheroma were the independent predictors of no-reflow phenomenon in AMI patients. Non-culprit lesions associated with recurrent events were more likely than those not associated with recurrent events to be characterized by a plaque burden of ≥70%, a minimal luminal area of ≤4.0 mm2, or to be classified as thin-cap fibroatheromas.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2015.45.4.259
PMCID: PMC4521102  PMID: 26240578
Myocardial infarction; Atherosclerosis; Ultrasonography, interventional
10.  Coronary Artery Fistula with Giant Aneurysm and Coronary Stenosis Treated by Transcatheter Embolization and Stent 
Korean Circulation Journal  2015;45(3):245-247.
Coronary artery fistula (CAF) with giant aneurysm and accompanied by coronary artery stenosis is a very rare disease. Herein, we report a case of a 76-year-old woman having a complex coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula associated with a giant aneurysm and accompanied by coronary artery stenosis. The patient was successfully treated using transcatheter coil embolization and coronary stent implantation. Eight years later, we performed a follow-up coronary angiogram, which revealed the CAF and the aneurysm were completely occluded and previous stent patency.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2015.45.3.245
PMCID: PMC4446820  PMID: 26023314
Arteriovenous fistula; Coronary aneurysm; Embolization, therapeutic; Therapeutics; Stents
11.  Effect of Pretreatment of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin on Arterial Healing and Endothelialization after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in a Porcine Coronary Restenosis Model 
Korean Circulation Journal  2015;45(2):110-116.
Background and Objectives
We sought to evaluate the effect of the early use of ezetimibe/simvastatin (Vytorin®) on arterial healing and endothelialization after the implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES) in a porcine model of coronary restenosis.
Materials and Methods
A total of 20 pigs (40 coronary arteries) were randomly allocated to a pretreatment or no treatment group. The pretreatment group (n=20) received oral ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 mg) daily for 7 days before stenting and the no pretreatment group (n=20) did not. All pigs were treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 mg) daily after stenting for 4 weeks. Stenting was performed using a bare-metal stent (BMS, n=10) and three types of DES: biolimus A9-eluting stent (BES, n=10), zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES, n=10), and everolimus-eluting stents (EES, n=10). Four weeks later, pigs underwent a follow-up coronary angiography and were sacrificed for histopathologic analysis.
Results
There were no significant differences between the pretreatment and no pretreatment groups in the internal elastic lamina area, lumen area, neointima area, stenotic area, injury score, fibrin score, and inflammation score. In both groups, the fibrin score was higher in pigs with DES than in BMS, particularly in ZES and EES. The inflammatory score was not different between DES and BMS.
Conclusion
In a porcine model of coronary restenosis, pretreatment with ezetimibe/simvastatin before DES implantation failed to improve arterial healing and endothelialization compared to treatment after stenting.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2015.45.2.110
PMCID: PMC4372976  PMID: 25810732
Coronary restenosis; Drug-eluting stents; Ezetimibe; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors
12.  Cardioprotective Effect of Fimasartan, a New Angiotensin Receptor Blocker, in a Porcine Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Cardioprotective effect of fimasartan, a new angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), was evaluated in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty swine were randomized to group 1 (sham, n=10), group 2 (no angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor [ACEI] or ARB, n=10), group 3 (perindopril 2 mg daily, n=10), group 4 (valsartan 40 mg daily, n=10), or group 5 (fimasartan 30 mg daily, n=10). Acute MI was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 50 min. Echocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) were performed at baseline, 1 week, and 4 weeks. Iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan was done at 6 weeks for visualization of cardiac sympathetic activity. Left ventricular function and volumes at 4 weeks were similar between the 5 groups. No difference was observed in groups 2 to 5 in SPECT perfusion defect, matched and mismatched segments between SPECT and PET at 1 week and 4 weeks. MIBG scan showed similar uptake between the 5 groups. Pathologic analysis showed similar infarct size in groups 2 to 5. Infarct size reduction was not observed with use of fimasartan as well as other ACEI and ARB in a porcine model of acute MI.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.1.34
PMCID: PMC4278025  PMID: 25552881
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; Angiotensin Receptor Blockers; Myocardial Infarction
13.  Impact of Smoking on Clinical Outcomes in Female Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Korean Circulation Journal  2015;45(1):22-27.
Background and Objectives
Cigarette smoking has been recognized as a prominent threat to women's health. We investigated the impact of smoking on clinical outcomes in Korean female patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Subjects and Methods
Out of the AMI patients who enrolled in the Korea AMI Registry, 4444 female patients were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups-non-smoker and smoker-according to their current smoking status. We compared in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, repeated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or coronary artery bypass grafting during the one-year clinical follow-up period between two groups.
Results
The non-smoker group had more hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were higher in the non-smoker group. However, in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the smoker group (1.0% vs. 2.4%, p=0.002), and cardiac death during the 12-month clinical follow-up was significantly more frequent in the smoker group (2.2% vs. 4.5%, p=0.003). Total MACEs during the 12 months were higher in the smoker group (4.9% vs. 6.8%, p=0.014). Smoking and HTN were independent predictors of MACE {odds ratio (OR): 1.742, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.010-3.000, p=0.046; OR: 1.573, 95% CI: 1.003-2.466, p=0.049, respectively}.
Conclusion
Female smokers with AMI showed significantly higher in-hospital mortality and MACE rates during the one-year clinical follow-up period.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2015.45.1.22
PMCID: PMC4310976  PMID: 25653700
Hospital mortality; Myocardial infarction; Female; Smoking
14.  The scientific achievements of the decades in Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry 
The Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) was the first nationwide registry data collection designed to track outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). These studies reflect the current therapeutic approaches and management for AMI in Korea. The results of KAMIR could help clinicians to predict the prognosis of their patients and identify better diagnostic and treatment tools to improve the quality of care. The KAMIR score was proposed to be a predictor of the prognosis of AMI patients. Triple antiplatelet therapy, consisting of aspirin, clopidogrel and cilostazol, was effective at preventing major adverse clinical outcomes. Drug-eluting stents were effective and safe in AMI patients with no increased risk of stent thrombosis. Statin therapy was effective in Korean AMI patients, including those with very low levels of low density cholesterol. The present review summarizes the 10-year scientific achievements of KAMIR from admission to outpatient care during long-term clinical follow-up.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2014.29.6.703
PMCID: PMC4219958  PMID: 25378967
Acute myocardial infarction; Prognosis; Therapeutics
15.  Successful Stent Implantation for Aortoiliac Bifurcation Stenosis in a Young Patient with Behçet's Disease 
Korean Circulation Journal  2014;44(5):351-354.
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystem vascular inflammatory disease. BD can affect blood vessels of nearly all sizes and types. Arterial involvement is a rare but serious condition in the course of BD. Here, we report a case of stenosis at the iliac artery bifurcation which was treated with percutaneous balloon angioplasty and stent implantation in a 37-year-old patient with BD.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2014.44.5.351
PMCID: PMC4180614  PMID: 25278990
Behçet disease; Iliac artery; Stents
16.  Successful Treatment of a Ruptured Subclavian Artery Aneurysm Presenting as Hemoptysis with a Covered Stent 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2014;50(2):70-73.
An aneurysm of the subclavian artery is rare. Recently, we experienced a case of a ruptured subclavian artery aneurysm presenting as hemoptysis. The patient had experienced atypical chest discomfort, and computed tomography (CT) revealed a small aneurysm of the left subclavian artery (SCA). Hemoptysis occurred 2 weeks later. Follow-up CT showed a ruptured aneurysm at the proximal left SCA. Endovascular treatment with a graft stent was performed by bilateral arterial access with a 12-Fr introducer sheath placed via cutdown of the left axillary artery and an 8-Fr sheath in the right femoral artery. A self-expandable Viabahn covered stent measuring 13×5 mm was introduced retrogradely via the left axillary sheath and was positioned under contrast guidance with an 8-Fr JR4 guide through the femoral sheath. After the procedure, hemoptysis was not found, and the 3-month follow-up CT showed luminal patency of the left proximal SCA and considerable reduction of the hematoma.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2014.50.2.70
PMCID: PMC4161765  PMID: 25229020
Aneurysm; Stents; Subclavian artery
17.  A case of myocardial involvement in lung cancer that mimics ST segment elevation in myocardial infarction 
doi:10.3904/kjim.2014.29.4.525
PMCID: PMC4101600  PMID: 25045301
Neoplasms; Myocardial infarction; Electrocardiography
18.  miR-18a-5p MicroRNA Increases Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation by Downregulating Syndecan4 
Korean Circulation Journal  2014;44(4):255-263.
Background and Objectives
Differentiation and de-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are important events in atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. MicroRNAs are considered a key regulator in cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Here, we report the role of new miR-18a-5p microRNA and its downstream target genes in VSMCs and in a carotid balloon injury model.
Materials and Methods
Expression of miR-18a-5p and its candidate genes was examined in VSMCs and in a carotid artery injury model by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microRNA microarray analysis. VSMC differentiation marker genes including smooth muscle (SM) α-actin and SM22α were determined by Western blot, qRT-PCR, and a SM22α promoter study. Gene overexpression or knockdown was performed in VSMCs.
Results
miR-18a-5p was upregulated in the rat carotid artery at the early time after balloon injury. Transfection of the miR-18a-5p mimic promoted the VSMC differentiation markers SM α-actin and SM22α. In addition, miR-18a-5p expression was induced in differentiated VSMCs, whereas it decreased in de-differentiated VSMCs. We identified syndecan4 as a downstream target of miR-18-5p in VSMCs. Overexpression of syndecan4 decreased Smad2 expression, whereas knockdown of syndecan4 increased Smad2 expression in VSMCs. Finally, we showed that Smad2 induced the expression of VSMC differentiation marker genes in VSMCs.
Conclusion
These results indicate that miR-18a-5p is involved in VSMC differentiation by targeting syndecan4.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2014.44.4.255
PMCID: PMC4117847  PMID: 25089138
miR-8a; Cell differentiation; Vascular smooth muscle; Syndecan4; Smad2 protein
19.  Current Status of Coronary Intervention in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease 
Korean Circulation Journal  2014;44(3):131-138.
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a standard interventional treatment modality for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Diagnostic coronary angiogram during PCI reveals multivessel coronary artery disease in about half of patients with STEMI, and it is difficult to make decision on the extent of intervention in these patients. Although revascularization for the infarct-related artery only is still effective for STEMI patients, several studies have reported the efficacy of multivessel revascularization during primary PCI, as well as in a staged PCI procedure. Clinicians should consider clinical aspects such as initial cardiogenic shock and myocardial viability when performing primary multivessel intervention, including the risks and benefits of multivessel revascularization in patients undergoing primary PCI. This review describes the current status of performing multivessel PCI in patients with STEMI and proposes an optimal revascularization strategy based on the previous literature.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2014.44.3.131
PMCID: PMC4037633  PMID: 24876852
Myocardial infarction; Coronary artery disease; Percutaneous coronary intervention
20.  Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Intermediate Coronary Stenoses: MINIATURE Investigators (Korea MultIceNter TrIal on Long-Term Clinical Outcome According to the Plaque Burden and Treatment Strategy in Lesions with MinimUm Lumen ARea lEss Than 4 mm2 Using Intravascular Ultrasound) 
Korean Circulation Journal  2014;44(3):148-155.
Background and Objectives
We evaluated the two-year clinical outcomes in patients with angiographically intermediate lesions according to the plaque burden and treatment strategy.
Subjects and Methods
We prospectively enrolled patients with angiographically intermediate lesions (diameter stenosis 30-70%) with an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) minimum lumen area (MLA) <4 mm2 with 50-70% plaque burden of 16 Korean percutaneous coronary intervention centers. Patients were divided into medical therapy group (n=85) and zotarolimus-eluting stent group (ZES; Resolute) group (n=74). We evaluated the incidences of two-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).
Results
A two-year clinical follow-up was completed in 143 patients and MACE occurred in 12 patients. There were no significant differences in the incidences of death (1.3% vs. 3.0%, p=0.471), target vessel-related non-fatal myocardial infarction (0.0% vs. 0.0%, p=1.000) and target vessel revascularizations (7.8% vs. 4.5%, p=0.425) between medical and ZES groups. Independent predictors of two-year MACE included acute myocardial infarction {odds ratio (OR)=2.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-6.12, p=0.014}, diabetes mellitus (OR=2.46; 95% CI 1.24-5.56, p=0.028) and non-statin therapy (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.18-5.24, p=0.034).
Conclusion
Medical therapy shows comparable results with ZES, and myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus and non-statin therapy were associated with the occurrence of two-year MACE in patients with intermediate lesion with IVUS MLA <4 mm2 with 50-70% of plaque burden.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2014.44.3.148
PMCID: PMC4037636  PMID: 24876855
Coronary artery disease; Atherosclerotic plaque; Intravascular ultrasonography
21.  The Association of Socioeconomic Status with Three-Year Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(4):536-543.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the clinical outcomes were associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The author analyzed 2,358 patients (64.9 ± 12.3 yr old, 71.5% male) hospitalized with AMI between November 2005 and June 2010. SES was measured by the self-reported education (years of schooling), the residential address (social deprivation index), and the national health insurance status (medical aid beneficiaries). Sequential multivariable modeling assessed the relationship of SES factors with 3-yr major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and mortality after the adjustment for demographic and clinical factors. During the 3-yr follow-up, 630 (26.7%) MACEs and 322 (13.7%) all-cause deaths occurred in 2,358 patients. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, the only lower education of SES variables was associated with MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.91) and mortality (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.16-3.20) in the patients with AMI who underwent PCI. The study results indicate that the lower education is a significant associated factor to increased poor clinical outcomes in patients with AMI who underwent PCI.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.4.536
PMCID: PMC3991797  PMID: 24753701
Social Class; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Mortality
22.  Successful Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Severe Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2014;50(1):31-36.
It is well known that patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) often have concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD). In cases of AAA with severe CAD requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), two therapeutic strategies regarding the timing of CABG can be considered: staged or simultaneous operations. However, the ideal treatment of patients with large AAA and critical CAD remains controversial. We experienced a case of successful endovascular aneurysm repair after off-pump CABG in a 70-year-old patient who had a huge AAA and critical CAD.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2014.50.1.31
PMCID: PMC4022796  PMID: 24855606
Aortic aneurysm, Abdominal; Aneurysm; Coronary artery disease
23.  Single coronary artery originating from the right aortic sinus without a left anterior descending and circumflex artery in conventional swine 
Laboratory Animal Research  2013;29(4):226-228.
Single coronary artery is a rare coronary artery anomaly. Very few previous reports of this anatomical malformation in swine have been found. A 22 kg Yorkshire X Landrace F1 crossbred castrated male swine was presented for enrollment in a coronary stent implantion study. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery arising from the right aortic sinus. The right coronary artery and anomalous left coronary artery were implanted with novel coronary stents without any side effects.
doi:10.5625/lar.2013.29.4.226
PMCID: PMC3879342  PMID: 24396388
Coronary stents; coronary artery; coronary artery malformations
24.  Effect of Atorvastatin-Eluting Stents in a Rabbit Iliac Artery Restenosis Model 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(3):118-124.
Statins have pleiotropic effects, which include the inhibition of neointima hyperplasia, the inhibition of vascular inflammation, and platelet inhibition. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an atorvastatin-eluting stent (AES) in a rabbit iliac artery overstretch restenosis model. Ten rabbits were used in this study (10 rabbits, 10 iliac arteries for each stent). An AES and paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) were implanted in the left and right iliac arteries in a rabbit (2 stents in each rabbit). The stents were deployed with oversizing (stent/artery ratio 1.3:1), and histopathologic analysis was assessed at 28 days after stenting. There were no significant differences in the injury score, lumen area, or inflammation score. There were significant differences in the neointimal area (0.7±0.18 mm2 in the AES group vs. 0.4±0.25 mm2 in the PES group, p<0.01), in the percentage stenosis area (14.8±5.06% in the AES group vs. 10.5±6.80% in the PES group, p<0.05), and in the fibrin score (0.4±0.51 in the AES group vs. 2.7±0.48 in the PES group, p<0.001). Although the AES did not suppress neointimal hyperplasia compared with the PES, it showed a superior arterial healing effect in a rabbit iliac artery overstretch restenosis model.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.3.118
PMCID: PMC3881207  PMID: 24400214
Drug-eluting Stents; Coronary Restenosis; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; Inflammation
25.  Progressive Dilation of the Left Atrium and Ventricle after Acute Myocardial Infarction Is Associated with High Mortality 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(11):731-738.
Background and Objectives
The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of progressive dilation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) combined with heart failure (HF) and determine the prognostic significance and associated factors with a geometric change of an infarcted heart.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 1310 AMI patients with HF (63.9±12.5 years, 70% male) between November 2005 and April 2011 underwent echocardiography at admission and one year later. Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is defined as 20% progression, and left atria (LA) remodeling is 10% compared with the initial volume index.
Results
The prevalence of both LA and LV remodeling was 13.9%; LV only was 9.3%, LA only 22.8% and non-remodeling was 55.1%, respectively. In the non-remodeling group, Killip class II was more frequent (83.9%, p<0.001) whereas in other remodeling groups, Killip class III was more frequent. Initial wall motion score index, ejection fraction, maximal cardiac enzyme, high sensitive C-reactive protein, B type natriuretic peptide, and triglyceride serum levels were significantly associated with heart remodeling. All causes of death occurred in 168 cases (12.8%) during the follow-up period. Mortality was the highest in the LV and LA remodeling group (20.9%) and the lowest in the non-remodeling group (11.4%). During the period of follow-up, the cumulative survival rate was significantly lower in the groups of LA and LV remodeling than in others (log rank p=0.006).
Conclusion
Total mortality was significantly increased in patients AMI with geometrically progressive LA and LV dilatation.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2013.43.11.731
PMCID: PMC3866312  PMID: 24363748
Myocardial infarction; Ventricular remodeling; Heart failure; Prognosis

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