Obesity is a well-established risk factor for many chronic disorders. However, the effect of weight change after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is not well known. Among consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention between November 2005 and November 2007 due to AMI, patients who were overweight (23.0≤body mass index [BMI]<27.5 kg/m2, n=341) and obese (BMI≥27.5 kg/m2, n=80) were selected for analysis. According to weight change, the patients were divided into 4 groups: Group I (weight loss>5%, n=61), Group II (0%
Myocardial infarction; Coronary artery disease; Obesity; Prognosis
We report our experience of very late stent thrombosis (VLST) in a young male patient who underwent implantation of two paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) six years ago. The patient was compliant with standard dual antiplatelet therapy, but he presented with acute myocardial infarction which was associated with VLST. Intravascular ultrasound showed neointimal rupture with thrombus within the PES implanted in the right coronary artery. The lesion was successfully treated with balloon angioplasty without complications, however he was found to be hyporesponsive to clopidogrel when tested for adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation. The patient was discharged after uneventful recovery with triple anti-platelet therapy using aspirin, clopidogrel and cilostazol. To the best of our knowledge, a time interval of 2,223 days is the longest reported time interval between PES deployment and VLST occurrence. VLST may indeed occur in clinically stable patients, as multiple factors can influence the pathological mechanisms of VLST.
Coronary thrombosis; Paclitaxel; Ultrasonics; Clopidogrel
A 76-year-old female present to the emergency department with dysarthria, dizziness, dyspnea. The patient had hypertension and atrial fibrillation. Brain MRI revealed right cerebellar infarction. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large round mass in the left atrium. Transesophageal echocardiography showed large complex echogenic round mass lesion attached on left atrial side of interatrial septum. Coronary angiogram revealed round movable mass lesion in left atrium with feeding arteries originated from right coronary artery. She underwent removal of mass and Maze operation, and pathologic finding was compatible with myxoma.
Neoplasms; Heart; Embolization
chronic atrial fibrillation; atrial tissue; mitochondrial DNA; mutation
Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) who are accompanied by atypical symptoms are frequently misdiagnosed and under-treated. This study was conducted to examine and compare the factors associated with atypical symptoms other than chest pain in younger (<70 yr) and older (≥70 yr) patients with first-time ACS. Data were obtained from the electronic medical records of the patients (n=931) who were newly diagnosed as ACS and hospitalized from 2005 to 2006. The 7.8% (n=49) of the younger patients and 13.4% (n=41) of the older patients were found to have atypical symptoms. Older patients were more likely to complain of indigestion or abdominal discomfort (P=0.019), nausea and/or vomiting (P=0.040), and dyspnea (P<0.001), and less likely to have chest pain (P=0.007) and pains in the arm and shoulder (P=0.018). A logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustment made for the gender and ACS type, diabetes and hyperlipidemia significantly predicted atypical symptoms in the younger patients. In the older patients, the co-morbid conditions such as stroke or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were positive predictors. Health care providers need to have an increased awareness of possible presence of ACS in younger persons with diabetes and older persons with chronic concomitant diseases when evaluating patients with no chest pain.
Acute coronary syndrome; Symptoms
In Korea, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction has been increasing rapidly. Twelve-month clinical outcomes for 13,133 patients with acute myocardial infarction enrolled in the nationwide prospective Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry study were analyzed according to the presence or absence of ST-segment elevation. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were younger, more likely to be men and smokers, and had poorer left ventricular function with a higher incidence of cardiac death compared to patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). NSTEMI patients had a higher prevalence of 3-vessel and left main coronary artery disease with complex lesions, and were more likely to have co-morbidities. The in-hospital and 1-month survival rates were higher in NSTEMI patients than in STEMI patients. However, 12-month survival rates was not different between the two groups. In conclusion, NSTEMI patients have worse clinical outcomes than STEMI patients, and therefore should be treated more intensively during clinical follow-up.
Myocardial infarction; Coronary artery disease; Prognosis
To evaluate the effects of calcium channel blocker (CCB) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in stable angina pectoris (SAP), 87 patients with SAP (57.6±10.0 yr, 52 males) were divided into two groups; CCB group (group I: n=44, 57.9±9.7 yr, 23 males) vs. CCB plus ACEI group (group II: n=43, 57.2±10.5 yr, 29 males). Flow mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, pulse wave velocity (PWV), urinary albumin excretion (UAE), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were compared. FMD, PWV, UAE, and hsCRP were not different between the groups at baseline. After 6 months of treatment, FMD were significantly improved in group II (7.5±3.7 to 8.8±2.7%, p<0.001), but not in group I (7.9±2.7 to 8.2±2.8%, p=0.535). Brachial-ankle PWV were significantly improved in both groups (1,621.3±279.4 to 1,512.1±225.0 cm/sec in group I, p<0.001, 1,586.8±278.5 to 1,434.5±200.5 cm/sec in group II, p<0.001). However, heart-femoral PWV were significantly improved (1,025.7±145.1 to 946.2±112.2 cm/sec, p<0.001) and UAE were significantly decreased (20.19±29.92 to 13.03±16.42 mg/g Cr, p=0.019) in group II only. In conclusion, combination therapy with CCB and ACEI improves endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and UAE than CCB mono-therapy more effectively in patients with SAP.
Endothelial Function; Arterial Stiffness; Angina Pectoris
Very late stent thrombosis (VLST) after implantation of drug-eluting stent is rare, but very fatal complication after percutaneous coronary intervention. We report a case of VLST of a sirolimus-eluting Cypher™ stent (Cordis, Johnson and Johnson) presenting as acute ST elevation myocardial infarction at 26 months after deployment with continued combined dual antiplatelet medication of aspirin and clopidogrel. The patient did not show anti-platelet resistance.
Stents; Thrombosis; Myocardial Infarction
The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of abciximab-coated stent in a porcine coronary overstretch restenosis model. Ten abciximab-coated stents, ten sirolimus-eluting stents (SES), and ten paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) were deployed with oversizing (stent/artery ratio 1.3:1) in porcine coronary arteries, and histopathologic analysis was done at 28 days after stenting. There were no significant differences in the neointima area normalized to injury score and inflammation score among the three stent groups (1.58±0.43 mm2, 1.57±0.39 mm2 in abciximab-coated stent group vs. 1.69±0.57 mm2, 1.72±0.49 mm2 in the SES group vs. 1.92±0.86 mm2, 1.79±0.87 mm2 in the PES group, respectively). In the neointima, most inflammatory cells were lymphohistiocytes. Significant positive correlations were found between the extent of inflammatory reaction and the neointima area (r=0.567, p<0.001) and percent area stenosis (r=0.587, p<0.001). Significant correlations were found between the injury score and neointimal area (r= 0.645, p<0.001), between the injury score and the inflammation score (r=0.837, p<0.001), and between the inflammation score and neointimal area (r=0.536, p= 0.001). There was no significant difference in the inflammatory cell counts normalized to injury score among the three stent groups (75.5±23.1/µL in abciximab-coated stent group vs. 78.8±33.2/µL in the SES group vs. 130.3±46.9/µL in the PES group). Abciximab-coated stent showed comparable inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and neointimal hyperplasia with other drug-eluting stents in a porcine coronary restenosis model.
Stents; Inflammation; Blood Platelets
Insulin resistance is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, there has been no data regarding its clinical effect on the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in non-diabetic patients. We analyzed 98 non-diabetic consecutive patients (59±11.5 yr, male:female=63:35) who underwent elective coronary angiography. The patients were divided into two groups: Group I (n=71; the value of HOMA-IR [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance] <2.6) and Group II (n=27; the value of HOMA-IR ≥2.6). In-hospital and 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were compared between the two groups. The concentrations of fasting insulin and triglyceride were significantly higher in Group II than in Group I. Significant correlations were observed between the value of HOMA-IR and body mass index (r=0.489, p<0.001), levels of total cholesterol (r=0.204, p=0.045), triglyceride (r=0.334, p=0.001) and apolipoprotein B (r=0.212, p=0.038). PCI was performed in 59 patients (60.2%). In-hospital and 30-day MACE were higher in Group II than Group I (2.4% vs. 27.8%, p=0.008; 2.4% vs. 27.8%, p=0.008). Multivariate analysis revealed that the value of HOMA-IR ≥2.6 was an independent predictor of MACE. Increased HOMA-IR level is an important prognostic indicator in non-diabetic patients underwent PCI.
Coronary Disease; Insulin; Prognosis; Angioplasty
The present study aimed to investigate the impact of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and renal dysfunction on clinical outcomes in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.
Materials and Methods
The study involved a retrospective cohort of 8332 patients admitted with AMI. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and hs-CRP: group I, no renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2) with low hs-CRP (≤2.0 mg/dL); group II, no renal dysfunction with high hs-CRP; group III, renal dysfunction with low hs-CRP; and group IV, renal dysfunction with high hs-CRP. We compared major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a 1-year follow-up period.
The 4 groups demonstrated a graded association with increased MACE rates (group I, 8.8%; group II, 13.8%; group III, 18.6%; group IV, 30.1%; p<0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, mortality at 12 months increased in groups II, III, and IV compared with group I [hazard ratio (HR) 2.038, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.450-2.863, p<0.001; HR 3.003, 95% CI 2.269-3.974, p<0.001; HR 5.087, 95% CI 3.755-6.891, p<0.001].
High hs-CRP, especially in association with renal dysfunction, is related to the occurrence of composite MACE, and indicates poor prognosis in AMI patients.
C-reactive protein; glomerular filtration rate; myocardial infarction
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely studied for their applications in stem cell-based regeneration. During myocardial infarction (MI), infiltrated macrophages have pivotal roles in inflammation, angiogenesis and cardiac remodeling. We hypothesized that MSCs may modulate the immunologic environment to accelerate regeneration. This study was designed to assess the functional relationship between the macrophage phenotype and MSCs. MSCs isolated from bone marrow and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) underwent differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor. To determine the macrophage phenotype, classical M1 markers and alternative M2 markers were analyzed with or without co-culturing with MSCs in a transwell system. For animal studies, MI was induced by the ligation of the rat coronary artery. MSCs were injected within the infarct myocardium, and we analyzed the phenotype of the infiltrated macrophages by immunostaining. In the MSC-injected myocardium, the macrophages adjacent to the MSCs showed strong expression of arginase-1 (Arg1), an M2 marker. In BMDMs co-cultured with MSCs, the M1 markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were significantly reduced. In contrast, the M2 markers such as IL-10, IL-4, CD206 and Arg1 were markedly increased by co-culturing with MSCs. Specifically, the ratio of iNOS to Arg1 in BMDMs was notably downregulated by co-culturing with MSCs. These results suggest that the preferential shift of the macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2 may be related to the immune-modulating characteristics of MSCs that contribute to cardiac repair.
immunologic environment; macrophage; mesenchymal stem cell; myocardial infarction
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of diabetes on short- and mid-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Between October 2005 and December 2009, a total of 22,347 patients with AMI from a nationwide registry was analyzed. At the time point of the day 30 after AMI onset, landmark analyses were performed for the development of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, re-infarction and revascularization. In this cohort, 6,131 patients (27.4%) had diabetes. Short-term MACEs, which occurred within 30 days of AMI onset, were observed in 1,364 patients (6.1%). Among the 30-day survivors (n = 21,604), mid-term MACEs, which occurred between 31 and 365 days after AMI onset, were observed in 1,181 patients (5.4%). After adjustment for potential confounders, diabetes was an independent predictor of mid-term MACEs (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.08-1.45; P = 0.002), but not of short-term MACEs (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.93-1.44; P = 0.167). Diabetes is a poor prognostic factor for mid-term clinical outcomes but not for short-term outcomes in AMI patients. Careful monitoring and intensive care should be considered in diabetic patients, especially following the acute stage of AMI.
Diabetes Mellitus; Myocardial Infarction; Prognosis
Single coronary artery is a rare coronary artery anomaly. Very few previous reports of this anatomical malformation in swine have been found. A 22 kg Yorkshire X Landrace F1 crossbred castrated male swine was presented for enrollment in a coronary stent implantion study. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery arising from the right aortic sinus. The right coronary artery and anomalous left coronary artery were implanted with novel coronary stents without any side effects.
Coronary stents; coronary artery; coronary artery malformations
Statins have pleiotropic effects, which include the inhibition of neointima hyperplasia, the inhibition of vascular inflammation, and platelet inhibition. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an atorvastatin-eluting stent (AES) in a rabbit iliac artery overstretch restenosis model. Ten rabbits were used in this study (10 rabbits, 10 iliac arteries for each stent). An AES and paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) were implanted in the left and right iliac arteries in a rabbit (2 stents in each rabbit). The stents were deployed with oversizing (stent/artery ratio 1.3:1), and histopathologic analysis was assessed at 28 days after stenting. There were no significant differences in the injury score, lumen area, or inflammation score. There were significant differences in the neointimal area (0.7±0.18 mm2 in the AES group vs. 0.4±0.25 mm2 in the PES group, p<0.01), in the percentage stenosis area (14.8±5.06% in the AES group vs. 10.5±6.80% in the PES group, p<0.05), and in the fibrin score (0.4±0.51 in the AES group vs. 2.7±0.48 in the PES group, p<0.001). Although the AES did not suppress neointimal hyperplasia compared with the PES, it showed a superior arterial healing effect in a rabbit iliac artery overstretch restenosis model.
Drug-eluting Stents; Coronary Restenosis; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; Inflammation
We aimed comparing two-year clinical outcomes of the Everolimus-Eluting Promus and Paclitaxel-Eluting TAXUS Liberte stents used in routine clinical practice. Patients with objective evidence of ischemia and coronary artery disease eligible for PCI were prospectively randomized to everolimus-eluting stent (EES) or paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) groups. The primary end-point was ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization (TVR) at 2 yr after intervention, and the secondary end-point was a major adverse cardiac event (MACE), such as death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), TVR or stent thrombosis. A total of 850 patients with 1,039 lesions was randomized to the EES (n=425) and PES (n=425) groups. Ischemic-driven TVR at 2 yr was 3.8% in the PES and 1.2% in the EES group (P for non-inferiority=0.021). MACE rates were significantly different; 5.6% in PES and 2.5% in EES (P = 0.027). Rates of MI (0.8% in PES vs 0.2% in EES, P = 0.308), all deaths (1.5% in PES vs 1.2% in EES, P = 0.739) and stent thrombosis (0.3% in PES vs 0.7% in EES, P = 0.325) were similar. The clinical outcomes of EES are superior to PES, mainly due to a reduction in the rate of ischemia-driven TVR.
Everolimus-Eluting Stent; Paclitaxel-Eluting Stent
Background and Objectives
The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of progressive dilation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) combined with heart failure (HF) and determine the prognostic significance and associated factors with a geometric change of an infarcted heart.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 1310 AMI patients with HF (63.9±12.5 years, 70% male) between November 2005 and April 2011 underwent echocardiography at admission and one year later. Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is defined as 20% progression, and left atria (LA) remodeling is 10% compared with the initial volume index.
The prevalence of both LA and LV remodeling was 13.9%; LV only was 9.3%, LA only 22.8% and non-remodeling was 55.1%, respectively. In the non-remodeling group, Killip class II was more frequent (83.9%, p<0.001) whereas in other remodeling groups, Killip class III was more frequent. Initial wall motion score index, ejection fraction, maximal cardiac enzyme, high sensitive C-reactive protein, B type natriuretic peptide, and triglyceride serum levels were significantly associated with heart remodeling. All causes of death occurred in 168 cases (12.8%) during the follow-up period. Mortality was the highest in the LV and LA remodeling group (20.9%) and the lowest in the non-remodeling group (11.4%). During the period of follow-up, the cumulative survival rate was significantly lower in the groups of LA and LV remodeling than in others (log rank p=0.006).
Total mortality was significantly increased in patients AMI with geometrically progressive LA and LV dilatation.
Myocardial infarction; Ventricular remodeling; Heart failure; Prognosis
Background and Objectives
The aim of this study was to examine the histolopathogical effects among the biolimus, zotarolimus, and everolimus eluting stent (EES) in the porcine coronary restenosis model.
Subjects and Methods
Pigs were randomized into three groups in which the coronary arteries (15 pigs, 10 coronaries in each group) had either a biolimus A9 eluting stent (BES, n=10), zotarolimus eluting stent (ZES, n=10) or an EES (n=10). Histopathologic analysis was performed at 28 days after stenting.
There were no significant differences in the injury score among the three groups. There was a significant difference in the internal elastic lamina, lumen area, neointima area, percent area stenosis, and the fibrin and inflammation score among the three groups (4.3±0.53 mm2, 2.5±0.93 mm2, 1.8±1.03 mm2, 40.7±20.80%, 1.7±0.41, 1.4±0.72 in the BES group vs. 5.1±0.55 mm2, 2.3±1.14 mm2, 2.8±1.00 mm2, 55.4±21.23%, 2.0±0.39, 1.6±0.76 in the ZES group vs. 4.4±0.53 mm2, 1.7±1.22 mm2, 2.8±1.23 mm2, 64.0±26.00%, 1.8±0.76, 2.1±0.90 in the EES group, respectively). BES is more effective in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia compared to ZES and EES (p<0.0001). According to the fibrin and inflammation score, BES and EES are more effective in decreasing the fibrin deposition compared to ZES (p<0.001). Moreover, BES and ZES are more effective in reducing the inflammatory reaction compared to EES (p<0.001).
The result demonstrates that BES shows better histopathological characteristics than ZES and EES at one month after stenting in the porcine coronary restenosis model.
Drug-eluting stents; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Coronary restenosis; Inflammation
Background and Objectives
The high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a marker of inflammation, has been known to be elevated in patients with coronary artery disease. However, there is controversy about the predictive value of hs-CRP after acute myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, we evaluated the impact of ischemic time on the predictive value of hs-CRP in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who were treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Subjects and Methods
We enrolled 5123 STEMI patients treated by primary PCI from the Korean Working Group in Myocardial Infarction and divided enrolled patients into four groups by symptom-to-balloon time (SBT) and level of hs-CRP (Group I: SBT <6 hours and hs-CRP <3 mg/L, Group II: SBT <6 hours and hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L, Group III: SBT ≥6 hours and hs-CRP <3 mg/L, and Group IV: SBT ≥6 hours and hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L). To evaluate the impact of ischemic time on the predictive value of hs-CRP in STEMI patients, we compared the cumulative cardiac event-free survival rate between these four groups.
The sum of the cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and recurrence of MI was higher in Group IV than in the other groups. However, there was no significant difference among Group I, Group II, and Group III. The Cox-regression analyses showed that an elevated level of hs-CRP (≥3 mg/L) was an independent predictor of long-term cardiovascular outcomes only among late-presenting STEMI patients (p=0.017, hazard ratio=2.462).
For STEMI patients with a long ischemic time (≥6 hours), an elevated level of hs-CRP is a poor prognostic factor of long-term cardiovascular outcomes.
C-reactive protein; Myocardial infarction; Myocardial reperfusion