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author:("Hou, fanfani")
1.  Detection of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaques with Ultrasound Molecular Imaging of Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor on Activated Platelets 
Theranostics  2015;5(4):418-430.
Objective: Ultrasound molecular imaging (UMI) of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor on activated platelets offers a unique means of identifying high-risk atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that contrast-enhanced ultrasound with microbubbles (MBs) targeted to GP IIb/IIIa could be used to detect and quantify activated platelets on the surface of advanced plaques.
Methods and Results: A mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis was generated by maintaining apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice on a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD). The three other experimental groups consisted of ApoE-/- and wild-type (C57BL/6) mice fed a normal chow diet and C57BL/6 mice on an HCD diet. Plaque formation was confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical methods using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. Mice were injected with a lipid MB-conjugated cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide or nonspecific control peptide, and the abdominal aorta was examined by UMI. The accumulation of GP IIb/IIIa and activated platelets on the surface of atherosclerotic plaques was highest in the ApoE-/-+HCD group, followed by ApoE-/-+chow, C57BL/6+HCD, and C57BL/6+chow groups (P<0.05). Notably, GP IIb/IIIa expression was associated with the vulnerability index and necrotic center/fiber cap ratio (P<0.05), and contrast video intensity from adhered cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-modified MBs (MB-cRGDs) was correlated with GP IIb/IIIa expression on the plaque surface (P<0.05).
Conclusion: GP IIb/IIIa of activated platelets on the atherosclerotic endothelium is a biomarker for high-risk plaques that can be quantified by UMI using MB-cRGDs, providing a noninvasive means for detecting high-risk plaques and preventing acute cardiovascular events.
PMCID: PMC4329504
Atherosclerosis; Microbubbles; Molecular imaging; Platelets; Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa
2.  Distribution and Determinants of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Rural Chinese Twins across the Lifespan 
Nutrients  2014;6(12):5900-5914.
Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to describe the gender- and age-specific distribution of Hcy concentration for 1117 subjects aged 10–66 years, a subset of a community-based rural Chinese twin cohort. In addition, we examined environmental and genetic contributions to variances in Hcy concentration by gender and age groups. We found that the distribution pattern for Hcy varied by both age and gender. Males had higher Hcy than females across all ages. Elevated Hcy was found in 43% of male adults and 13% of female adults. Moreover, nearly one fifth of children had elevated Hcy. Genetic factors could explain 52%, 36% and 69% of the variation in Hcy concentration among children, male adults and female adults, respectively. The MTHFR C677T variant was significantly associated with Hcy concentrations. Smokers with the TT genotype had the highest Hcy levels. Overall, our results indicate that elevated Hcy is prevalent in the children and adults in this rural Chinese population. The early identification of elevated Hcy will offer a window of opportunity for the primary prevention of CVD and metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC4277006  PMID: 25529062
homocysteine; Chinese twins; heritability; gender difference; smoking
3.  Mineral and bone disorder in Chinese dialysis patients: a multicenter study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:116.
Mineral and bone disorder (MBD) in patients with chronic kidney disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Studies regarding the status of MBD treatment in developing countries, especially in Chinese dialysis patients are extremely limited.
A cross-sectional study of 1711 haemodialysis (HD) patients and 363 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were enrolled. Parameters related to MBD, including serum phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were analyzed. The achievement of MBD targets was compared with the results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Study (DOPPS) 3 and DOPPS 4. Factors associated with hyperphosphatemia were examined.
Total 2074 dialysis patients from 28 hospitals were involved in this study. Only 38.5%, 39.6% and 26.6% of them met the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) defined targets for serum P, Ca and iPTH levels. Serum P and Ca levels were statistically higher (P < 0.05) in the HD patients compared with those of PD patients, which was (6.3 ± 2.1) mg/dL vs (5.7 ± 2.0) mg/dL and (9.3 ± 1.1) mg/dL vs (9.2 ± 1.1) mg/dL, respectively. Serum iPTH level were statistically higher in the PD patients compared with those of HD patients (P = 0.03). The percentage of patients reached the K/DOQI targets for P (37.6% vs 49.8% vs 54.5%, P < 0.01), Ca (38.6% vs 50.4% vs 56.0%, P < 0.01) and iPTH (26.5% vs 31.4% vs 32.1%, P < 0.01) were lower among HD patients, compared with the data from DOPPS 3 and DOPPS 4. The percentage of patients with serum phosphorus level above 5.5 mg/dL was 57.4% in HD patients and 47.4% in PD patients. Age, dialysis patterns and region of residency were independently associated with hyperphosphatemia.
Status of MBD is sub-optimal among Chinese patients receiving dialysis. The issue of hyperphosphatemia is prominent and needs further attention.
PMCID: PMC3507668  PMID: 22994525
End stage renal disease; Mineral and bone disorder; Epidemiology
4.  China collaborative study on dialysis: a multi-centers cohort study on cardiovascular diseases in patients on maintenance dialysis 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:94.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in patients on chronic dialysis. The question whether dialysis modality impacts cardiovascular risk remains to be addressed. China Collaborative Study on Dialysis, a multi-centers cohort study, was performed to evaluate cardiovascular morbidity during maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD).
The cohort consisted of chronic dialysis patients from the database of 9 of the largest dialysis facilities around China. The inclusion period was between January 1, 2005, and December 1, 2010. Cardiovascular morbidity was defined as the presence of clinically diagnosed ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and/or stroke. The patients who had cardiovascular morbidity before initiation of dialysis were excluded. Data collection was based on review of medical record.
A total of 2,388 adult patients (1,775 on HD and 613 on PD) were enrolled. Cardiovascular morbidity affected 57% patients and was comparable between HD and PD patients. However, clinically diagnosed ischemic heart disease and stroke was more prevalent in PD than HD patients. When the patients were stratified by age or dialysis vintage, the cardiovascular morbidity was significantly higher in PD than HD among those aged 50 years or older, or those receiving dialysis over 36 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity had different pattern in PD and HD patients. Hyperglycemia was the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity in PD, but not in HD patients. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypoalbuminemia were independently associated with CVD only in PD patients.
Cardiovascular morbidity during chronic dialysis was more prevalent in PD than HD patients among those with old age and long-term dialysis. Metabolic disturbance-related risk factors were independently associated with CVD only in PD patients. Better understanding the impact of dialysis modality on CVD would be an important step for prevention and treatment.
PMCID: PMC3502162  PMID: 22935444
Cardiovascular morbidity; Dialysis modality; Risk factor
5.  Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism is associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive Chinese males 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:74.
Plasma level of total homocysteine (tHcy) is negatively correlated with kidney function in general population. However, the causal mechanism of this correlation is poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism, which is a major genetic determinant of the plasma tHcy level, with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Chinese.
A total of 18 814 hypertensive patients (6 914 males, 11 900 females) were included in the study.
Association between the eGFR and MTHFR C677T genotype was examined by sex-specific regression analyses. In males, TT genotype was associated with 1.37 ml/min/1.73 m2 decrease in eGFR (p = 0.004) and with an increased risk (OR = 1.32, p = 0.008) for the lowest quintile of eGFR after adjusting for age, BMI, and blood pressures. However, such association was not observed in females (p > 0.05). This association suggests MTHFR C677T polymorphism may play a role in the regulation of eGFR in males.
MTHFR 677 T is a risk allele for decreased kidney function in Chinese males, implicating this gene in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
PMCID: PMC3458982  PMID: 22897803
MTHFR C677T polymorphism; eGFR; CKD
6.  Acute and acute-on-chronic kidney injury of patients with decompensated heart failure: impact on outcomes 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:51.
Acute worsening of renal function, an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), occurs as a consequence of new onset kidney injury (AKI) or acute deterioration of pre-existed chronic kidney disease (CKD) (acute-on-chronic kidney injury, ACKI). However, the possible difference in prognostic implication between AKI and ACKI has not been well established.
We studied all consecutive patients hospitalized with ADHF from 2003 through 2010 in Nanfang Hospital. We classified patients as with or without pre-existed CKD based on the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over a six-month period before hospitalization. AKI and ACKI were defined by RIFLE criteria according to the increase of the index serum creatinine.
A total of 1,005 patients were enrolled. The incidence of ACKI was higher than that of AKI. The proportion of patients with diuretic resistance was higher among patients with pre-existed CKD than among those without CKD (16.9% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.002). Compared with AKI, ACKI was associated with higher risk for in-hospital mortality, long hospital stay, and failure in renal function recovery. Pre-existed CKD and development of acute worsening of renal function during hospitalization were the independent risk factors for in-hospital death after adjustment by the other risk factors. The RIFLE classification predicted all-cause and cardiac mortality in both AKI and ACKI.
Patients with ACKI were at greatest risk of adverse short-term outcomes in ADHF. Monitoring eGFR and identifying CKD should not be ignored in patients with cardiovascular disease.
PMCID: PMC3411407  PMID: 22747708
Acute decompensated heart failure; Acute kidney injury; Acute-on-chronic kidney injury; Outcome

Results 1-6 (6)