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1.  Peritoneal transport: getting more complicated 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2012;27(12):4248-4251.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfs385
PMCID: PMC3520086  PMID: 23042708
2.  Relative Survival of Peritoneal Dialysis and Haemodialysis Patients: Effect of Cohort and Mode of Dialysis Initiation 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90119.
Introduction
Epidemiological studies consistently show an initial survival advantage for PD patients compared to HD. It has recently been suggested that this is due to the fact that many HD patients are referred late, and start dialysis on an acute, in-patient basis. The present study was performed to investigate (1) whether, and if so, how, PD and HD prognosis had changed in recent years, (2) whether a potential survival advantage of PD versus HD is constant over dialysis duration, and (3) whether differences in prognosis could be explained by patient age, renal diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy, or mode of dialysis initiation.
Patients and Methods
12095 patients starting dialysis therapy between 1990 and 2010 in Denmark were studied. Prognosis was assessed according to initial dialysis modality on an intention-to-treat basis, censored for transplantation. Results were adjusted for age, sex, renal diagnosis, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and mode of dialysis initiation.
Results
Overall adjusted prognosis improved by 34% (HD 30%, PD 42%). PD prognosis relative to HD improved, and was 16% better at the end of the period. Final PD prognosis improved consistently from 1990–99 to 2000–10 in all subgroups. PD was associated with a significant initial survival advantage, both overall and for all subgroups For the latter cohort, overall PD prognosis was better than HD for the first 4 years, after which it was insignificantly worse. The initial survival advantage was also present in a subgroup analysis of patients with early & routine ESRD initiation.
Conclusions
Dialysis survival has increased during the past 20 years. PD survival since 2000 has been better than HD, overall and for all subgroups. The difference in survival is not explained by mode of dialysis initiation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090119
PMCID: PMC3948631  PMID: 24614569
3.  Renal replacement therapy in Europe: a summary of the 2011 ERA–EDTA Registry Annual Report 
Clinical Kidney Journal  2014;7(2):227-238.
Background
This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA–EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org).
Methods
Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the Mediterranean Sea were used. From 27 registries, individual patient data were received, whereas 17 registries contributed data in aggregated form. We present the incidence and prevalence of RRT, and renal transplant rates in 2011. In addition, survival probabilities and expected remaining lifetimes were calculated for those registries providing individual patient data.
Results
The overall unadjusted incidence rate of RRT in 2011 among all registries reporting to the ERA–EDTA Registry was 117 per million population (pmp) (n = 71.631). Incidence rates varied from 24 pmp in Ukraine to 238 pmp in Turkey. The overall unadjusted prevalence of RRT for ESRD on 31 December 2011 was 692 pmp (n = 425 824). The highest prevalence was reported by Portugal (1662 pmp) and the lowest by Ukraine (131 pmp). Among all registries, a total of 22 814 renal transplantations were performed (37 pmp). The highest overall transplant rate was reported from Spain, Cantabria (81 pmp), whereas the highest rate of living donor transplants was reported from Turkey (39 pmp). For patients who started RRT between 2002 and 2006, the unadjusted 5-year patient survival on RRT was 46.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 46.6–47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2–39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2–87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6–95.0) for kidneys from living donors.
doi:10.1093/ckj/sfu007
PMCID: PMC4377783  PMID: 25852881
end-stage renal disease; incidence; prevalence; renal replacement therapy; survival
4.  Renal replacement therapy in Europe—a summary of the 2010 ERA–EDTA Registry Annual Report 
Clinical Kidney Journal  2013;6(1):105-115.
Background
This study provides a summary of the 2010 European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA–EDTA) Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org).
Methods
This report includes data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) using data from the national and regional renal registries in 29 countries in Europe and bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Individual patient data were received from 27 registries, whereas 18 registries contributed data in aggregated form. We present incidence and prevalence of RRT, transplant rates, survival probabilities and expected remaining lifetimes. The latter two are solely based on individual patient records.
Results
In 2010, the overall incidence rate of RRT for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among all registries reporting to the ERA–EDTA Registry was 123 per million population (pmp) (n = 91 798). The highest incidence rate was reported by Turkey (252pmp) and the lowest reported by Montenegro (21 pmp). The overall prevalence of RRT for ESRD at 31 December 2010 among all registries reporting to the ERA–EDTA Registry was 741 pmp (n = 551 005). The prevalence varied from 124 pmp in Ukraine to 1580 pmp in Portugal. The overall number of renal transplantations performed in 2010 among all registries was 29.2 pmp (n = 21 740). The highest overall transplant rate was reported from Spain, Cantabria (73 pmp), whereas the highest transplant rate for living donor kidneys was reported from the Netherlands (28 pmp). For patients who started RRT between 2001 and 2005, the unadjusted 5-year patient survival on RRT was 46.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 46.0–46.3], and on dialysis 38.6% (95% CI 38.5–38.8). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2001 and 2005 was 86.6% (95% CI 86.1–87.1) for deceased donor kidneys and 94.1% (95% CI 93.4–94.8) for living donor kidneys.
doi:10.1093/ckj/sfs164
PMCID: PMC5094410  PMID: 27818766
5.  Reduced incidence of end stage renal disease among the elderly in Denmark: an observational study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:131.
Background
A number of studies during the nineties have shown that antihypertensive therapy, particularly using RAS blockade, can reduce uremia progression, and ESRD incidence.
Methods
National incidence rates were studied of end stage renal disease (ESRD) for Denmark between 1990 and 2011, and of national prescription of antihypertensive drugs between 1995 and 2010, in order to investigate whether prescription rates had changed, and whether the expected change in ESRD had materialized. The Danish Nephrology Registry (DNR) is incident and comprehensive. Incidence rates were classified according to renal diagnosis.
Results
ESRD incidence was constant for age groups <60 years. Incidence rates rose during the nineties for all cohorts >60 years. Since 2001 rates for subjects 60–70 years have fallen from 400 ppm/yr to 234, and since 2002 for subjects 70–80 years from 592 to 398. The incidence of patients >80 years has increased to 341. The falling incidence for patients 60–80 years was distributed among a number of diagnoses. Since 1995 national antihypertensive drug therapy has increased from 24.5 defined daily doses (DDD)/citizen/yr to 101.3, and the proportion using renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade from 34 to 58%.
Conclusions
This national study has shown a reduction in actively treated ESRD incidence among patients aged 60–80 years. It is possible that this is the result of increased antihypertensive prescription rates, particularly with RAS blockade. If it is assumed that therapeutic intervention is the cause of the observed reduced incidence, ESRD incidence has been reduced by 33.8 ppm/yr, prevalence by 121 ppm, and ESRD expenditure by 6 €/citizen/yr.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-131
PMCID: PMC3477024  PMID: 23033904
ESRD; Epidemiology; Uremia progression; Hypertension; Antihypertensive therapy; ACE inhibition
6.  Clinical management of disturbances of calcium and phosphate metabolism in dialysis patients 
NDT Plus  2009;2(4):267-272.
Management of chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder can be difficult in renal patients. This review aims to explain why the control of disturbed calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolism is important in dialysis patients. The methods available to regulate these parameters include diet, phosphate binders, dialysate calcium, native vitamin D, active vitamin D derivatives and calcimimetics. An overview of current treatment guidelines will be discussed.
doi:10.1093/ndtplus/sfp044
PMCID: PMC4421242  PMID: 25984012
calcium; phosphate; PTH; uraemia; vitamin D

Results 1-6 (6)