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1.  Limited knowledge of chronic kidney disease among primary care patients – a cross-sectional survey 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:54.
Background
Kidney disease is the 9th leading cause of death in Singapore. While preventive effects have focused on early detection and education, little is known about the knowledge level of chronic kidney disease (CKD) locally. We seek to evaluate the knowledge of CKD among primary care patients.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1520 patients from 3 primary care centers. Those with existing CKD or on dialysis were excluded. Knowledge was assessed based on 7 questions on CKD in the self-administered questionnaire. One point was given for each correct answer with a maximum of 7 points.
Results
1435 completed all 7 questions on CKD. Mean age was 48.9 ±15.0 (SD) years. 50.9% were male. 62.3% had a secondary and below education and 52.4% had a monthly household income of ≤ $2000. 43.7% had chronic diseases. Mean score was 3.44 ± 1.53 (out of a maximum of 7). Median score was 4. In multivariate logistic regression, being older {>60 years [Odds Ratio (OR) 0.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.32-0.79]; 40–60 years (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43,0.89)}, less educated [up to primary education (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.49)], having a lower monthly household income [
Conclusion
This suggests that CKD education should be targeted at older patients with lower education and lower socioeconomic status.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-54
PMCID: PMC3411443  PMID: 22747853
Chronic kidney disease; General knowledge; Influencing factors; Primary care

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