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1.  Pulmonary Congestion and Physical Functioning in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients 
♦ Purpose: Decline in physical function is commonly observed in patients with kidney failure on dialysis. Whether lung congestion, a predictable consequence of cardiomyopathy and fluid overload, may contribute to the low physical functioning of these patients has not been investigated.
♦ Methods: In 51 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we investigated the cross-sectional association between the physical functioning scale of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF: Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA) and an ultrasonographic measure of lung water recently validated in dialysis patients. The relationship between physical functioning and lung water was also analyzed taking into account the severity of dyspnea measured using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification currently used to grade the severity of heart failure.
♦ Results: Evidence of moderate-to-severe lung congestion was evident in 20 patients, and this alteration was asymptomatic (that is, NHYHA class I) in 11 patients (55%). On univariate analysis, physical functioning was inversely associated with lung water (r = -0.48, p < 0.001), age (r = -0.44, p = 0.001), previous cardiovascular events (r = -0.46, p = 0.001), and fibrinogen (r = -0.34, p = 0.02). Physical functioning was directly associated with blood pressure, the strongest association being with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.38, p = 0.006). The NYHA class correlated inversely with physical functioning (r = -0.51, p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, only lung water and fibrinogen remained independent correlates of physical functioning. The NYHA class failed to maintain its independent association.
♦ Conclusions: This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that symptomatic and asymptomatic lung congestion is a relevant factor in the poor physical functioning of patients on PD.
doi:10.3747/pdi.2010.00250
PMCID: PMC3524861  PMID: 22942271
KDQOL-SF; physical functioning; lung comets; NYHA class
2.  Severe hyponatraemia during sepsis and marijuana addiction 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0120113755.
The authors report a 29-year-old kidney transplant patient who presented, four episodes of severe hyponatraemia associated with sepsis from 2006 to 2010. He was a long-term user of marijuana. The association between severe recurrent hyponatraemia during sepsis and marijuana addiction might not be casual, since experimental data show that vasopressin release induced by sepsis is modulated by the endocannabinoid system.
doi:10.1136/bcr.01.2011.3755
PMCID: PMC3070324  PMID: 22700344
3.  Hypokalaemia with paralysis: don’t forget the thyroid 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0120113721.
The authors report the case of a 33-year-old Italian man who had three episodes of hypokalaemia with paralysis linked to hyperthyroidism. Because of its low prevalence in western populations, the diagnosis of thyrotoxic hypokalaemic periodic paralysis can be easily missed in non-Asian countries.
doi:10.1136/bcr.01.2011.3721
PMCID: PMC3070323  PMID: 22699462
4.  Pro-inflammatory cytokines and bone fractures in CKD patients. An exploratory single centre study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:134.
Background
Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in bone remodeling. Inflammation is highly prevalent in CKD-5D patients, but the relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and fractures in CKD-5D patients is unclear. We studied the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and incident bone fractures in a cohort of CKD-5D patients.
Methods
In 100 CKD-5D patients (66 on HD, 34 on CAPD; males:63, females:37; mean age: 61 ± 15; median dialysis vintage: 43 months) belonging to a single renal Unit, we measured at enrolment bone metabolic parameters (intact PTH, bone and total alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphate) and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CRP). Patients were followed-up until the first non traumatic fracture.
Results
During follow-up (median: 74 months; range 0.5 -84.0) 18 patients experienced fractures. On categorical analysis these patients compared to those without fractures had significantly higher intact PTH (median: 319 pg/ml IQ range: 95–741 vs 135 pg/ml IQ: 53–346; p = 0.04) and TNF-α levels (median: 12 pg/ml IQ: 6.4-13.4 vs 7.8 pg/ml IQ: 4.6-11; p = 0.02). Both TNF-α (HR for 5 pg/ml increase in TNF-α: 1.62 95% CI: 1.05-2.50; p = 0.03) and intact PTH (HR for 100 pg/ml increase in PTH: 1.15 95% CI: 1.04-1.27; p = 0.005) predicted bone fractures on univariate Cox’s regression analysis. In restricted (bivariate) models adjusting for previous fractures, age, sex and other risk factors both PTH and TNF-α maintained an independent association with incident fractures.
Conclusions
In our bivariate analyses TNF-α was significantly associated with incident fractures. Analyses in larger cohorts and with adequate number of events are needed to firmly establish the TNF α -fracture link emerged in the present study.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-134
PMCID: PMC3472278  PMID: 23043229
Bone fractures; CKD; Dialysis; Hyperparathyroidism; TNF-alpha; Inflammation

Results 1-4 (4)