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1.  Analysis of kidney dysfunction in orthopaedic patients 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:101.
Backround
This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence of kidney dysfunction (KD) and to identify potential risk factors contributing to development of KD in orthopaedic population following an elective or emergency surgery.
Methods
A total of 1025 patients were admitted in our institution over a period of one year with various indications. Eight hundred and ninety-three patients (87.1%) had a surgical procedure. There were 42 (52.5%) male and 38 (47.5%) female with a mean age of 72 years (range: 47 to 87 years). We evaluated the following potential risk factors: age, comorbidities, shock, hypotension, heart failure, medications (antibiotics, NSAIDs, opiates), rhabdomyolysis, imaging contrast agents and pre-existing KD.
Results
The overall incidence of KD was 8.9%. Sixty-eight patients developed acute renal injury (AKI) and 12 patients developed acute on chronic kidney disease (CKD). In sixty-six (82.5%) patients renal function was reversed to initial preoperative status. Perioperative dehydration (p = 0.002), history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.003), pre-existing KD (p = 0.004), perioperative shock (p = 0.021) and administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p = 0.028) or nephrotoxic antibiotics (p = 0.037) were statistically significantly correlated with the development of postoperative KD and failure to gain the preoperative renal function.
Conclusion
We conclude that every patient with risk factor for postoperative KD should be under closed evaluation and monitoring.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-101
PMCID: PMC3483193  PMID: 22943390
Kidney dysfunction (KD); Orthopaedic population; Surgical procedure

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