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1.  Effect of Food Insecurity on Chronic Kidney Disease in Lower Income Americans 
American journal of nephrology  2014;39(1):27-35.
The relation of food insecurity (inability to acquire nutritionally adequate and safe foods) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. We examined whether food insecurity is associated with prevalent CKD among lower income individuals in both the general U.S. adult population and an urban population.
We conducted cross-sectional analyses of lower income participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2008 (n=9,126); and the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study (n=1,239). Food insecurity was defined based on questionnaires and CKD was defined by reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria; adjustment was performed with multivariable logistic regression.
In NHANES, the age-adjusted prevalence of CKD was 20.3%, 17.6% and 15.7% for the high, marginal and no food insecurity groups, respectively. Analyses adjusting for sociodemographics and smoking status revealed high food insecurity to be associated with greater odds of CKD only among participants with either diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–2.45 comparing high to no food insecurity group] or hypertension (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03–1.82). In HANDLS, the age-adjusted CKD prevalence was 5.9% and 4.6% for those with and without food insecurity, respectively (P=0.33). Food insecurity was associated with a trend towards greater odds of CKD (OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.98–2.18) with no evidence of effect modification across diabetes, hypertension or obesity subgroups.
Food insecurity may contribute to disparities in kidney disease, especially among persons with diabetes or hypertension, and is worthy of further study.
PMCID: PMC3952065  PMID: 24434743
renal; socioeconomic status; disparity; nutrition
2.  Low Income and Albuminuria Among REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study Participants 
Albuminuria is an important risk factor for progressive CKD and is more prevalent among black than among white adults. We sought to determine the association between low income and albuminuria, and if this association differs for blacks and whites.
Study Design
Cross-sectional study.
Setting & Participants
9,144 black and 13,684 white U.S. adults aged 45 years and older in the population-based REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study.
Self-reported annual household income category (≥$75,000, 35,000 – $74,999, $20,000 – $34,999, and <$20,000); black and white race.
Outcomes & Measurements
Albuminuria defined as high (30 to 300 mg/g) or very high (>300 mg/g) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Multinomial logistic regression used to examine the race-stratified association between categories of income and albuminuria (normal, high, or very high ACR).
Overall, geometric mean ACR was 10.2 mg/g, and was higher for blacks (11.8 mg/g) than for whites (9.3 mg/g), p <0.001. Lower income was associated with a higher prevalence of albuminuria for both whites and blacks in unadjusted analyses. After adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, comorbid illnesses and estimated glomerular filtration rate, there was a trend towards a stronger association between lower income levels and high ACR among blacks [ORs of 1.38 (95% CI, 1.07 – 1.77), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.05 – 1.75), and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.21–2.05), for income levels of $35,000 – $74,999, $20,000 – $34,999, and <$20,000, respectively; reference group is those with income ≥$75,000] compared to whites [ORs of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.81 – 1.12), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.79 – 1.14), and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.02 – 1.55), respectively]; P interaction 0.08 between race and income. Results were similar for very high ACR, and subgroups of participants with diabetes or hypertension.
Cross-sectional design; not all REGARDS participants provided their annual income.
Lower income may be more strongly associated with albuminuria among blacks than among whites, and may be a determinant of racial disparities in albuminuria.
PMCID: PMC3448844  PMID: 22694949
Race; albuminuria; poverty; chronic kidney disease; socioeconomic status; disparity
3.  Poverty, Race, and CKD in a Racially and Socioeconomically Diverse Urban Population 
Low socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are both independently associated with end-stage renal disease and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD), however, despite their frequent co-occurrence, the effect of low SES independent of race has not been well-studied in CKD.
Study Design
Cross-sectional study.
Setting & Participants
2,375 community-dwelling adults age 30-64 years residing within 12 neighborhoods selected for both socioeconomic and racial diversity in Baltimore City, Maryland.
Low SES [self-reported household income <125% of 2004 Department of Health and Human Services guideline], higher SES (≥125% of guideline); white and African American race.
Outcomes & Measurements
CKD defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Logistic regression used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for relationship between poverty and CKD, stratified by race.
Of 2,375 participants; 955 were white (347 low SES and 608 higher SES); 1,420 were African American (713 low SES and 707 higher SES). A total of 146 (6.2%) participants had CKD. Overall, race was not associated with CKD [OR, 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.57-1.96]; however, African Americans had a much greater odds of advanced CKD (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2). Low SES was independently associated with 59% greater odds of CKD after adjustment for demographics, insurance status and comorbid disease (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.27-1.99). However, when stratified by race, low SES was associated with CKD in African Americans (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.54-2.38), but not in whites (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.58-1.55; P for interaction, 0.003).
Cross-sectional design; findings may not be generalizable to non-urban populations.
Low SES has a profound relationship with CKD in African Americans but not in whites in an urban population of adults, and its role in the racial disparities seen in CKD is worthy of further investigation.
PMCID: PMC2876201  PMID: 20207457
Socioeconomic status; health disparities; epidemiology; renal disease
4.  Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Persons with Undiagnosed or Pre-Hypertension in the U.S 
Hypertension  2010;55(5):1102-1109.
Hypertension is both a cause and consequence of chronic kidney disease, but the prevalence of chronic kidney disease throughout the diagnostic spectrum of blood pressure has not been established. We determined the prevalence of chronic kidney disease within blood pressure categories in 17,794 adults surveyed by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999–2006. Diagnosed hypertension was defined as self-reported provider diagnosis (n=5,832); undiagnosed hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, without report of provider diagnosis (n=3,046); pre-hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥120 and < 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 and < 90 mmHg (n=3,719); and normal was defined as systolic blood pressure < 120 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 80 mmHg (n=5,197). Chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate 15–60 ml/min/1.73m2 or urinary albumin-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among those with pre- and undiagnosed hypertension was 17.3% and 22.0%, respectively, compared to 27.5% with diagnosed hypertension and 13.4% with normal blood pressure, after adjustment for age, gender and race in multivariable logistic regression. This pattern persisted with varying definitions of kidney disease; macro-albuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio > 300 mg/g) had the strongest association with increasing blood pressure category [odds ratio 2.37 (95% confidence interval, 2.00–2.81)]. Chronic kidney disease is prevalent in undiagnosed and pre-hypertension. Earlier identification and treatment of both these conditions may prevent or delay morbidity and mortality from chronic kidney disease.
PMCID: PMC2880533  PMID: 20308607
epidemiology; albuminuria; renal; prevention; awareness; surveillance
5.  Inpatient Hemodialysis Initiation: Reasons, Risk Factors and Outcomes 
Nephron. Clinical Practice  2009;114(1):c19-c28.
Inpatient initiation of chronic hemodialysis is considered undesirable because of cost and possible harms of hospitalization. We examined the patient characteristics and outcomes associated with inpatient initiation.
In a prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients, the independent association of inpatient hemodialysis initiation with patient outcomes was assessed in multivariable analyses with adjustment for patient characteristics and propensity for inpatient initiation.
A total of 410 of 652 (63%) hemodialysis patients began as inpatients; uremia and volume overload were the most commonly documented reasons. Compared to outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be unmarried, report less social support, have multiple comorbidities and be referred to a nephrologist 4 months or less prior to initiation. Inpatient initiation was protective for subsequent all-cause hospitalization (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.92, confidence interval (CI) 0.89–0.94); this was most pronounced among those who had the highest propensity for inpatient initiation (IRR = 0.66, CI 0.56–0.78), including those referred late to nephrology. Similar results were found for infectious hospitalization. Mortality [hazard ratio = 1.03, CI 0.82–1.30] and cardiovascular events were not significantly different for inpatients versus outpatients.
Inpatient hemodialysis initiation has a protective association with hospitalization among those patients referred late to nephrology, with multiple comorbidities and/or little social support.
PMCID: PMC2842162  PMID: 19816040
End-stage renal disease; Hospitalization; Late referral; Mortality; Social support
6.  Perceived barriers and facilitators of using dietary modification for CKD prevention among African Americans of low socioeconomic status: a qualitative study 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15(1):194.
Factors influencing the use of dietary interventions for modification of CKD risk among African Americans have not been well-explored. We assessed perceived barriers and facilitators of CKD prevention through dietary modifications among African Americans with low socioeconomic status (SES) and at high risk for CKD.
We conducted a qualitative study involving three 90 minute focus groups of low SES (limited education, unemployed, uninsured, or income < $25,000/year) African American residents of Baltimore, Maryland (N = 17), who were aged 18-60 years, with no known history of CKD and (1) a family history of end stage renal disease and (2) self-reported diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, HIV or obesity. A trained moderator asked a series of 21 closed and open-ended questions. Group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and two independent investigators reviewed transcripts to identify common themes.
Participants’ mean (SD) age was 39.8 (12.4) years. Most (59%) were female and earned < $5,000/year (71%). One quarter (24%) had self-reported diabetes and over half had hypertension (53%). Few (12%) perceived their CKD risk as high. Perceived barriers to CKD prevention through dietary change included the expense and unavailability of healthy foods, family member preferences, convenience of unhealthy foods, and inability to break lifelong habits. They identified vouchers for healthy foods, family-based interventions, nutritional counseling and group gatherings for persons interested in making dietary changes as acceptable facilitators of dietary CKD prevention efforts.
Low SES African Americans at high risk for CKD had limited perception of their risk but they identified multiple barriers and potential facilitators of CKD prevention via dietary modifications which can inform future studies and public health interventions.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-194) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4268853  PMID: 25481019
Renal; Diet; Disparities; Race; Chronic kidney disease
7.  Low income, community poverty and risk of end stage renal disease 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15(1):192.
The risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) is increased among individuals with low income and in low income communities. However, few studies have examined the relation of both individual and community socioeconomic status (SES) with incident ESRD.
Among 23,314 U.S. adults in the population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study, we assessed participant differences across geospatially-linked categories of county poverty [outlier poverty, extremely high poverty, very high poverty, high poverty, neither (reference), high affluence and outlier affluence]. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations of annual household income and geospatially-linked county poverty measures with incident ESRD, while accounting for death as a competing event using the Fine and Gray method.
There were 158 ESRD cases during follow-up. Incident ESRD rates were 178.8 per 100,000 person-years (105 py) in high poverty outlier counties and were 76.3 /105 py in affluent outlier counties, p trend = 0.06. In unadjusted competing risk models, persons residing in high poverty outlier counties had higher incidence of ESRD (which was not statistically significant) when compared to those persons residing in counties with neither high poverty nor affluence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.54, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.75-3.20]. This association was markedly attenuated following adjustment for socio-demographic factors (age, sex, race, education, and income); HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.46-2.00. However, in the same adjusted model, income was independently associated with risk of ESRD [HR 3.75, 95% CI 1.62-8.64, comparing the < $20,000 income group to the > $75,000 group]. There were no statistically significant associations of county measures of poverty with incident ESRD, and no evidence of effect modification.
In contrast to annual family income, geospatially-linked measures of county poverty have little relation with risk of ESRD. Efforts to mitigate socioeconomic disparities in kidney disease may be best appropriated at the individual level.
PMCID: PMC4269852  PMID: 25471628
ESRD; Chronic kidney disease; Socioeconomic status; Disparity; Geospatial
8.  Comparison of Life Participation Activities Among Adults Treated by Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, and Kidney Transplantation: A Systematic Review 
A comprehensive assessment of the association of patients’ renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality on their participation in life activities (physical function, travel, recreation, freedom, work) is needed.
Study Design
Systematic review of peer-reviewed published studies.
Setting & Population
Adults undergoing RRT (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or transplantation).
Selection Criteria for Studies
We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE from January 1980 through April 2012 for English-language articles that compared participation in life activities among patients receiving 1) hemodialysis compared with peritoneal dialysis, 2) hemodialysis compared with kidney transplantation, or 3) peritoneal dialysis compared with kidney transplantation.
RRT modality.
Reported rates of physical function, travel, recreation, freedom, and work-related activities by RRT modality.
A total of 46 studies (6 prospective cohort, 38 cross-sectional, and 2 pre-post transplantation) provided relevant comparisons of life participation activities among patients treated with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Studies were conducted from 1985 to 2011 among diverse patient populations in 16 distinct locations. A majority of studies reported greater life participation rates among patients with kidney transplants compared to patients receiving either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In contrast, a majority of studies reported no differences in outcomes between patients receiving hemodialysis and patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. These results were consistent throughout the study period, across diverse populations, and among the subset of studies that performed appropriate adjustments for potential confounding factors.
Many studies included in the review had significant design weaknesses.
Evidence suggests patients with kidney transplants may experience better rates of life participation compared to patients receiving dialysis, while patients receiving hemodialysis and patients receiving peritoneal dialysis may experience similar rates of life participation. Rigorously performed studies are needed to better inform patients about the association of RRT on these important patient reported outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3809150  PMID: 23725972
dialysis; ESRD treatment; kidney transplantation; physical functioning; quality of life; social participation
9.  Dietary acid load and chronic kidney disease among adults in the United States 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:137.
Diet can markedly affect acid-base status and it significantly influences chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progression. The relationship of dietary acid load (DAL) and CKD has not been assessed on a population level. We examined the association of estimated net acid excretion (NAEes) with CKD; and socio-demographic and clinical correlates of NAEes.
Among 12,293 U.S. adult participants aged >20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004, we assessed dietary acid by estimating NAEes from nutrient intake and body surface area; kidney damage by albuminuria; and kidney dysfunction by eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 using the MDRD equation. We tested the association of NAEes with participant characteristics using median regression; while for albuminuria, eGFR, and stages of CKD we used logistic regression.
Median regression results (β per quintile) indicated that adults aged 40–60 years (β [95% CI] = 3.1 [0.3–5.8]), poverty (β [95% CI] = 7.1 [4.01–10.22]), black race (β [95% CI] = 13.8 [10.8–16.8]), and male sex (β [95% CI] = 3.0 [0.7- 5.2]) were significantly associated with an increasing level of NAEes. Higher levels of NAEes compared with lower levels were associated with greater odds of albuminuria (OR [95% CI] = 1.57 [1.20–2.05]). We observed a trend toward greater NAEes being associated with higher risk of low eGFR, which persisted after adjustment for confounders.
Higher NAEes is associated with albuminuria and low eGFR, and socio-demographic risk factors for CKD are associated with higher levels of NAEes. DAL may be an important target for future interventions in populations at high risk for CKD.
PMCID: PMC4151375  PMID: 25151260
Acidosis; Albuminuria; Chronic kidney disease; NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey); Nutrition
10.  The association between race and income on risk of mortality in patients with moderate chronic kidney disease 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:136.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is independently associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression; however, its association with other CKD outcomes is unclear. In particular, the potential differential effect of SES on mortality among blacks and whites is understudied in CKD. We aimed to examine survival among individuals with prevalent CKD by income and race in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study.
We examined 2,761 participants with prevalent CKD stage 3 or 4 between 2003 and 2007 in the REGARDS cohort. Participants were followed through March 2013. Mortality from any cause was assessed by income and race (black or white). Low income was defined as an annual household income < $20,000, and was compared to higher incomes (≥$20,000). Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, education, insurance, CKD stage, comorbidity and county-level poverty were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
A total of 750 deaths (27.5%) occurred during the follow-up period. Average follow-up time was 6.6 years among those alive and 3.7 years among those who died. Low income participants had an elevated adjusted hazard of mortality (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.24-2.00) compared to higher income participants. Low income was associated with all-cause mortality regardless of race (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.18-1.99 among blacks and HR 1.38; 95% CI 1.10-1.74 among whites), with no significant statistical interaction between household income and race (p-value = 0.634). However, black participants had a higher adjusted hazard of mortality (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65) compared to whites, which was independent of income.
Income was associated with increased mortality for both blacks and whites with CKD. Blacks with CKD had higher mortality than whites even after adjusting for important socio-demographic and clinical factors.
PMCID: PMC4144698  PMID: 25150057
11.  African American and Non-African American Patients’ and Families’ Decision Making About Renal Replacement Therapies 
Qualitative health research  2012;22(7):997-1006.
We conducted focus group meetings of African American and non-African American patients with end-stage renal disease (six groups) and their family members (six groups), stratified by race/ethnicity and treatment. We elicited differences in participants’ experiences with shared decision making about initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT; that is, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant). Patients were often very sick when initiating RRT, and had little, if any, time to make a decision about what type of RRT to initiate. They also lacked sufficient information about alternative treatment options prior to initiation. Family members played supportive roles and shared in decision making when possible. Reports were similar for African American and non-African American participants. Our findings suggest that a greater emphasis on the improved engagement of patients and their families in shared decision making about RRT initiation is needed for both ethnic/racial minorities and nonminorities.
PMCID: PMC3927418  PMID: 22645225
African Americans; communication; medical; decision making; illness and disease; chronic; illness and disease; experiences; minorities; nephrology
12.  Challenges Perceived by Primary Care Providers to Educating Patients About Chronic Kidney Disease 
Journal of renal care  2012;38(4):174-181.
To identify primary care providers’ (PCPs) perceived barriers to educating patients about chronic kidney disease (CKD) during routine clinical visits.
We conducted three focus groups of eighteen PCPs in Baltimore, Maryland (MD), USA. Focus groups began with the presentation of a hypothetical case of a patient with CKD, followed by open-ended questions to assess providers’ perceived barriers to delivering education about CKD. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded independently by two investigators who identified major themes.
PCPs reported on several patient, provider and system level barriers contributing to poor education about CKD in primary care that were both common and unique to barriers previously reported in educating patients regarding other chronic diseases.
Interventions designed to address barriers to CKD education identified by PCPs could improve the delivery of education about CKD in primary care settings.
PMCID: PMC3508733  PMID: 23176576
chronic kidney disease; primary care providers; patient education; barriers
13.  Trends in anemia management in US hemodialysis patients 2004–2010 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:264.
There have been major changes in the management of anemia in US hemodialysis patients in recent years. We sought to determine the influence of clinical trial results, safety regulations, and changes in reimbursement policy on practice.
We examined indicators of anemia management among incident and prevalent hemodialysis patients from a medium-sized dialysis provider over three time periods: (1) 2004 to 2006 (2) 2007 to 2009, and (3) 2010. Trends across the three time periods were compared using generalized estimating equations.
Prior to 2007, the median proportion of patients with monthly hemoglobin >12 g/dL for patients on dialysis 0 to 3, 4 to 6 and 7 to 18 months, respectively, was 42%, 55% and 46% declined to 41%, 54%, and 40% after 2007, and declined more sharply in 2010 to 34%, 41%, and 30%. Median weekly Epoeitin alpha doses over the same periods were 18,000, 12,400, and 9,100 units before 2007; remained relatively unchanged from 2007 to 2009; and decreased sharply in the patients 3–6 and 6–18 months on dialysis to 10,200 and 7,800 units, respectively in 2010. Iron doses, serum ferritin, and transferrin saturation levels increased over time with more pronounced increases in 2010.
Modest changes in anemia management occurred between 2007 and 2009, followed by more dramatic changes in 2010. Studies are needed to examine the effects of declining erythropoietin use and hemoglobin levels and increasing intravenous iron use on quality of life, transplantation rates, infection rates and survival.
PMCID: PMC3866613  PMID: 24289058
Anemia; Erythropoietin stimulating agents; Hemodialysis
14.  Patterns in blood pressure medication use in US incident dialysis patients over the first 6 months 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:249.
Several observational studies have evaluated the effect of a single exposure window with blood pressure (BP) medications on outcomes in incident dialysis patients, but whether BP medication prescription patterns remain stable or a single exposure window design is adequate to evaluate effect on outcomes is unclear.
We described patterns of BP medication prescription over 6 months after dialysis initiation in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, stratified by cardiovascular comorbidity, diabetes, and other patient characteristics. The cohort included 13,072 adult patients (12,159 hemodialysis, 913 peritoneal dialysis) who initiated dialysis in Dialysis Clinic, Inc., facilities January 1, 2003-June 30, 2008, and remained on the original modality for at least 6 months. We evaluated monthly patterns in BP medication prescription over 6 months and at 12 and 24 months after initiation.
Prescription patterns varied by dialysis modality over the first 6 months; substantial proportions of patients with prescriptions for beta-blockers, renin angiotensin system agents, and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in month 6 no longer had prescriptions for these medications by month 24. Prescription of specific medication classes varied by comorbidity, race/ethnicity, and age, but little by sex. The mean number of medications was 2.5 at month 6 in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis cohorts.
This study evaluates BP medication patterns in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients over the first 6 months of dialysis. Our findings highlight the challenges of assessing comparative effectiveness of a single BP medication class in dialysis patients. Longitudinal designs should be used to account for changes in BP medication management over time, and designs that incorporate common combinations should be considered.
PMCID: PMC3840675  PMID: 24219348
Blood pressure medication; Dialysis; Medication use patterns
15.  Selecting renal replacement therapies: what do African American and non-African American patients and their families think others should know? A mixed methods study 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:9.
Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT) decisions.
In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback.
Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals) and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals) participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive) of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar.
Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans.
PMCID: PMC3565884  PMID: 23317336
Decision-making; Renal replacement therapy; Family members; African American
16.  Comparative effectiveness studies to improve clinical outcomes in end stage renal disease: the DEcIDE patient outcomes in end stage renal disease study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:167.
Evidence is lacking to inform providers’ and patients’ decisions about many common treatment strategies for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD).
The DEcIDE Patient Outcomes in ESRD Study is funded by the United States (US) Agency for Health Care Research and Quality to study the comparative effectiveness of: 1) antihypertensive therapies, 2) early versus later initiation of dialysis, and 3) intravenous iron therapies on clinical outcomes in patients with ESRD. Ongoing studies utilize four existing, nationally representative cohorts of patients with ESRD, including (1) the Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD study (1041 incident dialysis patients recruited from October 1995 to June 1999 with complete outcome ascertainment through 2009), (2) the Dialysis Clinic Inc (45,124 incident dialysis patients initiating and receiving their care from 2003–2010 with complete outcome ascertainment through 2010), (3) the United States Renal Data System (333,308 incident dialysis patients from 2006–2009 with complete outcome ascertainment through 2010), and (4) the Cleveland Clinic Foundation Chronic Kidney Disease Registry (53,399 patients with chronic kidney disease with outcome ascertainment from 2005 through 2009). We ascertain patient reported outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life), morbidity, and mortality using clinical and administrative data, and data obtained from national death indices. We use advanced statistical methods (e.g., propensity scoring and marginal structural modeling) to account for potential biases of our study designs. All data are de-identified for analyses. The conduct of studies and dissemination of findings are guided by input from Stakeholders in the ESRD community.
The DEcIDE Patient Outcomes in ESRD Study will provide needed evidence regarding the effectiveness of common treatments employed for dialysis patients. Carefully planned dissemination strategies to the ESRD community will enhance studies’ impact on clinical care and patients’ outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3554422  PMID: 23217181
17.  Development of a decision aid to inform patients’ and families’ renal replacement therapy selection decisions 
Few educational resources have been developed to inform patients’ renal replacement therapy (RRT) selection decisions. Patients progressing toward end stage renal disease (ESRD) must decide among multiple treatment options with varying characteristics. Complex information about treatments must be adequately conveyed to patients with different educational backgrounds and informational needs. Decisions about treatment options also require family input, as families often participate in patients’ treatment and support patients’ decisions. We describe the development, design, and preliminary evaluation of an informational, evidence-based, and patient-and family-centered decision aid for patients with ESRD and varying levels of health literacy, health numeracy, and cognitive function.
We designed a decision aid comprising a complementary video and informational handbook. We based our development process on data previously obtained from qualitative focus groups and systematic literature reviews. We simultaneously developed the video and handbook in “stages.” For the video, stages included (1) directed interviews with culturally appropriate patients and families and preliminary script development, (2) video production, and (3) screening the video with patients and their families. For the handbook, stages comprised (1) preliminary content design, (2) a mixed-methods pilot study among diverse patients to assess comprehension of handbook material, and (3) screening the handbook with patients and their families.
The video and handbook both addressed potential benefits and trade-offs of treatment selections. The 50-minute video consisted of demographically diverse patients and their families describing their positive and negative experiences with selecting a treatment option. The video also incorporated health professionals’ testimonials regarding various considerations that might influence patients’ and families’ treatment selections. The handbook was comprised of written words, pictures of patients and health care providers, and diagrams describing the findings and quality of scientific studies comparing treatments. The handbook text was written at a 4th to 6th grade reading level. Pilot study results demonstrated that a majority of patients could understand information presented in the handbook. Patient and families screening the nearly completed video and handbook reviewed the materials favorably.
This rigorously designed decision aid may help patients and families make informed decisions about their treatment options for RRT that are well aligned with their values.
PMCID: PMC3560257  PMID: 23198793
Kidney disease; Decision aid; Literacy; Numeracy; Cognitive function
18.  The providing resources to enhance African American patients’ readiness to make decisions about kidney disease (PREPARED) study: protocol of a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:135.
Living related kidney transplantation (LRT) is underutilized, particularly among African Americans. The effectiveness of informational and financial interventions to enhance informed decision-making among African Americans with end stage renal disease (ESRD) and improve rates of LRT is unknown.
We report the protocol of the Providing Resources to Enhance African American Patients’ Readiness to Make Decisions about Kidney Disease (PREPARED) Study, a two-phase study utilizing qualitative and quantitative research methods to design and test the effectiveness of informational (focused on shared decision-making) and financial interventions to overcome barriers to pursuit of LRT among African American patients and their families. Study Phase I involved the evidence-based development of informational materials as well as a financial intervention to enhance African American patients’ and families’ proficiency in shared decision-making regarding LRT. In Study Phase 2, we are currently conducting a randomized controlled trial in which patients with new-onset ESRD receive 1) usual dialysis care by their nephrologists, 2) the informational intervention (educational video and handbook), or 3) the informational intervention in addition to the option of participating in a live kidney donor financial assistance program. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will include patients’ self-reported rates of consideration of LRT (including family discussions of LRT, patient-physician discussions of LRT, and identification of a LRT donor).
Results from the PREPARED study will provide needed evidence on ways to enhance the decision to pursue LRT among African American patients with ESRD.
Trial registration NCT01439516
PMCID: PMC3489555  PMID: 23057616
Shared decision-making; Live kidney transplantation; Live kidney donation; Chronic kidney disease; End stage renal disease
19.  Setting an agenda for comparative effectiveness systematic reviews in CKD care 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:74.
Systematic reviews comparing the effectiveness of strategies to prevent, detect, and treat chronic kidney disease are needed to inform patient care. We engaged stakeholders in the chronic kidney disease community to prioritize topics for future comparative effectiveness research systematic reviews. We developed a preliminary list of suggested topics and stakeholders refined and ranked topics based on their importance. Among 46 topics identified, stakeholders nominated 18 as ‘high’ priority. Most pertained to strategies to slow disease progression, including: (a) treat proteinuria, (b) improve access to care, (c) treat hypertension, (d) use health information technology, and (e) implement dietary strategies. Most (15 of 18) topics had been previously studied with two or more randomized controlled trials, indicating feasibility of rigorous systematic reviews. Chronic kidney disease topics rated by stakeholders as ‘high priority’ are varied in scope and may lead to quality systematic reviews impacting practice and policy.
PMCID: PMC3472164  PMID: 22853705
Chronic kidney disease; Evidence-based practice; Health services research
20.  Association of CKD with Disability in the United States 
Little is known about disability in early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Study Design
Cross-sectional national survey (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006).
Setting and Participants
Community-based survey of 16,011 non-institutionalized U.S. civilian adults (≥20 years).
CKD, categorized as: no CKD, stages 1 and 2 [albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2], and stages 3 and 4 (eGFR 15–59).
Self-reported disability, defined by limitations in working, walking, and cognition; and difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, leisure and social activities, lower extremity mobility, and general physical activity.
Albuminuria and eGFR assessed from urine and blood samples; disability, demographics, access to care, and comorbid conditions assessed by standardized questionnaire.
Age-adjusted prevalence of reported limitations was generally significantly greater with CKD: e.g., difficulty with ADLs was reported by 17.6%, 24.7%, and 23.9% of older (≥65 years) and 6.8%, 11.9%, and 11.0% of younger (20–64 years) adults with no CKD, stages 1 and 2, and stages 3 and 4, respectively. CKD was also associated with greater reported limitations and difficulty in other activities after age adjustment, including instrumental ADL, leisure and social activities, lower extremity mobility, and general physical activity. Other demographics, socioeconomic status, and access to care generally only slightly attenuated the observed associations, particularly among older individuals; adjustment for cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and cancer attenuated most associations such that statistical significance was no longer achieved.
Inability to establish causality and possible unmeasured confounding.
CKD is associated with higher prevalence of disability in the United States. Age and other comorbid conditions account for most, but not all, of this association.
PMCID: PMC3025052  PMID: 21036441
chronic kidney disease; disability; activities of daily living; limitations; employment; physical functioning; cognitive functioning
21.  Racial differences in chronic kidney disease incidence and progression among individuals with HIV 
This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of Lucas et al.’s longitudinal cohort study of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African American and white individuals with HIV. The study found that—compared with whites—African Americans had a slightly increased risk of incident CKD, but markedly increased rates of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline and progression to end-stage renal disease. This commentary details the clinical implications and limitations of these findings in the context of known racial differences in CKD prevalence and progression to end-stage renal disease in the general population and highlights the importance of screening high-risk HIV patients for kidney disease. CKD is common among HIV patients, and—as in the general population—has a more-aggressive course among African Americans than whites.
PMCID: PMC2648302  PMID: 18813233
chronic kidney disease; end-stage renal disease; HIV; racial differences; screening
22.  Timing, causes, predictors and prognosis of switching from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis: a prospective study 
BMC Nephrology  2009;10:3.
The use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) has declined in the United States over the past decade and technique failure is also reportedly higher in PD compared to hemodialysis (HD), but there are little data in the United States addressing the factors and outcomes associated with switching modalities from PD to HD.
In a prospective cohort study of 262 PD patients enrolled from 28 peritoneal dialysis clinics in 13 U.S. states, we examined potential predictors of switching from PD to HD (including demographics, clinical factors, and laboratory values) and the association of switching with mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess relative hazards (RH) of switching and of mortality in PD patients who switched to HD.
Among 262 PD patients, 24.8% switched to HD; with more than 70% switching within the first 2 years. Infectious peritonitis was the leading cause of switching. Patients of black race and with higher body mass index were significantly more likely to switch from PD to HD, RH (95% CI) of 5.01 (1.15–21.8) for black versus white and 1.09 (1.03–1.16) per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI, respectively. There was no difference in survival between switchers and non-switchers, RH (95% CI) of 0.89 (0.41–1.93).
Switching from PD to HD occurs early and the rate is high, threatening long-term viability of PD programs. Several patient characteristics were associated with the risk of switching. However, there was no survival difference between switchers and non-switchers, reassuring providers and patients that PD technique failure is not necessarily associated with poor prognosis.
PMCID: PMC2649113  PMID: 19200383

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