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1.  VITamin D supplementation in renAL transplant recipients (VITALE): a prospective, multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial of vitamin D estimating the benefit and safety of vitamin D3 treatment at a dose of 100,000 UI compared with a dose of 12,000 UI in renal transplant recipients: study protocol for a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial 
Trials  2014;15:430.
In addition to their effects on bone health, high doses of cholecalciferol may have beneficial non-classic effects including the reduction of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. These pleiotropic effects have been documented in observational and experimental studies or in small intervention trials. Vitamin D insufficiency is a frequent finding in renal transplant recipients (RTRs), and this population is at risk of the previously cited complications.
The VITALE study is a prospective, multicentre, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel groups that will include a total of 640 RTRs. RTRs with vitamin D insufficiency, defined as circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of less than 30 ng/ml (or 75 nmol/l), will be randomized between 12 and 48 months after transplantation to blinded groups to receive vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) either at high or low dose (respectively, 100,000 UI or 12,000 UI every 2 weeks for 2 months then monthly for 22 months) with a follow-up of 2 years. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the benefit/risk ratio of high-dose versus low-dose cholecalciferol on a composite endpoint consisting of de novo diabetes mellitus; major cardiovascular events; de novo cancer; and patient death. Secondary endpoints will include blood pressure (BP) control; echocardiography findings; the incidences of infection and acute rejection episodes; renal allograft function using estimated glomerular filtration rate; proteinuria; graft survival; bone mineral density; the incidence of fractures; and biological relevant parameters of mineral metabolism.
We previously reported that the intensive cholecalciferol treatment (100 000 IU every 2 weeks for 2 months) was safe in RTR. Using a pharmacokinetic approach, we showed that cholecalciferol 100,000 IU monthly should maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at above 30 ng/ml but below 80 ng/ml after renal transplantation. Taken together, these results are reassuring regarding the safety of the cholecalciferol doses that will be used in the VITALE study. Analysis of data collected during the VITALE study will demonstrate whether high or low-dose cholecalciferol is beneficial in RTRs with vitamin D insufficiency.
Trial registration Identifier: NCT01431430.
PMCID: PMC4233037  PMID: 25376735
Interventional trial; Vitamin D; Renal transplantation; Cancer; Cardiovascular events; Diabetes mellitus
2.  Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentration Is Increased and Predicts Mortality in Patients on the Liver-Transplant Waiting List 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66182.
High plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) concentration predicts the risk of death and poor outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease or chronic heart failure. We checked if FGF23 concentration could be modified in patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) and predict mortality. We measured plasma FGF23 in 200 patients with ESLD registered on a liver transplant waiting list between January 2005 and October 2008. We found that median plasma FGF23 concentration was above normal values in 63% of the patients. Increased FGF23 concentration was not explained by its classical determinants: hyperphosphataemia, increased calcitriol concentration or decreased renal function. FGF23 concentration correlated with the MELD score, serum sodium concentration, and GFR. Forty-six patients died before being transplanted and 135 underwent liver transplantation. We analyzed the prognostic value of FGF23 levels. Mortality was significantly associated with FGF23 levels, the MELD score, serum sodium concentration and glomerular filtration rate. On multivariate analyses only FGF23 concentration was associated with mortality. FGF23 levels were independent of the cause of the liver disease. To determine if the damaged liver can produce FGF23 we measured plasma FGF23 concentration and liver FGF23 mRNA expression in control and diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN)-treated mice. FGF23 plasma levels increased with the apparition of liver lesions in DEN-treated mice and that FGF23 mRNA expression, which was undetectable in the liver of control mice, markedly increased with the development of liver lesions. The correlation between FGF23 plasma concentration and FGF23 mRNA expression in DEN-treated mice suggests that FGF23 production by the liver accounts for the increased plasma FGF23 concentration. In conclusion chronic liver lesions can induce expression of FGF23 mRNA leading to increased FGF23 concentration, which is associated with a higher mortality in patients on a liver-transplant waiting list. In these patients FGF23 concentration was the best predictor of mortality.
PMCID: PMC3692511  PMID: 23825530
3.  Determination of the best method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine in adult patients with sickle cell disease: a prospective observational cohort study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:83.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) leads to tissue hypoxia resulting in chronic organ dysfunction including SCD associated nephropathy. The goal of our study was to determine the best equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in SCD adult patients.
We conducted a prospective observational cohort study. Since 2007, all adult SCD patients in steady state, followed in two medical departments, have had their GFR measured using iohexol plasma clearance (gold standard). The Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD-v4, CKP-EPI and finally, MDRD and CKD-EPI equations without adjustment for ethnicity were tested to estimate GFR from serum creatinine. Estimated GFRs were compared to measured GFRs according to the graphical Bland and Altman method.
Sixty-four SCD patients (16 men, median age 27.5 years [range 18.0-67.5], 41 with SS-genotype were studied. They were Sub-Saharan Africa and French West Indies natives and predominantly lean (median body mass index: 22 kg/m2 [16-33]). Hyperfiltration (defined as measured GFR >110 mL/min/1.73 m2) was detected in 53.1% of patients. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was higher in patients with hyperfiltration than in patients with normal GFR (4.05 mg/mmol [0.14-60] versus 0.4 mg/mmol [0.7-81], p = 0.01). The CKD-EPI equation without adjustment for ethnicity had both the lowest bias and the greatest precision. Differences between estimated GFRs using the CKP-EPI equation and measured GFRs decreased with increasing GFR values, whereas it increased with the Cockcroft-Gault and MDRD-v4 equations.
We confirm that SCD patients have a high rate of glomerular hyperfiltration, which is frequently associated with microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. In non-Afro-American SCD patients, the best method for estimating GFR from serum creatinine is the CKD-EPI equation without adjustment for ethnicity. This equation is particularly accurate to estimate high GFR values, including glomerular hyperfiltration, and thus should be recommended to screen SCD adult patients at high risk for SCD nephropathy.
PMCID: PMC3465224  PMID: 22866669
Sickle cell disease; Glomerular hyperfiltration; Albuminuria; Glomerular filtration rate; CKD-EPI equation; Iohexol plasma clearance; Ethnicity
4.  Oxalate nephropathy induced by octreotide treatment for acromegaly: a case report 
Oxalate nephropathy has various etiologies and remains a rare cause of renal failure. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of oxalate nephropathy following octreotide therapy.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 78-year-old Caucasian man taking chronic octreotide treatment for acromegaly who presented with acute oxalate nephropathy after antibiotic therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed by urinary analysis and a kidney biopsy. The recovery of renal function was favorable after hydration and withdrawal of octreotide therapy.
Oxalate nephropathy should be suspected in patients at risk who present with acute kidney injury after prolonged antibiotic treatment. This diagnosis should be distinguished from immuno-allergic interstitial nephritis and requires specific care. The evolution of this condition may be favorable if the pathology is identified correctly. Octreotide therapy should be considered a risk factor for enteric oxaluria.
PMCID: PMC3416724  PMID: 22823940
Oxalate nephropathy; Octreotide; Antibiotics; Oxalobacter formigenes
5.  A New Human NHERF1 Mutation Decreases Renal Phosphate Transporter NPT2a Expression by a PTH-Independent Mechanism 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34764.
The sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) binds to the main renal phosphate transporter NPT2a and to the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor. We have recently identified mutations in NHERF1 that decrease renal phosphate reabsorption by increasing PTH-induced cAMP production in the renal proximal tubule.
We compared relevant parameters of phosphate homeostasis in a patient with a previously undescribed mutation in NHERF1 and in control subjects. We expressed the mutant NHERF1 protein in Xenopus Oocytes and in cultured cells to study its effects on phosphate transport and PTH-induced cAMP production.
We identified in a patient with inappropriate renal phosphate reabsorption a previously unidentified mutation (E68A) located in the PDZ1 domain of NHERF1.We report the consequences of this mutation on NHERF1 function. E68A mutation did not modify cAMP production in the patient. PTH-induced cAMP synthesis and PKC activity were not altered by E68A mutation in renal cells in culture. In contrast to wild-type NHERF1, expression of the E68A mutant in Xenopus oocytes and in human cells failed to increase phosphate transport. Pull down experiments showed that E68A mutant did not interact with NPT2a, which robustly interacted with wild type NHERF1 and previously identified mutants. Biotinylation studies revealed that E68A mutant was unable to increase cell surface expression of NPT2a.
Our results indicate that the PDZ1 domain is critical for NHERF1- NPT2a interaction in humans and for the control of NPT2a expression at the plasma membrane. Thus we have identified a new mechanism of renal phosphate loss and shown that different mutations in NHERF1 can alter renal phosphate reabsorption via distinct mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC3323571  PMID: 22506049

Results 1-5 (5)