This study aimed to elucidate whether stone removal by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is associated with delayed chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of 131 nephrolithiasis patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD. We collected baseline clinical and laboratory data, kidney stone characteristics, and history of receiving ESWL. We classified study patients into two groups according to whether they underwent ESWL or not (Non-ESWL group vs. ESWL group). We initially compared annual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) changes of Non-ESWL group with those of ESWL group before undergoing ESWL. In the next step, we sought to compare annual eGFR changes in the same patients before and after ESWL. Finally, we compared annual eGFR changes between success and failure groups among patients undergoing ESWL.
The mean age of the patients was 62 years and 72.5% were male. The mean observation period was 3.2 years. Non-ESWL group and ESWL group before undergoing ESWL showed similar annual eGFR changes (-1.75±6.5 vs. -1.63±7.2 mL/min/1.73 m2/year, p=0.425). However, eGFR declined slower after undergoing ESWL than before ESWL (annual eGFR changes, -0.29±6.1 vs. -1.63±7.2 mL/min/1.73 m2/year, p<0.05). In addition, among patients in ESWL group, eGFR declined faster in the failure group than in the success group (annual eGFR change, -1.01±4.7 vs. -0.05±5.2 mL/min/1.73 m2/year, p<0.05).
Our results suggest that stone removal by ESWL is associated with delayed deterioration of renal function in CKD patients with nephrolithiasis.
Nephrolithiasis; chronic kidney disease; extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL); glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
We undertook this study to elucidate whether baseline peritoneal membrane transport characteristics are associated with high mortality in incident automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients. This retrospective study includes 117 patients who started APD at Yonsei University Health System from 1996 to 2008 and had a PET within 3 months of APD initiation. High transporters were significantly older and had a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Patient survival for years 1, 3, and 5 were 85%, 64%, and 35% for high transporter and 94%, 81%, and 68% for non-high transporter group (P<0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that age, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, serum albumin level, and residual renal function were independently associated with high mortality in APD patients. In contrast, high transport status was not a significant predictor for mortality in this population when the other covariates were included. Even though high transport was significantly associated with mortality in the univariate analysis, its role seemed to be influenced by other comorbid conditions. These findings suggest that the proper management of these comorbid conditions, as well as appropriate ultrafiltration by use of APD and/or icodextrin, must be considered as protective strategies to improve survival in peritoneal dialysis patients with high transport.
Automated Peritoneal Dialysis; High Transport; Peritoneal Equilibration Test; Mortality
The study of cancer in patients treated with dialysis in Korea has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and mortality of cancer among patients on dialysis in Korea. The study subjects were 106 cancer patients (2.3%) out of 4,562 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients maintained on hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) at Yonsei University Health System from 1996 to 2005. We excluded patients in whom the diagnosis of cancer preceded dialysis or those who received renal allograft or started dialysis after renal allograft. Seventy-three (69%) of our subjects were male and 33 (31%) were female. The mean age at the time of cancer diagnosis was 57.9±11.7 yr. The mean time from the start of dialysis to the diagnosis of cancer was 75.2±63.9 months. The most common cancer site was gastrointestinal tract (GIT) (51%) followed by urinary tract (20%), lung (8%), and thyroid (7%). Sixty nine percent of the total mortality was due to cancer. The mean time from diagnosis to death was 2.9±2.5 yr. In ESRD patients with cancer, there were no significant differences in mortality rates by dialysis modality. In ESRD patients, the most common cancer was GIT cancer followed by urinary tract cancer. Therefore, careful surveillance of these cancers in ESRD patients is highly recommended.
Neoplasms; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Gastrointestinal tract; Urinary Tract
We undertook an observational study to investigate the effects of immunosuppressive treatment on proteinuria and renal function in 179 Korean idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients with nephrotic syndrome.
Materials and Methods
The primary outcome was regarded as the first appearance of remission and the secondary outcomes as a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >50% or initiation of dialysis, and all-cause mortality. Seventy-two (40.2%) and 50 (27.9%) patients were treated with corticosteroids alone (C) and corticosteroids plus cyclosporine (C+C), respectively, whereas 57 (31.8%) did not receive immunosuppressants (NTx). Cyclosporine was added if there was no reduction in proteinuria of >50% from baseline by corticosteroids alone within 3 months.
There were no differences in baseline renal function and the amount of proteinuria among the three groups. Overall, complete remission (CR) was achieved in 88 (72.1%) patients by immunosuppressants. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for covariates associated with adverse renal outcome, the probability of reaching CR was significantly higher in the C [hazard ratio (HR), 4.09; p<0.001] and C+C groups (HR, 2.57; p=0.003) than in the NTx group. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that 5-year CR rates of C, C+C, and NTx groups were 88.5%, 86.2%, and 56.7% (p<0.001). Ten-year event-free rates for the secondary endpoints in these three groups were 91.7%, 79.9%, and 57.2% (p=0.01).
Immunosuppressive treatment was effective in inducing remission and preserving renal function in these patients. Therefore, stepwise treatment using corticosteroids alone and in combination with cyclosporine is warranted in these patients.
Corticosteroids; cyclosporine; idiopathic membranous nephropathy; nephrotic syndrome; remission
♦ Background: Endothelial dysfunction, which contributes to atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis, commonly accompanies end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, little is known about the role of residual renal function (RRF) in endothelial protection in ESRD patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between endothelial function and RRF in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD).
♦ Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 72 prevalent PD patients. Demographic and clinical data were recorded and residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), Kt/V urea, and serum concentrations of inflammatory markers were measured. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation [flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] to reactive hyperemia following 5 minutes of forearm ischemia.
♦ Results: In patients with FMD% above the median value (FMD > 2.41%), residual GFR was significantly higher compared to that in patients with FMD% below the median [1.50 (0 – 9.64) vs 0.48 (0 – 3.89) mL/min/1.73 m2, P = 0.026]. Correlation analyses revealed that residual GFR (ρ = 0.381, P = 0.001) and total Kt/V urea (γ = 0.408, P < 0.001) were positively correlated with FMD%, whereas PD duration (γ = –0.351, P = 0.003), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (ρ = –0.345, P = 0.003), pulse pressure (γ = –0.341, P = 0.003), and age (γ = –0.403, P < 0.001) were inversely correlated with FMD%. In contrast, there was no correlation between peritoneal Kt/V urea and FMD%. In multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for these factors, residual GFR was found to be an independent determinant of FMD% (β = 0.317, P = 0.017).
♦ Conclusion: This study shows that RRF is independently associated with endothelial dysfunction in ESRD patients on PD, suggesting that RRF may contribute to endothelial protection in these patients.
Endothelial dysfunction; residual renal function
Cinacalcet is effective for treating refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), but little is known about the response rates and clinical factors influencing the response.
Materials and Methods
A prospective, single-arm, multi-center study was performed for 24 weeks. Cinacalcet was administered to patients with intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level greater than 300 pg/mL. Cinacalcet was started at a dose of 25 mg daily and titrated until 100 mg to achieve a serum iPTH level <300 pg/mL (primary end point). Early response to cinacalcet was defined as a decrease of iPTH more than 50% within one month.
Fifty-seven patients were examined. Based on the magnitude of iPTH decrease, patients were divided into responder (n=47, 82.5%) and non-responder (n=10, 17.5%) groups. Among the responders, 38 achieved the primary end point, whereas 9 patients showed a reduction in serum iPTH of 30% or more, but did not reach the primary end point. Compared to non-responders, responders were significantly older (p=0.026), female (p=0.041), and diabetics (p<0.001). Additionally, early response was observed more frequently in the responders (30/47, 63.8%), of whom the majority (27/30, 90.0%) achieved the primary end point. Multivariate analysis showed that lower baseline iPTH levels [odds ratio (OR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-0.99], the presence of diabetes (OR 46.45, CI 1.92-1125.6) and early response (OR 21.54, CI 2.94-157.7) were significant clinical factors affecting achievement of iPTH target.
Cinacalcet was effective in most hemodialysis patients with refractory SHPT. The presence of an early response was closely associated with the achievement of target levels of iPTH.
Cinacalcet; end-stage renal disease; hemodialysis; parathyroid hormone; secondary hyperparathyroidism
A novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for concurrent detection of hepatitis viruses was evaluated for its clinical performance in screening patients with acute hepatitis. A total of 648 serum samples were collected from patients with acute symptoms of hepatitis. Concurrent detection of nucleic acids of HAV, HBV and HCV was performed using the Magicplex™ HepaTrio Real-time Detection test. Serum nucleic acid levels of HBV and HCV were also quantified by the Cobas® AmpliPrep/Cobas® TaqMan® (CAP/CTM) HBV and HCV tests. Patients’ medical records were also reviewed. Concordance rates between the results from the HepaTrio and the CAP/CTM tests for the detection of HBV and HCV were 94.9% (k = 0.88) and 99.2% (k = 0.98), respectively. The cycle threshold values with the HepaTrio test were also correlated well with the levels of HBV DNA (r = −0.9230) and HCV RNA (r = −0.8458). The sensitivity and specificity of the HepaTrio test were 93.8% and 98.2%, respectively, for detecting HBV infection, and 99.1% and 100.0%, respectively, for HCV infection. For the HepaTrio test, 21 (3.2%) cases were positive for both HBV and HCV. Among the positive cases, 6 (0.9%) were true coinfections. This test also detected 18 (2.8%) HAV positives. The HepaTrio test demonstrated good clinical performance and produced results that agreed well with those of the CAP/CTM assays, especially for the detection of HCV. This assay was also able to detect HAV RNA from anti-HAV IgM-positive individuals. Therefore, this new multiplex PCR assay could be useful for the concurrent detection of the three hepatitis viruses.
In addition to its canonical role in musculoskeletal health, several reports have demonstrated that serum vitamin D level may influence kidney function. However, the effect of pretransplant serum vitamin D level on subsequent graft function has not been explored. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine the effect of serum vitamin D level at the time of kidney transplantation (KT) on subsequent graft function.
We analyzed 106 patients who underwent KT and for whom 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels were measured during hospitalization prior to transplantation. We measured estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula at baseline and at six-month intervals up to 36 months after KT.
38.7% of the patients were diagnosed with 25-OHD deficiency defined as less than 10 ng/mL. Recipient gender (female vs. male, odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.33-8.21, P = 0.010), serum albumin level (per 1 mg/dl increase, OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.98, P = 0.047), and predominant renal replacement therapy modality before KT (P < 0.001) were found to be independent pretransplant risk factors for 25-OHD deficiency by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Subsequent repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed that 25-OHD level had the only significant main effect on eGFR during the 36-month follow-up period [F (1, 88) = 12.07, P = 0.001].
Pretransplant 25-OHD deficiency was significantly associated with a lower post-transplant eGFR, suggesting that 25-OHD may play an important role in maintaining graft function after KT.
In patients with diabetic end stage renal disease (ESRD), glycated albumin (GA) reflects recent glycemic control more accurately than glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). We evaluated the relationship between GA and average blood glucose (AG) level and developed an estimating equation for translating GA values into easier-to-understand AG levels.
Materials and Methods
A total of 185 ESRD patients, including 154 diabetic and 31 non-diabetic participants, were enrolled (108 hemodialysis, 77 peritoneal dialysis). Patients were asked to perform four-point daily self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose (SMBG) at least three consecutive days each week for four weeks. Serum levels of GA, HbA1c and other biochemical parameters were checked at baseline, as well as at 4 and 8 weeks.
Approximately 74.3±7.0 SMBG readings were obtained from each participant and mean AG was 169.1±48.2 mg/dL. The correlation coefficient between serum GA and AG levels (r=0.70, p<0.001) was higher than that of HbA1c and AG (r=0.54, p<0.001). Linear regression analysis yielded the following equation: estimated AG (eAG) (mg/dL)=4.71×GA%+73.35, and with this formula, serum GA levels could be easily translated to eAG levels. Multivariate analysis revealed significant contributions of postprandial hyperglycemia (β=0.25, p=0.03) and serum albumin (β=0.17, p=0.04) in determining serum GA level, independent to other clinical parameters.
Compared to HbA1c, serum GA levels were better correlated with AG levels. Using the estimating equation, an average blood glucose level of 155-160 mg/dL could be matched to a GA value of 18-19% in patients with ESRD.
Average blood glucose; end-stage renal disease; glycated albumin; self-monitoring blood glucose
Glomerulonephritis occurs as a rare form of renal manifestation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Herein, we report a case of falciparum malaria-associated IgA nephropathy for the first time. A 49-yr old male who had been to East Africa was diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Microhematuria and proteinuria along with acute kidney injury developed during the course of the disease. Kidney biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and IgA deposits with tubulointerstitial inflammation. Laboratory tests after recovery from malaria showed disappearance of urinary abnormalities and normalization of kidney function. Our findings suggest that malaria infection might be associated with IgA nephropathy.
Glomerulonephritis; IgA nephropathy; Malaria; Plasmodium falciparum
The effect of glycemic control after starting peritoneal dialysis (PD) on the survival of diabetic PD patients has largely been unexplored, especially in Asian population.
We conducted a prospective observational study, in which 140 incident PD patients with diabetes were recruited. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the means of quarterly HbA1C levels measured during the first year after starting PD. We examined the association between HbA1C and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards models.
The mean age was 58.7 years, 59.3% were male, and the mean follow-up duration was 3.5 years (range 0.4–9.5 years). The mean HbA1C levels were 6.3%, 7.1%, and 8.5% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd tertiles, respectively. Compared to the 1st tertile, the all-cause mortality rates were higher in the 2nd [hazard ratio (HR), 4.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91–18.94; p = 0.065] and significantly higher in the 3rd (HR, 13.16; 95% CI, 2.67–64.92; p = 0.002) tertiles (p for trend = 0.005), after adjusting for confounding factors. Cardiovascular mortality, however, did not differ significantly among the tertiles (p for trend = 0.682). In contrast, non-cardiovascular deaths, most of which were caused by infection, were more frequent in the 2nd (HR, 7.67; 95% CI, 0.68–86.37; p = 0.099) and the 3rd (HR, 51.24; 95% CI, 3.85–681.35; p = 0.003) tertiles than the 1st tertile (p for trend = 0.007).
Poor glycemic control is associated with high mortality rates in diabetic PD patients, suggesting that better glycemic control may improve the outcomes of these patients.
Coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of early death and graft loss in renal transplant patients. The aim of this study was to identify clinical and echocardiographic parameters independently associated with the angiographically-determined severity of coronary atherosclerosis in long-term kidney transplant patients. Fifty-two kidney transplant recipients who underwent elective coronary angiography were reviewed retrospectively. Angiographic severity was evaluated using the modified Gensini index (MGI). The mean age at coronary angiography was 52.5±7.9 yr with a mean prior transplant duration of 118.1±58.8 months. Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated a positive correlation of MGI with transplant duration before coronary angiography and chronic allograft nephropathy, whereas an inverse correlation was demonstrated with ejection fraction and statin use. On subsequent multivariate linear regression analysis, transplant duration before coronary angiography, statin use, and ejection fraction were independently associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in long-term kidney transplant patients. In summary, our study demonstrates that statin use, ejection fraction, and transplant duration before coronary angiography are independent parameters associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in long-term kidney transplant patients. Further investigation is required to reduce the atherosclerotic burden in kidney transplant patients.
Coronary Artery Disease; Coronary Angiography; Kidney Transplantation
Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRPF) is a rare disease characterized by a retroperitoneal inflammatory proliferative fibrosing process. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common inflammatory condition of the thyroid gland; and is a frequently-occurring autoimmune disorder manifesting predominantly in middle-aged women. We report a rare association of IRPF with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a 67-year-old man demonstrating good response to steroid therapy.
Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis; Hashimoto's thyroiditis; steroid therapy
Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephrosis is a well-described model of human idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, but the mechanism of PAN's effect is not completely understood. To investigate whether proteinuria in the PAN model is associated with an alteration of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression within the glomeruli, and whether cyclosporin A (CsA) has an effect on proteinuria and ZO-1 expression in this model, eighteen Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were assigned into three groups. Twelve rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of PAN (15 mg/100 g). The other six rats received an equal volume of saline (normal control group; control). CsA solution was administered intraperitoneally once a day for 20 days after the PAN injection (n=6, PAN+CsA). The remaining six rats received PAN, but they didn't receive CsA (n=6, PAN). Compared to control rats (35.1 ± 5.4 mg/day), the 24-hour urinary protein excretion on day 18 was significantly higher in the PAN rats (1021.9 ± 128.9 mg/day, p<0.01), and the CsA treatment partly reversed the increase in proteinuria in the PAN rats (556.4 ± 102.3 mg/day, p<0.05). Glomerular ZO-1 protein expressions were significantly increased in the PAN rats as compared to the control group on day 20 (176%, p<0.01). CsA treatment for 20 days in the PAN rats inhibited the increase in ZO-1 protein expression by 71.1% (p<0.05). CsA treatment significantly diminished the glomerular ZO-1 expression in the PAN rats as assessed by immunohistochemistry. CsA treatment significantly reduced proteinuria and the diminished glomerular ZO-1 expression in a PAN nephrosis rat model. These findings suggest the potential role of the slit diaphragm associated proteins in the development of the nephrotic syndrome, and CsA decreased the proteinuria probably by a direct action on the expression of these proteins in podocytes. Further investigations are needed to clarify the role of slit diaphragm associated proteins in the development of PAN nephrosis.
Nephrotic syndrome; PAN nephrosis; ZO-1; Cyclosporin
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare but serious complication in patients with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and is characterized by a progressive, intra-abdominal, inflammatory process resulting in the formation of sheets of new fibrous tissue, which cover, bind, and constrict the viscera, thereby compromising the motility of the bowel. No satisfactory estimate is available on the comparative incidence of dialysis related SEP and the pathogenesis of SEP still remains uncertain. Although recent therapeutic approaches have reported varying degrees of success, an efficient measure to detect, at an early stage, patients at risk for SEP would be beneficial and a standardized treatment regimen to prevent the illness is urgently needed. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical features of SEP and to identify the possible risk factors for the development of SEP in CAPD patients. We retrospectively reviewed by questionnaire SEP cases among CAPD patients from 7 university hospital dialysis centers in Korea, including Yonsei University, Ajou University, Catholic University, Inha University, Kyungpook University, Seoul National University and Soonchunhyang University, from January 1981 to December 2002. Out of a total of 4,290 CAPD patients in these centers, 34 cases developed SEP with an overall prevalence of 0.79%. The male to female ratio was 17:17. The median age of these patients was 44.5 years (range 19 - 66). The median duration of CAPD before SEP was 64 months (9 - 144) and 68% of patients (23/34) had been on CAPD for more than 4 years. Peritonitis (including two fungal cases) was the main cause of catheter removal in SEP (27 cases, 79%). Seventy-five percent of the cases (15/20) were administered β-blocker for a mean duration of 85 months (26 - 130). Among 10 cases with available peritoneal equilibration test (PET) data, 8 showed high transporter characteristics, and the remaining 2 were high average. Eighteen cases were diagnosed by clinical and radiologic methods, and 16 were surgically diagnosed. Eleven cases were surgically treated and the others were treated conservatively with intermittent total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The overall mortality rate was 24%. SEP is a serious, life threatening complication of CAPD. Most cases had a PD duration of more than 4 years, a history of severe peritonitis, and high transporter characteristics in PET. Therefore, to reduce the incidence of SEP, careful monitoring and treatment, including early catheter removal in patients with severe peritonitis, should be considered for long-term CAPD patients with the above characteristics.
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis; long-term CAPD; peritonitis
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury, and it is associated with poor long-term clinical outcomes. Although systolic heart failure is a well-known risk factor for CIN, no studies have yet evaluated the association between diastolic dysfunction and CIN.
We conducted a retrospective study of 735 patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and had an echocardiography performed within one month of the procedure at our institute, between January 2009 and December 2010. CIN was defined as an increase of ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or ≥ 25% in serum creatinine level during the 72 hours following PTCA.
CIN occurred in 64 patients (8.7%). Patients with CIN were older, had more comorbidities, and had an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) placed more frequently during PTCA than patients without CIN. They showed greater high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and lower estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). Echocardiographic findings revealed lower ejection fraction and higher left atrial volume index and E/E’ in the CIN group compared with non-CIN group. When patients were classified into 3 groups according to the E/E’ values of 8 and 15, CIN occurred in 42 (21.6%) patients in the highest tertile compared with 20 (4.0%) in the middle and 2 (4.3%) in the lowest tertile (p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, E/E’ > 15 was identified as an independent risk factor for the development of CIN after adjustment for age, diabetes, dose of contrast media, IABP use, eGFR, hs-CRP, and echocardiographic parameters [odds ratio (OR) 2.579, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.082-5.964, p = 0.035]. In addition, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of E/E’ was 0.751 (95% CI 0.684-0.819, p < 0.001), which was comparable to that of ejection fraction and left atrial volume index (0.739 and 0.656, respectively, p < 0.001).
This study demonstrated that, among echocardiographic variables, E/E' was an independent predictor of CIN. This in turn suggests that diastolic dysfunction may be a useful parameter in CIN risk stratification.
Contrast-induced nephropathy; Diastolic dysfunction; E/E’
Backgrounds and Aims
The presence and progression of vascular calcification have been demonstrated as important risk factors for mortality in dialysis patients. However, since the majority of subjects included in most previous studies were hemodialysis patients, limited information was available in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of aortic arch calcification (AoAC) and prognostic value of AoAC progression in PD patients.
We prospectively determined AoAC by chest X-ray at PD start and after 12 months, and evaluated the impact of AoAC progression on mortality in 415 incident PD patients.
Of 415 patients, 169 patients (40.7%) had AoAC at baseline with a mean of 18.1±11.2%. The presence of baseline AoAC was an independent predictor of all-cause [Hazard ratio (HR): 2.181, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.336–3.561, P = 0.002] and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 3.582, 95% CI: 1.577–8.132, P = 0.002). Among 363 patients with follow-up chest X-rays at 12 months after PD start, the proportion of patients with AoAC progression was significantly higher in patients with baseline AoAC (64.2 vs. 5.3%, P<0.001). Moreover, all-cause and cardiovascular death rates were significantly higher in the progression groups than in the non-progression group (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that AoAC progression was an independent predictor for all-cause (HR: 2.625, 95% CI: 1.150–5.991, P = 0.022) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 4.008, 95% CI: 1.079–14.890, P = 0.038) in patients with AoAC at baseline.
The presence and progression of AoAC assessed by chest X-ray were independently associated with unfavorable outcomes in incident PD patients. Regular follow-up by chest X-ray could be a simple and useful method to stratify mortality risk in these patients.
Background and Aims
Mesangial C3 deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, the role of complement in the pathogenesis or progression of IgAN is uncertain. In this observational cohort study, we aimed to identify the clinical implications of circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition and to investigate their utility as predictors of renal outcomes in patients with IgAN.
A total of 343 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled between January 2000 and December 2008. Decreased serum C3 level (hypoC3) was defined as C3 <90 mg/dl. The study endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and a doubling of the baseline serum creatinine (D-SCr).
Of the patients, there were 66 patients (19.2%) with hypoC3. During a mean follow-up of 53.7 months, ESRD occurred in 5 patients (7.6%) with hypoC3 compared with 9 patients (3.2%) with normal C3 levels (P = 0.11). However, 12 patients (18.2%) with hypoC3 reached D-SCr compared with 17 patients (6.1%) with normal C3 levels [Hazard ratio (HR), 3.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.33–10.36; P = 0.018]. In a multivariable model in which serum C3 levels were treated as a continuous variable, hypoC3 significantly predicted renal outcome of D-SCr (per 1 mg/dl increase of C3; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92–0.99; P = 0.011). The risk of reaching renal outcome was significantly higher in patients with mesangial C3 deposition 2+ to 3+ than in patients without deposition (HR 9.37; 95% CI, 1.10–80.26; P = 0.04).
This study showed that hypoC3 and mesangial C3 deposition were independent risk factors for progression, suggesting that complement activation may play a pathogenic role in patients with IgAN.
Background and Aims
Electrocardiography (ECG) is the most widely used initial screening test for the assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, traditional ECG criteria based only on voltage to detect LVH have limited clinical utility for the detection of LVH because of their poor sensitivity.
This prospective observational study was undertaken to compare the prognostic significance of commonly used ECG criteria for LVH, namely Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SV) or voltage-duration product (SP) and Cornell voltage (CV) or voltage-duration product (CP) criteria, and to investigate the association between echocardiographic LV mass index (LVMI) and ECG-LVH criteria in ESRD patients, who consecutively started maintenance hemodialysis (HD) between January 2006 and December 2008.
A total of 317 patients, who underwent both ECG and echocardiography, were included. Compared to SV and CV criteria, SP and CP criteria, respectively, correlated more closely with LVMI. In addition, CP criteria provided the highest positive predictive value for echocardiographic LVH. The 5-year cardiovascular survival rates were significantly lower in patients with ECG-LVH by each criterion. In multivariate analyses, echocardiographic LVH [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 11.71; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57–87.18; P = 0.016] and ECG-LVH by SP (HR: 3.43; 95% CI: 1.32–8.92; P = 0.011) and CP (HR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.16–8.11; P = 0.024) criteria, but not SV and CV criteria, were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality.
The product of QRS voltage and duration is helpful in identifying the presence of LVH and predicting cardiovascular mortality in incident HD patients.