Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), a serious surgical complication, is common after cardiac surgery; however, reports on AKI after noncardiac surgery are limited. We sought to determine the incidence and predictive factors of AKI after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and its effects on the clinical outcomes.
We conducted a retrospective study of 4718 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2011. Postoperative AKI was defined by serum creatinine change, as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline.
Of the 4718 patients, 679 (14.4%) developed AKI. Length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rates, and in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% versus 0.2%) were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without. AKI was also associated with requirement of renal replacement therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender; hypertension; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; hypoalbuminemia (<4 g/dl); use of diuretics, vasopressors, and contrast agents; and packed red blood cell transfusion were independent predictors for AKI after gastric surgery. Postoperative AKI and vasopressor use entailed a high risk of 3-month mortality after multiple adjustments.
AKI was common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. We identified several factors associated with postoperative AKI; recognition of these predictive factors may help reduce the incidence of AKI after gastric surgery. Furthermore, postoperative AKI in patients with gastric cancer is an important risk factor for short-term mortality.
While the anti-apoptotic effect of paricalcitol has been demonstrated in various animal models, it is not yet clear whether paricalcitol attenuates the apoptosis in gentamicin (GM)-induced kidney injury. We investigated the effect of paricalcitol on apoptotic pathways in rat kidneys damaged by GM. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1) Control group (n=8), where only vehicle was delivered, 2) GM group (n=10), where rats were treated with GM (150 mg/kg/day) for 7 days, 3) PARI group (n=10), where rats were co-treated with paricalcitol (0.2 µg/kg/day) and GM for 7 days. Paricalcitol attenuated renal dysfunction by GM administration in biochemical profiles. In terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining, increased apoptosis was observed in GM group, which was reversed by paricalcitol co-treatment. Immunoblotting using protein samples from rat cortex/outer stripe of outer medulla showed increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved form of caspase-3 in GM group, both of which were reversed by paricalcitol. The phosphorylated Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression was increase in GM, which was counteracted by paricalcitol. The protein expression of p-Akt and nitro-tyrosine was also enhanced in GM-treated rats compared with control rats, which was reversed by paricalcitol co-treatment. Paricalcitol protects GM-induced renal injury by antiapoptotic mechanisms, including inhibition of intrinsic apoptosis pathway and JNK.
Apoptosis; Gentamicin; Kidney; Paricalcitol
Hospital-acquired anemia (HAA) is common in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is an independent indicator of long-term mortality in these patients. However, limited information exists regarding the development and prognostic impact of HAA associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in AMI patients.
Methods and Results
We retrospectively analyzed 2,289 patients with AMI, and excluded those with anemia at admission. The study population included 1,368 patients, of whom 800 (58.5%) developed HAA. Age, Hgb level at admission, Length of hospital stay, documented in-hospital bleeding and use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, presence of CKD and occurrence of AKI were significantly associated with the development of HAA. HAA was significantly associated with higher 3-year mortality (4.8% and 11.4% for non-HAA and HAA patients, respectively; P < 0.001). After adjustment for multivariable confounders, the risk for long-term mortality was increased in HAA patients with AKI and/or CKD but not in HAA patients without AKI and/or CKD, compared to non-HAA patients (HAA patients without AKI and CKD, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–2.56; HAA patients with either AKI or CKD, HR: 2.80, 95% CI: 1.37–5.73; HAA patients with AKI and CKD, HR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.28–8.24; compared with the non-HAA group).
AKI and CKD were strongly associated with the development of HAA in AMI patients. HAA, when accompanied by AKI or CKD, is an independent risk predictor for long-term mortality in AMI patients.
We investigated the effects of proteinuria and renal insufficiency on all-cause mortality in patients with colorectal cancer, with special emphasis on cancer staging and cancer-related deaths.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. In protocol 1, patients were classified into four groups based on the operability of cancer and proteinuria: group 1, early-stage cancer patients (colorectal cancer stage ≤3) without proteinuria; group 2, early-stage cancer patients with proteinuria; group 3, advanced-stage cancer patients without proteinuria (colorectal cancer stage=4); and group 4, advanced-stage cancer patients with proteinuria. In protocol 2, patients were classified into four similar groups based on cancer staging and renal insufficiency (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2009, 3379 patients were enrolled in this cohort and followed until May 1, 2012 or until death.
The number of patients with proteinuria was 495 (14.6%). The prevalence of proteinuria was higher in advanced-stage cancer (n=151, 22.3%) than in early-stage cancer patients (n=344, 12.7%). After adjusting for age, gender and other clinical variables, the proteinuric, early-stage cancer group was shown to be associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.67 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.38-2.01, compared with non-proteinuric early-stage cancer patients. However, renal insufficiency was not associated with colorectal cancer mortality.
Proteinuria is an important risk factor for cancer mortality, especially in relatively early colorectal cancer.
Cancer; death; proteinuria; GFR; stage
The aim of this study was to investigate clinical characteristics and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with sepsis and septic shock. Additionally, we explored whether the severity of AKI affects on the clinical outcomes.
Materials and Methods
Data were collected retrospectively in a single center. Among 5680 patients who visited emergency department from January to December 2010, 992 patients with sepsis and septic shock were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups, patients who developed AKI or not, to compare the baseline characteristics, and laboratory and physiologic data. Patients with AKI were subdivided according to its stages for survival analysis.
AKI was developed in 57.7% of patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that development of septic AKI was associated with older age, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, presence of shock, positive blood culture results, and low white blood cell and platelet counts. Hospital mortality was higher in AKI group. Crude Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated reduced 30-day survival rate was significantly associated with the severity of acute kidney injury.
The development of septic AKI was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Furthermore, the severity of AKI was associated with increased mortality.
Acute kidney injury; mortality; risk factors; sepsis; septic shock
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on short- and long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in elderly (>75 yr old) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with renal dysfunction. As part of Korea AMI Registry (KAMIR), elderly patients with AMI and renal dysfunction (GFR<60 mL/min) received either medical (n=439) or PCI (n=1,019) therapy. Primary end point was in-hospital death. Secondary end point was MACE during a 1 month and 1 yr follow-up. PCI group showed a significantly lower incidence of in-hospital death (20.0% vs 14.3%, P=0.006). Short-term and long-term MACE rates were higher in medical therapy group (31.9% vs 19.0%; 57.7% vs 31.3%, P<0.001), and this difference was mainly attributed to cardiac death (29.3% vs 17.6%; 51.9% vs 25.0%, P<0.001). MACE-free survival time after adjustment was also higher in PCI group on short-term (hazard ratio, 0.67; confidence interval, 0.45-0.98; P=0.037) and long-term follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.61, confidence interval, 0.45-0.83; P=0.002). In elderly AMI patients with renal dysfunction, PCI therapy yields favorable in-hospital and short-term and long-term MACE-free survival.
Acute Myocardial Infarction; Renal Dysfunction; Elderly; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Major Adverse Cardiac Event
A 27-year-old man presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of massive gross hematuria and urinary retention. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging showed uneven, dilated calices and a narrowing of the renal pelvis in the left kidney; in addition, a large hematoma was noted in the urinary bladder. An emergency cystoscopy was performed following detection of the hematoma and blood clots were removed. A lesional biopsy, a tuberculosis (TB) culture, and urine cytology showed positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The clinical manifestations of genitourinary tuberculosis are nonspecific and are usually detected at a chronic stage. In conclusion, we report an unusual cause of acute kidney injury associated with a subacute stage of genitourinary tuberculosis that caused mucosal erosion and bleeding in the bladder.
Tuberculosis; Acute kidney injury; Hematuria
We report a case of Serratia marcescens peritonitis in a 45-year-old man with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient presented with abdominal pain and cloudy dialysate. Empiric antibiotic therapy was initiated intraperitoneally with cefazolin and ceftazidime for 5 days. Cultures of the dialysate revealed S. marcescens, and the treatment was subsequently changed to gentamicin and ceftazidime. Oral ciprofloxacin was also added. The patient's abdominal pain and the dialysate white blood cell (WBC) count, however, did not improve. The indwelling CAPD catheter was therefore removed. This is an unusual case report in the Korean literature of S. marcescens peritonitis in a patient receiving CAPD.
Serratia marcescens; Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; Peritonitis
The present study investigated the changes that occurred in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the kidney as a result of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Rats were implanted with DOCA strips (200 mg/kg) 1 week after unilateral nephrectomy and were then supplied with 0.9% saline to drink. Four weeks after DOCA implantation, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by use of the tail-cuff method. The expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mTOR, as well as the protein expression levels of ED-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2, were then examined in the kidney by semiquantitative immunoblotting. DOCA-salt hypertensive rats were found to have significantly increased SBP as well as an increased kidney weight-to-body weight ratio. Moreover, the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR was increased in the kidney of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats compared with the control, as was the protein expression of ED-1, COX-2, TGF-β1, and α-SMA. The expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax were increased significantly, whereas Bcl-2 expression was decreased. In conclusion, the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR was increased in the kidney of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.
Deoxycorticosterone; Hypertension; Kidney
Sjögren’s syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease in which lymphatic cells destroy the salivary and lacrimal glands. Glomerulonephritis is thought to be a rare occurrence in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Furthermore, concurrent glomerular involvement and lymphoma in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome has seldom been reported.
A 52-year-old woman with primary Sjögren’s syndrome developed membranous glomerulonephritis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). She was diagnosed with Sjögren’s syndrome based on the dry eyes, dry mouth, positive anti-nuclear antibody test, anti-Ro (SS-A) antibody, salivary gland biopsy, and salivary scintigraphy. Moreover, renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of membranous glomerulonephritis. Three months later, her small bowel was perforated with pneumoperitoneum, and the biopsy revealed Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL.
We observed the first case of primary Sjögren’s syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr Virus-positive DLBCL and membranous glomerulonephritis. Because of the possibility of malignancy-associated membranous glomerulonephritis in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome, we should be careful and examine such patients for hidden malignancy.
Primary Sjögren’s syndrome; Membranous glomerulonephritis; EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) offer a potential alternative for tissue repair and regeneration. We have recently shown that hypoxia stimulates ASCs and enhances the regenerative potential of ASCs, which is beneficial for ASC therapy. In the present study, we further investigated a key mediator and a signal pathway involved in the stimulation of ASC during hypoxia. Culturing ASC in a hypoxic incubator (2% oxygen tension) increased the proliferation and migration, and this was mediated by Akt and ERK pathways. To determine the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate intensity was detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Hypoxia significantly increased the dichlorofluorescin diacetate intensity, which was greatly reduced by N-acetyl-cysteine and diphenyleneiodonium treatment. Likewise, the hypoxia-induced proliferation and migration of ASCs were reversed by N-acetyl-cysteine and diphenyleneiodonium treatment, suggesting the involvement of ROS generation in ASC stimulation. Further, we examined the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases and observed that hypoxia stimulated the phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β. In summary, the ROS produced by ASCs in response to hypoxia was mostly likely due to NADPH oxidase activity. The increased cellular ROS was accompanied by the phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β as well as by the activation of ERK and Akt signal pathways. Our results suggest a pivotal role for ROS generation in the stimulation of ASCs by hypoxia.
The clinical outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are poor in patients with renal insufficiency. This study investigated changes in the likelihood that patients received optimal medical care throughout the entire process of myocardial infarction management, on the basis of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
This study analyzed 7,679 patients (age, 63 ± 13 years; men 73.6%) who had STEMI and were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) from November 2005 to August 2008. The study subjects were divided into 5 groups corresponding to strata used to define chronic kidney disease stages.
Patients with lower GFR were less likely to present with typical chest pain. The average symptom-to-door time, door-to-balloon time, and symptom-to-balloon time were longer with lower GFR than higher GFR. Primary reperfusion therapy was performed less frequently and the results of reperfusion therapy were poorer in patients with renal insufficiency; these patients were less likely to receive adjunctive medical treatment, such as treatment with aspirin, clopidogrel, β-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), or statin, during hospitalization and at discharge. Patients who received less intense medical therapy had worse clinical outcomes than those who received more intense medical therapy.
Patients with STEMI and renal insufficiency had less chance of receiving optimal medical care throughout the entire process of MI management, which may contribute to worse outcomes in these patients.
Myocardial infarction; Optimal medical care; Renal function
A 59-year-old female with diabetes mellitus presented with hypercalcemia and polycythemia. Her serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were increased, and Tc-99m sesta-MIBI scanning showed hot uptake in the lower portion of the left thyroid lobe. After parathyroidectomy, her calcium, iPTH, and polycythemia were normalized. In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of polycythemia and hypercalcemia should also include the possibility of a parathyroid tumor in addition to other neoplasms.
Hypercalcemia; Polycythemia vera; Parathyroid tumor
The role of the kidney in combating metabolic acidosis has been a subject of considerable interest for many years. The present study was aimed to determine whether there is an altered regulation of renal acid base transporters in acute and chronic acid loading. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Metabolic acidosis was induced by administration of NH4Cl for 2 days (acute) and for 7days (chronic). The serum and urinary pH and bicarbonate were measured. The protein expression of renal acid base transporters [type 3 Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), type 1 Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC1), Na-K+ ATPase, H+-ATPase, anion exchanger-1 (AE-1)] was measured by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Serum bicarbonate and pH were decreased in acute acid loading rats compared with controls. Accordingly, urinary pH decreased. The protein expression of NHE3, H+-ATPase, AE-1 and NBC1 was not changed. In chronic acid loading rats, serum bicarbonate and pH were not changed, while urinary pH was decreased compared with controls. The protein expression of NHE3, H+-ATPase was increased in the renal cortex of chronic acid loading rats. These results suggest that unaltered expression of acid transporters combined with acute acid loading may contribute to the development of acidosis. The subsequent increased expression of NHE3, H+-ATPase in the kidney may play a role in promoting acid excretion in the later stage of acid loading, which counteract the development of metabolic acidosis.
Ammonium chloride; Acidosis; Sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3; Proton-Translocating ATPases
A 30-year-old male presented with pitting edema. He had received a kidney transplantation 3 months previously. His serum creatinine level was increased, and a renal ultrasound showed hypoechoic fluid collection in the perirenal space and pelvic cavity. We conducted sono-guided percutaneous drainage of the fluid collected in the pelvic cavity. The chemistry of the peritoneal fluid was more equivalent to serum chemistry values than to urinary values. Simple aspiration and treatment with antibiotics were performed. We have presented a case of lymphocele after kidney transplantation. This case suggests that physicians should remember how to differentiate the pelvic cavity fluid collection in patients who have received a kidney transplant.
Lymphocele; Kidney; Transplantation
We report the case of a female patient with incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis with nephrocalcinosis. She was admitted to the hospital because of acute pyelonephritis. Imaging studies showed dual medullary nephrocalcinosis. Subsequent evaluations revealed hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia with normal acid-base status. A modified tubular acidification test with NH4Cl confirmed a defect of urine acidification, which is compatible with incomplete distal tubular acidosis. We treated our patient with potassium citrate, which corrects hypokalemia and prevents further deposition of calcium salts.
Renal tubular acidosis; Nephrocalcinosis; Kidney
Diabetes mellitus and renal dysfunction are prognostic factors after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, few studies have assessed the effects of renal insufficiency in association with diabetes in the context of AMI. Here, we investigated the clinical outcomes according to the concomitance of renal dysfunction and diabetes mellitus in patients with AMI.
From November 2005 to August 2008, 9905 patients (63 ± 13 years; 70% men) with AMI were enrolled in a nationwide prospective Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) and were categorized into 4 groups: Group I (n = 5700) had neither diabetes nor renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), Group II (n = 1730) had diabetes but no renal insufficiency, Group III (n = 1431) had no diabetes but renal insufficiency, and Group IV (n = 1044) had both diabetes and renal insufficiency. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including a composite of all cause-of-death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and coronary artery bypass graft after 1-year clinical follow-up.
Primary endpoints occurred in 1804 (18.2%) patients. There were significant differences in composite MACE among the 4 groups (Group I, 12.5%; Group II, 15.7%; Group III, 30.5%; Group IV, 36.5%; p < 0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, after adjusting for multiple covariates, the 1-year mortality increased stepwise from Group III to IV as compared with Group I (hazard ratio [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-2.86; p = 0.001; and HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.62-3.62; p < 0.001, respectively). However, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant difference in probability of death at 1 year between Group III and IV (p = 0.288).
Renal insufficiency, especially in association with diabetes, is associated with the occurrence of composite MACE and indicates poor prognosis in patients with AMI. Categorization of patients with diabetes and/or renal insufficiency provides valuable information for early-risk stratification of AMI patients.
acute myocardial infarction; diabetes mellitus; major adverse cardiac events; renal insufficiency
A 59-year-old man with confused mental status was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory reports showed him to have severe hyponatremia, and additional studies revealed panhypopituitarism. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a sellar cystic lesion, which consisted of a Rathke cleft cyst. Thus, the mass effect of the Rathke cleft cyst resulted in panhypopituitarism and finally induced euvolemic hyponatremia. On the basis of these results, supplementation with thyroid hormone and glucocorticoid was started, and the patient's serum sodium level was gradually corrected and maintained within the normal range. Here, we report this case of euvolemic hyponatremia caused by a Rathke cleft cyst.
Rathke cleft cyst; Hyponatremia; Panhypopituitarism
This study aimed to compare the incidence and clinical significance of transient versus persistent acute kidney injury (AKI) on acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Materials and Methods
The study was a retrospective cohort of 855 patients with STEMI. AKI was defined as an increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL in creatinine level at any point during hospital stay. The study population was classified into 5 groups: 1) patients without AKI; 2) patients with mild AKI that was resolved by discharge (creatinine change less than 0.5mg/dL compared with admission creatinine during hospital stay, transient mild AKI); 3) patients with mild AKI that did not resolve by discharge (persistent mild AKI); 4) patients with moderate/severe AKI that was resolved by discharge (creatinine change more than 0.5 mg/dL compared with admission creatinine, transient moderate/severe AKI); 5) patients with moderate/severe AKI that did not resolve by discharge (persistent moderate/severe AKI). We investigated 1-year all-cause mortality after hospital discharge for the primary outcome of the study. The relation between AKI and 1-year mortality after STEMI was analyzed.
AKI occurred in 74 (8.7%) patients during hospital stay. Adjusted hazard ratio for mortality was 3.139 (95% CI 0.764 to 12.897, p=0.113) in patients with transient, mild AKI, and 8.885 (95% CI 2.710 to 29.128, p<0.001) in patients with transient, moderate/severe AKI compared to patients without AKI. Persistent moderate/severe AKI was also independent predictor of 1 year mortality (hazard ratio, 5.885; 95% CI 1.079 to 32.101, p=0.041).
Transient and persistent moderate/severe AKI during acute myocardial infarction is strongly related to 1-year all cause mortality after STEMI.
Acute kidney injury; myocardial infarction; mortality
Bupropion is widely used for the treatment of depressive disorder and smoking cessation. Hyponatremia, including a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), is not rare complication of treatment with antipsychotic drugs. We report a 60-year-old man who experienced severe hyponatremia after a treatment with bupropion for depressive disorder for the first time in the Korea.
bupropion; antipsychotic agents; hyponatremia; elderly
A 34-year-old female presented with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated by peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) complained of a dry cough. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed massive right hydrothorax. Because the glucose concentration of pleural fluid was markedly high compared with that of serum, we performed isotope and contrast peritoneography. We used CT for localizing it. MRI was also trying to show transdiaphragmatic leakage in peritoneoflural fistula. Temporary discontinuation of CAPD, tetracycline instillation into the pleural space and surgical patch grafting of the diaphragmatic leak have all been described. A novel method may be video-assisted talc pleurodesis.
Pleural effusion; Dialysis; Kidney
Although drug fever may develop after administration of the drug by various routes, it has not been reported with antibiotic-loaded bone cement. Here, a case of drug fever induced by piperacillin/tazobactam loaded into bone cement is reported. A 72-yr-old woman presented with fever that developed two weeks after insertion of bone cement loaded with antibiotics including piperacillin/tazobactam into the knee joint for infectious arthritis. The fever was associated with a skin rash and blood eosinophilia. The work-up of the fever excluded several causes. Drug provocation test demonstrated that the piperacillin/tazobactam, which had been loaded in the bone cement, was the cause of the fever. The findings of this case suggest that drug fever can be induced by any drug placed and released continuously within the body. Therefore, the evaluation for possible drug fever should include all drugs the patient has been exposed to regardless of the route of administration.
Bone Cements; Drug Hypersensitivity; Fever; Piperacillin
Type I interferons (IFNs) activate Janus tyrosine kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway for exerting pleiotropic biological effects, including antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory responses. Here, we demonstrate that filamin B functions as a scaffold that links between activated Rac1 and a c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade module for mediating type I IFN signaling. Filamin B interacted with Rac1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, and JNK. Filamin B markedly enhanced IFNα-dependent Rac1 activation and the sequential activation of the JNK cascade members. Complementation assays using M2 melanoma cells revealed that filamin B, but not filamin A, is required for IFNα-dependent activation of JNK. Furthermore, filamin B promoted IFNα-induced apoptosis, whereas short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of filamin B prevented it. These results establish a novel function of filamin B as a molecular scaffold in the JNK signaling pathway for type I IFN-induced apoptosis, thus providing the biological basis for antitumor and antiviral functions of type I IFNs.
We show that caspase-3 cleaves Cdc6 at D290/S and D442/G sites, producing p32-tCdc6 (truncated Cdc6) and p49-tCdc6, respectively, during etoposide- or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α–induced apoptosis. The expression of these tCdc6 proteins, p32- and p49-tCdc6, promotes etoposide-induced apoptosis. The expression of tCdc6 perturbs the loading of Mcm2 but not Orc2 onto chromatin and activates ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad-3 related (ATR) kinase activities with kinetics similar to that of the phosphorylation of Chk1/2. The activation kinetics are consistent with elevated cellular levels of p53 and mitochondrial levels of Bax. The tCdc6-induced effects are all suppressed to control levels by expressing a Cdc6 mutant that cannot be cleaved by caspase-3 (Cdc6-UM). Cdc6-UM expression attenuates the TNF-α–induced activation of ATM and caspase-3 activities. When ATM or ATR is down-expressed by using the small interfering RNA technique, the TNF-α– or tCdc6-induced activation of caspase-3 activities is suppressed in the cells. These results suggest that tCdc6 proteins act as dominant-negative inhibitors of replication initiation and that they disrupt chromatin structure and/or induce DNA damage, leading to the activation of ATM/ATR kinase activation and p53–Bax-mediated apoptosis.