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1.  Translational Read-Through of a Nonsense Mutation Causing Bartter Syndrome 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(6):821-826.
Bartter syndrome (BS) is classified into 5 genotypes according to underlying mutant genes and BS III is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CLCNKB gene encoding for basolateral ClC-Kb. BS III is the most common genotype in Korean patients with BS and W610X is the most common CLCNKB mutation in Korean BS III. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CLCNKB W610X mutation can be rescued in vitro using aminoglycoside antibiotics, which are known to induce translational read-through of a nonsense mutation. The CLCNKB cDNA was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and the W610X nonsense mutation was generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Cultured polarized MDCK cells were transfected with the vectors, and the read-through was induced using an aminoglycoside derivative, G418. Cellular expression of the target protein was monitored via immunohistochemistry. While cells transfected with the mutant CLCNKB failed to express ClC-Kb, G418 treatment of the cells induced the full-length protein expression, which was localized to the basolateral plasma membranes. It is demonstrated that the W610X mutation in CLCNKB can be a good candidate for trial of translational read-through induction as a therapeutic modality.
PMCID: PMC3677996  PMID: 23772144
Bartter Syndrome; CLCNKB Gene; Nonsense Codon; Translational Read-Through Induction
2.  A case of pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 with a mutation in the mineralocorticoid receptor gene 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(2):90-93.
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized in newborns by salt wasting with dehydration, hyperkalemia and failure to thrive. This disease is heterogeneous in etiology and includes autosomal dominant PHA1 owing to mutations of the NR3C2 gene encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor, autosomal recessive PHA1 due to mutations of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) gene, and secondary PHA1 associated with urinary tract diseases. Amongst these diseases, autosomal dominant PHA1 shows has manifestations restricted to renal tubules including a mild salt loss during infancy and that shows a gradual improvement with advancing age. Here, we report a neonatal case of PHA1 with a NR3C2 gene mutation (a heterozygous c.2146_2147insG in exon 5), in which the patient showed failure to thrive, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and elevated plasma renin and aldosterone levels. This is the first case of pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 confirmed by genetic analysis in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3077507  PMID: 21503203
Pseudohypoaldosteronism; Mineralocorticoid; Receptor; NR3C2 gene; Infant
3.  Renal transplantation in a patient with Bartter syndrome and glomerulosclerosis 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(1):36-39.
Bartter syndrome (BS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited renal tube disorder characterized by renal salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and normotensive hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. There have been several case reports of BS complicated by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here, we have reported the case of a BS patient who developed FSGS and subsequent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and provided a brief literature review. The patient presented with classic BS at 3 months of age and developed proteinuria at 7 years. Renal biopsy performed at 11 years of age revealed a FSGS perihilar variant. Hemodialysis was initiated at 11 years of age, and kidney transplantation was performed at 16 years of age. The post-transplantation course has been uneventful for more than 3 years with complete disappearance of BS without the recurrence of FSGS. Genetic study revealed a homozygous p.Trp(TGG)610Stop(TGA) mutation in the CLCNKB gene. In summary, BS may be complicated by secondary FSGS due to the adaptive response to chronic salt-losing nephropathy, and FSGS may progress to ESRD in some patients. Renal transplantation in patients with BS and ESRD results in complete remission of BS.
PMCID: PMC3040364  PMID: 21359059
Bartter syndrome; End-stage renal disease; Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; Perihilar variant; Kidney transplantation
4.  A case of Bartter syndrome type I with atypical presentations 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2010;53(8):809-813.
Bartter syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessively inherited rare renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism with normal to low blood pressure due to a renal loss of sodium. Genetically, BS is classified into 5 subtypes according to the underlying genetic defects, and BS is clinically categorized into antenatal BS and classical BS according to onset age. BS type I is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC12A1 gene and usually manifests as antenatal BS. This report concerns a male patient with compound heterozygous missense mutations on SLC12A1 (p.C436Y and p.L560P) and atypical clinical and laboratory features. The patient had low urinary sodium and chloride levels without definite metabolic alkalosis until the age of 32 months, which led to confusion between BS and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). In addition, the clinical onset of the patient was far beyond the neonatal period. Genetic study eventually led to the diagnosis of BS type I. The low urinary sodium and chloride concentrations may be caused by secondary NDI, and the later onset may suggest the existence of a genotype-phenotype correlation.
In summary, BS type I may have phenotype variability including low urine sodium and chloride levels and later onset. A definitive diagnosis can be confirmed by genetic testing.
PMCID: PMC3004498  PMID: 21189980
Bartter syndrome; Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; SLC12A1 gene; Child
5.  Clinico-Genetic Study of Nail-Patella Syndrome 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(Suppl 1):S82-S86.
Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant disease that typically involves the nails, knees, elbows and the presence of iliac horns. In addition, some patients develop glomerulopathy or adult-onset glaucoma. NPS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the LMX1B gene. In this study, phenotype-genotype correlation was analyzed in 9 unrelated Korean children with NPS and their affected family members. The probands included 5 boy and 4 girls who were confirmed to have NPS, as well as 6 of their affected parents. All of the patients (100%) had dysplastic nails, while 13 patients (86.7%) had patellar anomalies, 8 (53.3%) had iliac horns, 6 (40.0%) had elbow contracture, and 4 (26.7%) had nephropathy including one patient who developed end-stage renal disease at age 4.2. The genetic study revealed 8 different LMX1B mutations (5 missense mutations, 1 frame-shifting deletion and 2 abnormal splicing mutations), 6 of which were novel. Genotype-phenotype correlation was not identified, but inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability was observed. Overall, these findings are similar to the results of previously conducted studies, and the mechanism underlying the phenotypic variations and predisposing factors of the development and progression of nephropathy in NPS patients are still unknown.
PMCID: PMC2633198  PMID: 19194568
Nail-Patella Syndrome; LMX1B Gene; Phenotype-Genotype Correlation
6.  Two Korean Infants with Genetically Confirmed Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome of Finnish Type 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(Suppl 1):S210-S214.
Congenital nephrotic syndrome is defined as nephrotic syndrome which manifests in utero or during the first 3 months of life. The prototype of congenital nephrotic syndrome is congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type (CNF, OMIM #602716), which is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the nephrin gene (NPHS1). There have been few clinical case reports of CNF in Korea, but none of which was confirmed by genetic study. Here, we report two children with congenital nephrotic syndrome. Genetic analysis of the NPHS1 gene revealed compound heterozygous frame-shifting mutations (c.2156_2163 delTGCACTGC causing p.L719DfsX4 and c.3250_3251insG causing p.V1084GfsX12) in one patient and a missense mutation (c.1381G>A causing p.R460Q) and a nonsense mutation (c.2442C>G causing p.Y814X) in the other patient. The nonsense mutation was novel. The clinical courses of the patients were typical of CNF. This is the first report of genetically confirmed CNF in Korea to date. The early genetic diagnosis of CNF is important for proper clinical management of the patients and precise genetic counseling of the families.
PMCID: PMC2633182  PMID: 19194555
Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome; Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome of Finnish Type; NPHS1 Gene; Nephrin; Mutation
7.  Two Novel Mutations in the Aquaporin 2 Gene in a Girl with Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(6):1076-1078.
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by insensitivity of the kidney to the antidiuretic effect of vasopressin. There are three inheritance patterns of CNDI: the X-linked recessive form associated with vasopressin V2 receptor gene mutations, and the autosomal recessive and dominant forms associated with aquaporin-2 gene (AQP2) mutations. The evaluation for polyuria and polydipsia in a one-month-old Korean girl revealed no response to vasopressin and confirmed the diagnosis of CNDI. Because the child was female without family history of CNDI, her disease was thought to be an autosomal recessive form. We analyzed the AQP2 gene and detected a compound heterozygous missense point mutation: 70Ala (GCC) to Asp (GAC) in exon 1 inherited from her father and 187Arg (CGC) to His (CAC) in exon 3 inherited from her mother. The first mutation is located within the first NPA motif of the AQP2 molecule and the second one right after the second NPA motif. This is the first report to characterize AQP2 mutations in Korean patients with autosomal recessive CNDI, and expands the spectrum of AQP2 mutations by reporting two novel mutation, 70Ala (GCC) to Asp (GAC) and 187Arg (CGC) to His (CAC).
PMCID: PMC2779314  PMID: 16361827
Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic; aquaporin 2; Mutation; NPA Motif
8.  Identification and Functional Characterization of P159L Mutation in HNF1B in a Family with Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young 5 (MODY5) 
Genomics & Informatics  2014;12(4):240-246.
Mutation in HNF1B, the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) gene, results in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) 5, which is characterized by gradual impairment of insulin secretion. However, the functional role of HNF-1β in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism is not fully understood. We identified a family with early-onset diabetes that fulfilled the criteria of MODY. Sanger sequencing revealed that a heterozygous P159L (CCT to CTT in codon 159 in the DNA-binding domain) mutation in HNF1B was segregated according to the affected status. To investigate the functional consequences of this HNF1B mutation, we generated a P159L HNF1B construct. The wild-type and mutant HNF1B constructs were transfected into COS-7 cells in the presence of the promoter sequence of human glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2). The luciferase reporter assay revealed that P159L HNF1B had decreased transcriptional activity compared to wild-type (p < 0.05). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed reduced DNA binding activity of P159L HNF1B. In the MIN6 pancreatic β-cell line, overexpression of the P159L mutant was significantly associated with decreased mRNA levels of GLUT2 compared to wild-type (p < 0.05). However, INS expression was not different between the wild-type and mutant HNF1B constructs. These findings suggests that the impaired insulin secretion in this family with the P159L HNF1B mutation may be related to altered GLUT2 expression in β-cells rather than decreased insulin gene expression. In conclusion, we have identified a Korean family with an HNF1B mutation and characterized its effect on the pathogenesis of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC4330261
glucose transporter type 2; hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β; point mutation; type 2 diabetes mellitus
9.  Prevalence of 25(OH) Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency in Pediatric Patients on Chronic Dialysis 
♦ Background: 25(OH) Vitamin D [25(OH)D] is the major circulating form of vitamin D and the parameter used to reflect vitamin D status. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are likely to have low levels of 25(OH)D, and recent observations have linked suboptimal vitamin D status with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, inflammation, insulin resistance, and the rate of progression of renal insufficiency. Little is known about the magnitude of vitamin D deficiency in pediatric patients with stage 5 CKD on chronic dialysis.
♦ Objectives: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal vitamin D status in children on chronic dialysis.
♦ Methods: Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were evaluated in 59 pediatric patients on chronic dialysis. Weekly renal Kt/V and creatinine clearance (CCr) were evaluated as parameters reflecting residual renal function. In these patients, serum 25(OH)D concentrations less than 10 ng/mL were considered deficiency and concentrations of 10 - 30 ng/mL were considered insufficiency.
♦ Results: Of the 59 pediatric patients (mean age: 14.4 ± 5.1 years), 51 (86.4%) were on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 8 (13.6%) were on hemodialysis. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 32.2% of the patients (n = 19), and vitamin D insufficiency, in 50.8% (n = 30). Patients with serum 25(OH)D concentrations less than 30 ng/mL were older than those with normal 25(OH)D concentrations (15.4 ± 4.5 years vs 9.2 ± 5.1 years, p = 0.000). Patients with 25(OH) D concentrations less than 30 ng/mL had higher PTH levels than did those with normal 25(OH)D concentrations (349.5 ± 318.3 pg/mL vs 142.5 ± 116.9 pg/mL, p = 0.001). In the univariate analysis, there was no correlation between serum 25(OH)D and serum 1,25(OH)2D (r = 0.242, p = 0.064), calcium (r = 0.108, p = 0.415), phosphorus (r = -0.050, p = 0.706), or body mass index (r = -0.046, p = 0.729). In PD patients, serum 25(OH)D was positively correlated with weekly renal Kt/V (r = 0.385, p = 0.005) and CCr (r = 0.443, p = 0.001). In addition, serum 25(OH)D and serum albumin were positively correlated (r = 0.297, p = 0.035) in the PD patients.
♦ Conclusions: The present study found a high prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency and insufficiency in children on chronic dialysis. Serum 25(OH)D was associated with residual renal function in children on PD. Further studies to evaluate the consequences of vitamin D deficiency and the impact of therapeutic interventions are needed in pediatric CKD patients.
PMCID: PMC3707718  PMID: 23209039
Chronic kidney disease; 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency; chronic dialysis; residual renal function
10.  Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a novel mutation in the aquaporin 2 gene 
Biomedical Reports  2014;2(4):596-598.
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) is a rare disorder caused by mutations of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) V2 receptor or aquaporin 2 (AQP2) genes. The current study presented the case of CNDI in a 1-month-old male with a novel mutation in the AQP2 gene. The patient was referred due to the occurrence of hypernatremia and mild-intermittent fever since birth. An AVP stimulation test was compatible with CNDI as there was no significant response to desmopressin. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated two mutations in exon 1 of the AQP2 gene: C to T transition, which resulted in a missense mutation of 108Thr (ACG) to Met (ATG); and a 127, 128 delCA, which resulted in a deletion mutation of glutamine in position 43 at codon CAG as the first affected amino acid, with the new reading frame endign in a termination codon at position 62. The molecular genetic analysis of the parents showed that the missense mutation was inherited maternally and the deletion mutation was inherited paternally. The parents showed no signs or symptoms of CNDI, indicating autosomal recessive inheritance. The 108Thr (ACG) to Met (ATG) mutation was confirmed as a novel mutation. Therefore, the molecular identification of the AQP2 gene has clinical significance, as early recognition of CNDI in infants that show only non-specific symptoms, can be facilitated. Thus, repeated episodes of dehydration, which may cause physical and mental retardation can be avoided.
PMCID: PMC4051480  PMID: 24944815
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; aquaporin 2 gene; missense mutation; deletion mutation
11.  Hyperuricemia and deterioration of renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:63.
The role of hyperuricemia in disease progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has not been defined well. We investigated the association of serum uric acid (sUA) with renal function and the effect of hypouricemic treatment on the rate of renal function decline.
This is a single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 365 patients with ADPKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and who were followed up for > 1 year were included in our analysis. Hyperuricemia was defined by a sUA level of ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in male and ≥ 6.0 mg/dL in female or when hypouricemic medications were prescribed.
Hyperuricemia was associated with reduced initial eGFR, independent of age, sex, hypertension, albuminuria, and total kidney volume. During a median follow-up period of over 6 years, patients with hyperuricemia showed a faster annual decline in eGFR (−6.3% per year vs. −0.9% per year, p = 0.008). However, after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension and initial eGFR, sUA was no longer associated with either annual eGFR decline or the development of ESRD. Among 53 patients who received hypouricemic treatment, the annual eGFR decline appeared to be attenuated after hypouricemic treatment (pretreatment vs. posttreatment: −5.3 ± 8. 2 vs. 0.2 ± 6.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year, p = 0.001 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test).
Although hyperuricemia was associated with reduced eGFR, it was not an independent factor for renal progression in ADPKD. However, the correction of hyperuricemia may attenuate renal function decline in some patients with mild renal insufficiency.
PMCID: PMC4021172  PMID: 24739095
Glomerular filtration rate; Hyperuricemia; Polycystic kidney; Autosomal dominant; Uric acid
12.  Outcomes of chronic dialysis in Korean children with respect to survival rates and causes of death 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2014;57(3):135-139.
Adult Korean patients on chronic dialysis have a 9-year survival rate of 50%, with cardiovascular problems being the most significant cause of death. The 2011 annual report of the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies group reported 3-year survival rates of 93.4% and relatively poorer survival in younger patients.
In this study, we have reviewed data from Korean Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Registry from 2002 to 2010 to assess survival rates and causes of death in Korean children on chronic dialysis.
The overall estimated patient survival rates were 98.4%, 94.4%, and 92.1% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. No significant difference was observed in survival rates between patients on peritoneal dialysis and those on hemodialysis. Patients for whom dialysis was initiated before 2 years of age (n=40) had significantly lower survival rates than those for whom dialysis was initiated at 6-11 years of age (n=140). In all, 26 patients had died; the mortality rate was 19.9 per 1,000 patient years. The most common causes of death were infections and comorbidities such as malignancy and central nervous system (CNS) or liver diseases.
The outcomes observed in this study were better than those observed in adults and comparable to those observed in pediatric studies in other countries. To improve the outcomes of children on chronic dialysis, it is necessary to prevent dialysis-related complications such as infection, congestive heart failure, or CNS hemorrhage and best control treatable comorbidities.
PMCID: PMC4000759  PMID: 24778695
Survival; Outcomes; End-stage renal disease; Dialysis; Child
13.  Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated by intestinal perforation in a child with typical hemolytic uremic syndrome 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2014;57(2):96-99.
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is one of the most common causes of acute renal failure in childhood and is primarily diagnosed in up to 4.5% of children who undergo chronic renal replacement therapy. Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 is the predominant bacterial strain identified in patients with HUS; more than 100 types of Shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subtypes have also been isolated. The typical HUS manifestations are microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal insufficiency. In typical HUS cases, more serious EHEC manifestations include severe hemorrhagic colitis, bowel necrosis and perforation, rectal prolapse, peritonitis, and intussusceptions. Colonic perforation, which has an incidence of 1%-2%, can be a fatal complication. In this study, we report a typical Shiga toxin-associated HUS case complicated by small intestinal perforation with refractory peritonitis that was possibly because of ischemic enteritis. Although the degree of renal damage is the main concern in HUS, extrarenal complications should also be considered in severe cases, as presented in our case.
PMCID: PMC3965802  PMID: 24678335
Intestinal perforation; Hemolytic uremic syndrome; Shiga toxin; Typical
14.  Outcome of Antimicrobial Therapy of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae 
Infection & Chemotherapy  2013;45(4):415-421.
The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of carbapenem versus non-carbapenem antimicrobial therapy for pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae.
Materials and Methods
From 2006 to 2011, 42 episodes of UTI caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were diagnosed at Seoul National University Children's Hospital. Patients were grouped according to the antimicrobials they received into a carbapenem group and a non-carbapenem group. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to assess treatment outcome, time to defervescence after initiation of treatment, and relapse rate.
There were 36 children with 42 episodes of UTI caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Twenty-seven cases (64%) had an underlying urologic disease, 28 (67%) cases were caused by Escherichia coli, and 14 (33%) cases were caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Four (10%) cases were treated with carbapenem, 23 cases (55%) were treated with non-carbapenem, and 15 (36%) cases were treated by switching from a carbapenem to a non-carbapenem and vice versa. There was no treatment failure at the time of antimicrobial discontinuation. Between the carbapenem and the non-carbapenem treatment groups, there were no significant differences in bacterial etiology (P = 0.59), time to defervescence after the initiation of antimicrobials (P = 0.28), and relapse rate (P = 0.50). In vitro susceptibility to non-carbapenem antimicrobials did not affect the time to defervescence after the initiation of antimicrobial treatment, and the relapse rate in the non-carbapenem group.
This study found no significant difference in the treatment outcome between pediatric patients treated with carbapenem and those treated with non-carbapenem antimicrobials for UTI caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, the initially administered non-carbapenem can be maintained in UTI patients showing clinical improvement.
PMCID: PMC3902812  PMID: 24475355
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase; Enterobacteriaceae; urinary tract infections; carbapenem; children
15.  GLCCI1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pediatric nephrotic syndrome 
Empiric steroid therapy is the first-line therapy for pediatric nephrotic syndrome, but treatment response is variable. There are few predictors of steroid-responsiveness, though evidence for genetic factors exists. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoter region of glucocorticoid-induced transcript 1 gene (GLCCI1) which effect steroid-responsiveness in asthmatic patients.
Independently, GLCCI1 was identified as a podocyte protein, loss of which disrupts the function of the glomerular filtration barrier. We therefore examined whether SNPs associated with the steroid-responsive expression of GLCCI1 might predict steroid-responsiveness in nephrotic syndrome.
A cohort of 211 pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome and 102 controls were genotyped; among the cases, 117 were initial steroid responders while 94 did not respond to oral steroids. No statistically significant differences were noted among the groups, though there was a trend in comparing the small subgroups of steroid-responsive and non-responsive patients with biopsy proven minimal change disease.
While larger cohorts are needed to ascertain the possibility of a small effect of GLCCI1 SNPs on steroid-responsiveness of nephrotic syndrome, the GLCCI1 SNPs associated with steroid responsiveness in asthmatic patients are unlikely to have a clinically actionable impact in pediatric nephrotic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3408784  PMID: 22660954
16.  Intravenous fluid prescription practices among pediatric residents in Korea 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2013;56(7):282-285.
Recent studies have established the association between hypotonic fluids administration and hospital-acquired hyponatremia in children. The present paper investigated the pattern of current practice in intravenous fluid prescription among Korean pediatric residents, to underscore the need for updated education.
A survey-based analysis was carried out. Pediatric residents at six university hospitals in Korea completed a survey consisting of four questions. Each question proposed a unique scenario in which the respondents had to prescribe either a hypotonic or an isotonic fluid for the patient.
Ninety-one responses were collected and analyzed. In three of the four scenarios, a significant majority prescribed the hypotonic fluids (98.9%, 85.7%, and 69.2%, respectively). Notably, 69.2% of the respondents selected the hypotonic fluids for postoperative management. Almost all (96.7%) selected the isotonic fluids for hydration therapy.
In the given scenarios, the majority of Korean pediatric residents would prescribe a hypotonic fluid, except for initial hydration. The current state of pediatric fluid management, notably, heightens the risk of hospital-acquired hyponatremia. Updated clinical practice education on intravenous fluid prescription, therefore, is urgently required.
PMCID: PMC3728446  PMID: 23908667
Pediatrics; Intravenous; Infusions; Fluid therapy; Hyponatremia; Maintenance
17.  Gitelman syndrome combined with complete growth hormone deficiency 
Gitelman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary salt-losing tubulopathy, that manifests as hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. It is caused by mutations in the solute carrier family 12(sodium/chloride transporters), member 3 (SLC12A3) gene encoding the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter channel (NCCT) in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. It is associated with muscle weakness, cramps, tetany, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and growth retardation. The incidence of growth retardation, the exact cause of which is unknown, is lower than that of Bartter syndrome. Herein, we discuss the case of an overweight 12.9-year-old girl of short stature presenting with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient, on the basis of detection of a heterozygous mutation in the SLC12A3 gene and poor growth hormone (GH) responses in two provocative tests, was diagnosed with Gitelman syndrome combined with complete GH deficiency. GH treatment accompanied by magnesium oxide and potassium replacement was associated with a good clinical response.
PMCID: PMC4027064  PMID: 24904849
Gitelman syndrome; Sodium Chloride Symporters; Growth hormone
18.  Development of Korean Rare Disease Knowledge Base 
Healthcare Informatics Research  2012;18(4):272-278.
Rare disease research requires a broad range of disease-related information for the discovery of causes of genetic disorders that are maladies caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. A rarity in cases makes it difficult for researchers to elucidate definite inception. This knowledge base will be a major resource not only for clinicians, but also for the general public, who are unable to find consistent information on rare diseases in a single location.
We design a compact database schema for faster querying; its structure is optimized to store heterogeneous data sources. Then, clinicians at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) review and revise those resources. Additionally, we integrated other sources to capture genomic resources and clinical trials in detail on the Korean Rare Disease Knowledge base (KRDK).
As a result, we have developed a Web-based knowledge base, KRDK, suitable for study of Mendelian diseases that commonly occur among Koreans. This knowledge base is comprised of disease summary and review, causal gene list, laboratory and clinic directory, patient registry, and so on. Furthermore, database for analyzing and giving access to human biological information and the clinical trial management system are integrated on KRDK.
We expect that KRDK, the first rare disease knowledge base in Korea, may contribute to collaborative research and be a reliable reference for application to clinical trials. Additionally, this knowledge base is ready for querying of drug information so that visitors can search a list of rare diseases that is relative to specific drugs. Visitors can have access to KRDK via
PMCID: PMC3548157  PMID: 23346478
Rare Diseases; Knowledge Bases; Korean; Genetic Databases; Online Systems
19.  Urinary N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase as a surrogate marker for renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: 1 year prospective cohort study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:93.
Renal failure is one of the most serious complications associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). To date, early markers have failed to predict renal function deterioration at the early stages. This 1-year prospective study evaluated N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a new surrogate marker for renal function in ADPKD.
A total of 270 patients were enrolled in the study, and we measured urinary NAG, β2-microglobulin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) prospectively for 1 year to compare their predictive values for renal function.
Baseline urinary NAG/Cr was negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r2 = 0.153, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with total kidney volume (TKV) (r2 = 0.113, P < 0.001). Among other biomarkers, urinary NAG/Cr better discriminated patients with decreased renal function from those with conserved renal function, showing the largest area under the curve (AUC 0.794). Immunohistochemical study revealed strong staining along the cyst-lining epithelial cells as well as the nearby compressed tubular epithelial cells. However, both single and repeated measurements of urinary NAG/Cr failed to predict renal function decline in 1 year.
Urinary NAG/Cr may be a useful surrogate marker for renal function in ADPKD patients.
PMCID: PMC3465238  PMID: 22935351
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Biomarkers; Renal function
20.  Validity and reliability of the Korean version of the pediatric quality of life ESRD module 
Health-related quality of life is a very important issue in children with end-stage renal disease and their family. Moreover, this can be a lifelong problem. In this study, we performed a cross-sectional investigation of the health-related quality of life in Korean children, undergoing renal replacement therapies, such as dialysis and renal transplantation.
We validated the Korean version of the PedsQL 3.0 End-Stage Renal Disease Module by comparing with the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. A total of 92 pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease, aged 2–18 year old, were enrolled in four teaching hospitals in Korea. The module was acceptable for both parent proxy-report and child self-report. The response rate was acceptable, since no reminders were delivered. A large proportion of the responders answered >90% of the items, which suggests a good face validity. The PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and the PedsQL 3.0 End-Stage Renal Disease Module showed minimal missing values in the current study, which supported feasibility. The validation analyses revealed acceptable floor and ceiling effects and an acceptable construct validity.
The PedsQL 3.0 End-stage Renal Disease Module may be useful as an end-stage renal disease -specific instrument in the evaluation of the health-related quality of life in Korean children; however, a larger, longitudinal prospective study is needed.
PMCID: PMC3420252  PMID: 22672783
Quality of life; Children; End-stage renal disease
21.  Clinical and Functional Characterization of URAT1 Variants 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e28641.
Idiopathic renal hypouricaemia is an inherited form of hypouricaemia, associated with abnormal renal handling of uric acid. There is excessive urinary wasting of uric acid resulting in hypouricaemia. Patients may be asymptomatic, but the persistent urinary abnormalities may manifest as renal stone disease, and hypouricaemia may manifest as exercise induced acute kidney injury. Here we have identified Macedonian and British patients with hypouricaemia, who presented with a variety of renal symptoms and signs including renal stone disease, hematuria, pyelonephritis and nephrocalcinosis. We have identified heterozygous missense mutations in SLC22A12 encoding the urate transporter protein URAT1 and correlate these genetic findings with functional characterization. Urate handling was determined using uptake experiments in HEK293 cells. This data highlights the importance of the URAT1 renal urate transporter in determining serum urate concentrations and the clinical phenotypes, including nephrolithiasis, that should prompt the clinician to suspect an inherited form of renal hypouricaemia.
PMCID: PMC3241677  PMID: 22194875
22.  Hypokalemic periodic paralysis; two different genes responsible for similar clinical manifestations 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(11):473-476.
Primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder manifesting as recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis and concomitant hypokalemia. HOKPP is divided into type 1 and type 2 based on the causative gene. Although 2 different ion channels have been identified as the molecular genetic cause of HOKPP, the clinical manifestations between the 2 groups are similar. We report the cases of 2 patients with HOKPP who both presented with typical clinical manifestations, but with mutations in 2 different genes (CACNA1Sp.Arg528His and SCN4A p.Arg672His). Despite the similar clinical manifestations, there were differences in the response to acetazolamide treatment between certain genotypes of SCN4A mutations and CACNA1S mutations. We identified p.Arg672His in the SCN4A gene of patient 2 immediately after the first attack through a molecular genetic testing strategy. Molecular genetic diagnosis is important for genetic counseling and selecting preventive treatment.
PMCID: PMC3254894  PMID: 22253645
CACNA1S; Hypokalemic periodic paralysis; Mutation; SCN4A
23.  ADAMTS13 Gene Mutations in Children with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(3):530-534.
We investigated ADAMTS13 activity as well as the ADAMTS13 gene mutation in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Eighteen patients, including 6 diarrhea-negative (D-HUS) and 12 diarrhea-associated HUS (D+HUS) patients, were evaluated. The extent of von Willebrand factor (VWF) degradation was assayed by multimer analysis, and all exons of the ADAMTS13 gene were PCR-amplified using Taq DNA polymerase. The median and range for plasma activity of ADAMTS13 in 6 D-HUS and 12 D+HUS patients were 71.8% (22.8-94.1%) and 84.9% (37.9-119.9%), respectively, which were not statistically significantly different from the control group (86.4%, 34.2-112.3%) (p>0.05). Five ADAMTS13 gene mutations, including 2 novel mutations [1584+2T>A, 3941C>T (S1314L)] and 3 polymorphisms (Q448E, P475S, S903L), were found in 2 D-HUS and one D+HUS patients, which were not associated with deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity. Whether these mutations without reduced ADAMTS13 activity are innocent bystanders or predisposing factors in HUS remains unanswered.
PMCID: PMC3101045  PMID: 21488199
ADAMTS13; mutation; hemolytic uremic syndrome; children
24.  A case of hemolytic uremic syndrome preceded by intussusception 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(4):176-178.
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute renal failure in young children. It is classically characterized by the triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and uremia. Further, not only is intussusception one of the differential diagnoses of HUS but it may also become a complication during disease progression. We report a case of HUS preceded by intussusception in a previously healthy 17-month-old boy. The patient presented at the emergency department with bloody stools that developed the day after reduction of intussusception. HUS was diagnosed 4 days after the reduction of intussusception. The patient was provided only supportive care and his laboratory test findings were normal at discharge.
PMCID: PMC3127152  PMID: 21738552
Hemolytic uremic syndrome; Intussusception; Child
25.  Mutations in the Human Laminin β2 (LAMB2) Gene and the Associated Phenotypic Spectrum 
Human mutation  2010;31(9):992-1002.
Mutations of LAMB2 typically cause autosomal recessive Pierson syndrome, a disorder characterized by congenital nephrotic syndrome, ocular and neurologic abnormalities, but may occasionally be associated with milder or oligosymptomatic disease variants. LAMB2 encodes the basement membrane protein laminin β2 which is incorporated in specific heterotrimeric laminin isoforms and has an expression pattern corresponding to the pattern of organ manifestations in Pierson syndrome. Herein we review all previously reported and several novel LAMB2 mutations in relation to the associated phenotype in patients from 39 unrelated families. The majority of disease-causing LAMB2 mutations are truncating, consistent with the hypothesis that loss of laminin β2 function is the molecular basis of Pierson syndrome. While truncating mutations are distributed across the entire gene, missense mutations are clearly clustered in the N-terminal LN domain, which is important for intermolecular interactions. There is an association of missense mutations and small in frame deletions with a higher mean age at onset of renal disease and with absence of neurologic abnormalities, thus suggesting that at least some of these may represent hypomorphic alleles. Nevertheless, genotype alone does not appear to explain the full range of clinical variability, and therefore hitherto unidentified modifiers are likely to exist.
PMCID: PMC2978072  PMID: 20556798
LAMB2; Pierson syndrome; nephrotic syndrome; autosomal recessive; podocyte; laminin; ocular malformation

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