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1.  A nonsense PAX6 mutation in a family with congenital aniridia 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2016;59(Suppl 1):S1-S4.
Congenital aniridia is a rare ocular malformation that presents with severe hypoplasia of the iris and various ocular manifestations. Most cases of congenital aniridia are known to be related to mutations in the paired box gene-6 (PAX6), which is an essential gene in eye development. Herein, we report a familial case of autosomal dominant congenital aniridia with four affected members in 3 consecutive generations and describe the detailed ophthalmologic findings for one of these members. As expected, mutational analysis revealed a nonsense mutation (p.Ser122*) in the PAX6 gene. Thus, our findings reiterate the importance of PAX6 mutations in congenital aniridia.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2016.59.11.S1
PMCID: PMC5177687  PMID: 28018434
Congenital aniridia; WAGR syndrome; Gene; Wilms tumor; PAX6 protein
2.  A familial case of Blau syndrome caused by a novel NOD2 genetic mutation 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2016;59(Suppl 1):S5-S9.
Blau syndrome (BS) is a rare autosomal dominant, inflammatory syndrome that is characterized by the clinical triad of granulomatous dermatitis, symmetric arthritis, and recurrent uveitis. Mutations in the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene are responsible for causing BS. To date, up to 30 Blau-associated genetic mutations have been identified within this gene. We report a novel NOD2 genetic mutation that causes BS. A girl, aged 8 years, and her brother, aged 10 years, developed erythematous skin rashes and uveitis. The computed tomography angiogram of the younger sister showed features of midaortic dysplastic syndrome. The brother had more prominent joint involvement than the sister. Their father (38 years) was also affected by uveitis; however, only minimal skin involvement was observed in his case. The paternal aunt (39 years) and her daughter (13 years) were previously diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Mutational analysis revealed a novel c.1439 A>G mutation in the NOD2 gene in both siblings. The novel c.1439 A>G mutation in the NOD2 gene was found in a familial case of BS. Although BS is rare, it should always be considered in patients presenting with sarcoidosis-like features at a young age. Early diagnosis of BS and prompt multisystem workup including the eyes and joints can improve the patient's outcome.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2016.59.11.S5
PMCID: PMC5177712  PMID: 28018435
Blau syndrome; Early-onset sarcoidosis; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2
3.  Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2016;31(10):1516-1528.
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare syndrome characterized by micro-angiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. The major pathogenesis of aHUS involves dysregulation of the complement system. Eculizumab, which blocks complement C5 activation, has recently been proven as an effective agent. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of aHUS can cause death or end-stage renal disease. Therefore, a diagnosis that differentiates aHUS from other forms of thrombotic microangiopathy is very important for appropriate management. These guidelines aim to offer recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with aHUS in Korea. The guidelines have largely been adopted from the current guidelines due to the lack of evidence concerning the Korean population.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2016.31.10.1516
PMCID: PMC4999392  PMID: 27550478
Guidelines; Diagnosis; Treatment; Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
4.  Recurrence and Treatment after Renal Transplantation in Children with FSGS 
BioMed Research International  2016;2016:6832971.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common cause of end-stage renal disease and a common pathologic diagnosis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS), especially in steroid-resistant cases. FSGS is known to recur after kidney transplantation, frequently followed by graft loss. However, not all patients with FSGS suffer from recurrence after kidney transplantation, and genetic and secondary FSGS have a negligible risk of recurrence. Furthermore, many cases of recurrence achieve remission with the current management of recurrence (intensive plasmapheresis/immunosuppression, including rituximab), and other promising agents are being evaluated. Therefore, a pathologic diagnosis of FSGS itself should not cause postponement of allograft kidney transplantation. For patients with a high risk of recurrence who presented with classical symptoms of NS, that is, severe edema, proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia, close monitoring of proteinuria is necessary, followed by immediate, intensive treatment for recurrence.
doi:10.1155/2016/6832971
PMCID: PMC4860214  PMID: 27213154
5.  A novel mutation of CLCNKB in a Korean patient of mixed phenotype of Bartter-Gitelman syndrome 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2016;59(Suppl 1):S103-S106.
Bartter syndrome (BS) is an inherited renal tubular disorder characterized by low or normal blood pressure, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. Type III BS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in CLCNKB encoding basolateral ClC-Kb. The clinical phenotype of patients with CLCNKB mutations has been known to be highly variable, and cases that are difficult to categorize as type III BS or other hereditary tubulopathies, such as Gitelman syndrome, have been rarely reported. We report a case of a 10-year-old Korean boy with atypical clinical findings caused by a novel CLCNKB mutation. The boy showed intermittent muscle cramps with laboratory findings of hypokalemia, severe hypomagnesemia, and nephrocalcinosis. These findings were not fully compatible with those observed in cases of BS or Gitelman syndrome. The CLCNKB mutation analysis revealed a heterozygous c.139G>A transition in exon 13 [p.Gly(GGG)465Glu(GAG)]. This change is not a known mutation; however, the clinical findings and in silico prediction results indicated that it is the underlying cause of his presentation.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2016.59.11.S103
PMCID: PMC5177689  PMID: 28018459
Bartter Syndrome; Novel mutation; CLCNKB
6.  Nephrotic syndrome: what's new, what's hot? 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2015;58(8):275-282.
While the incidence of nephrotic syndrome (NS) is decreasing in Korea, the morbidity of difficult-to-treat NS is significant. Efforts to minimize treatment toxicity showed that prolonged treatment after an initial treatment for 2-3 months with glucocorticosteroids was not effective in reducing frequent relapses. For steroid-dependent NS, rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 antigen on B cells, was proven to be as effective, and short-term daily low-dose steroids during upper respiratory infections reduced relapses. Steroid resistance or congenital NS are indications for genetic study and renal biopsy, since the list of genes involved in NS is lengthening.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2015.58.8.275
PMCID: PMC4573440  PMID: 26388891
Nephrotic syndrome; Rituximab; Prednisolone
7.  Targeted exome sequencing resolves allelic and the genetic heterogeneity in the genetic diagnosis of nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy 
Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy (NPHP-RC) is a common genetic cause of end-stage renal failure during childhood and adolescence and exhibits an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Genetic diagnosis is quite limited owing to genetic heterogeneity in NPHP-RC. We designed a novel approach involving the step-wise screening of Sanger sequencing and targeted exome sequencing for the genetic diagnosis of 55 patients with NPHP-RC. First, five NPHP-RC genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing in phenotypically classified patients. Known pathogenic mutations were identified in 12 patients (21.8%); homozygous deletions of NPHP1 in 4 juvenile nephronophthisis patients, IQCB1/NPHP5 mutations in 3 Senior–Løken syndrome patients, a CEP290/NPHP6 mutation in 1 Joubert syndrome patient, and TMEM67/MKS3 mutations in 4 Joubert syndrome patients with liver involvement. In the remaining undiagnosed patients, we applied targeted exome sequencing of 34 ciliopathy-related genes to detect known pathogenic mutations in 7 (16.3%) of 43 patients. Another 18 likely damaging heterozygous variants were identified in 13 NPHP-RC genes in 18 patients. In this study, we report a variety of pathogenic and candidate mutations identified in 55 patients with NPHP-RC in Korea using a step-wise application of two genetic tests. These results support the clinical utility of targeted exome sequencing to resolve the issue of allelic and genetic heterogeneity in NPHP-RC.
doi:10.1038/emm.2016.63
PMCID: PMC5007639  PMID: 27491411
8.  Bilateral iliac and popliteal arterial thrombosis in a child with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2016;59(5):242-245.
Thromboembolic complications (TECs) are clinically important sequelae of nephrotic syndrome (NS). The incidence of TECs in children is approximately 2%–5%. The veins are the most commonly affected sites, particularly the deep veins in the legs, the inferior vena cava, the superior vena cava, and the renal veins. Arterial thrombosis, which is less common, typically occurs in the cerebral, pulmonary, and femoral arteries, and is associated with the use of steroids and diuretics. Popliteal artery thrombosis in children has been described in cases of traumatic dissection, osteochondroma, Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, and fibromuscular dysplasia. We report of a 33-month-old girl with bilateral iliac and popliteal arterial thrombosis associated with steroid-resistant NS due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Her treatment involved thrombectomy and intravenous heparinization, followed by oral warfarin for 8 months. Herein, we report a rare case of spontaneous iliac and popliteal arterial thrombosis in a young child with NS.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2016.59.5.242
PMCID: PMC4897161  PMID: 27279890
Iliac artery; Popliteal artery; Thrombosis; Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; Child
9.  Translational Read-Through of a Nonsense Mutation Causing Bartter Syndrome 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(6):821-826.
Bartter syndrome (BS) is classified into 5 genotypes according to underlying mutant genes and BS III is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CLCNKB gene encoding for basolateral ClC-Kb. BS III is the most common genotype in Korean patients with BS and W610X is the most common CLCNKB mutation in Korean BS III. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CLCNKB W610X mutation can be rescued in vitro using aminoglycoside antibiotics, which are known to induce translational read-through of a nonsense mutation. The CLCNKB cDNA was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and the W610X nonsense mutation was generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Cultured polarized MDCK cells were transfected with the vectors, and the read-through was induced using an aminoglycoside derivative, G418. Cellular expression of the target protein was monitored via immunohistochemistry. While cells transfected with the mutant CLCNKB failed to express ClC-Kb, G418 treatment of the cells induced the full-length protein expression, which was localized to the basolateral plasma membranes. It is demonstrated that the W610X mutation in CLCNKB can be a good candidate for trial of translational read-through induction as a therapeutic modality.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.6.821
PMCID: PMC3677996  PMID: 23772144
Bartter Syndrome; CLCNKB Gene; Nonsense Codon; Translational Read-Through Induction
10.  KNOW-Ped CKD (KoreaN cohort study for outcomes in patients with pediatric CKD): Design and methods 
BMC Nephrology  2016;17:35.
Background
The global prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing. In children, CKD exhibits unique etiologies and can have serious impacts on children’s growth and development. Therefore, an aggressive approach to preventing the progression of CKD and its complications is imperative. To improve the understanding and management of Asian pediatric patients with CKD, we designed and launched KNOW-Ped CKD (KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease), a nationwide, prospective, and observational cohort study of pediatric CKD with funding from the Korean government.
Methods/design
From seven major centers, 450 patients <20 years of age with CKD stages I to V are recruited for the comprehensive assessment of clinical findings, structured follow-up, and bio-specimen collection. The primary endpoints include CKD progression, defined as a decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate by 50 %, and a requirement for renal replacement therapy or death. The secondary outcomes include the development of left ventricular hypertrophy or hypertension, impairment of growth, neuropsychological status, behavioral status, kidney growth, and quality of life.
Discussion
With this study, we expect to obtain more information on pediatric CKD, which can be translated to better management for the patients.
Trial registration
NCT02165878 (ClinicalTrials.gov), submitted on June 11, 2014.
doi:10.1186/s12882-016-0248-0
PMCID: PMC4807586  PMID: 27012243
Chronic kidney disease; Cohort study; Design; Prognostic factor; Asian children
11.  Survival over 2 years of autosomal-recessive renal tubular dysgenesis 
Clinical Kidney Journal  2012;5(1):56-58.
Autosomal-recessive renal tubular dysgenesis (AR-RTD) is a rare disorder caused by a genetic defect in the renin–angiotensin system. Although AR-RTD has typically been known as a lethal disease due to refractory hypotension and renal failure immediately after birth, few cases have reported survival of the neonatal period. We report here an additional case of AR-RTD, who had novel ACE mutations and survived over 2 years and provide a review of the five previously reported surviving cases. In conclusion, AR-RTD is not a uniformly fatal disease, although factors affecting the survival remain unknown.
doi:10.1093/ndtplus/sfr153
PMCID: PMC4400456  PMID: 26069751
ACE gene; angiotensin-converting enzyme; autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis; renin–angiotensin system
12.  A case of pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 with a mutation in the mineralocorticoid receptor gene 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(2):90-93.
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized in newborns by salt wasting with dehydration, hyperkalemia and failure to thrive. This disease is heterogeneous in etiology and includes autosomal dominant PHA1 owing to mutations of the NR3C2 gene encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor, autosomal recessive PHA1 due to mutations of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) gene, and secondary PHA1 associated with urinary tract diseases. Amongst these diseases, autosomal dominant PHA1 shows has manifestations restricted to renal tubules including a mild salt loss during infancy and that shows a gradual improvement with advancing age. Here, we report a neonatal case of PHA1 with a NR3C2 gene mutation (a heterozygous c.2146_2147insG in exon 5), in which the patient showed failure to thrive, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and elevated plasma renin and aldosterone levels. This is the first case of pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 confirmed by genetic analysis in Korea.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.2.90
PMCID: PMC3077507  PMID: 21503203
Pseudohypoaldosteronism; Mineralocorticoid; Receptor; NR3C2 gene; Infant
13.  Mutations in SLC12A3 and CLCNKB and Their Correlation with Clinical Phenotype in Patients with Gitelman and Gitelman-like Syndrome 
Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in SLC12A3 and characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypocalciuria, and hypomagnesemia. Long-term prognosis and the role of gene diagnosis in GS are still unclear. To investigate genotype-phenotype correlation in GS and Gitelman-like syndrome, we enrolled 34 patients who showed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without secondary causes. Mutation analysis of SLC12A3 and CLCNKB was performed. Thirty-one patients had mutations in SLC12A3, 5 patients in CLCNKB, and 2 patients in both genes. There was no significant difference between male and female in clinical manifestations at the time of presentation, except for early onset of symptoms in males and more profound hypokalemia in females. We identified 10 novel mutations in SLC12A3 and 4 in CLCNKB. Compared with those with CLCNKB mutations, patients with SLC12A3 mutations were characterized by more consistent hypocalciuria and hypomagnesemia. Patients with 2 mutant SLC12A3 alleles, compared with those with 1 mutant allele, did not have more severe clinical and laboratory findings except for lower plasma magnesium concentrations. Male and female patients did not differ in their requirement for electrolyte replacements. Two patients with concomitant SLC12A3 and CLCNKB mutations had early-onset severe symptoms and showed different response to treatment. Hypocalciuria and hypomagnesemia are useful markers in differentiation of GS and classical Bartter's syndrome. Gender, genotypes or the number of SLC12A3 mutant alleles cannot predict the severity of disease or response to treatment.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2016.31.1.47
PMCID: PMC4712579  PMID: 26770037
Gitelman Syndrome; Bartter Syndrome; SLC12A3; CLCNKB; Salt-losing Tubulopathy
14.  Renal transplantation in a patient with Bartter syndrome and glomerulosclerosis 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(1):36-39.
Bartter syndrome (BS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited renal tube disorder characterized by renal salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and normotensive hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. There have been several case reports of BS complicated by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here, we have reported the case of a BS patient who developed FSGS and subsequent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and provided a brief literature review. The patient presented with classic BS at 3 months of age and developed proteinuria at 7 years. Renal biopsy performed at 11 years of age revealed a FSGS perihilar variant. Hemodialysis was initiated at 11 years of age, and kidney transplantation was performed at 16 years of age. The post-transplantation course has been uneventful for more than 3 years with complete disappearance of BS without the recurrence of FSGS. Genetic study revealed a homozygous p.Trp(TGG)610Stop(TGA) mutation in the CLCNKB gene. In summary, BS may be complicated by secondary FSGS due to the adaptive response to chronic salt-losing nephropathy, and FSGS may progress to ESRD in some patients. Renal transplantation in patients with BS and ESRD results in complete remission of BS.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.1.36
PMCID: PMC3040364  PMID: 21359059
Bartter syndrome; End-stage renal disease; Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; Perihilar variant; Kidney transplantation
15.  A case of Bartter syndrome type I with atypical presentations 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2010;53(8):809-813.
Bartter syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessively inherited rare renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism with normal to low blood pressure due to a renal loss of sodium. Genetically, BS is classified into 5 subtypes according to the underlying genetic defects, and BS is clinically categorized into antenatal BS and classical BS according to onset age. BS type I is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC12A1 gene and usually manifests as antenatal BS. This report concerns a male patient with compound heterozygous missense mutations on SLC12A1 (p.C436Y and p.L560P) and atypical clinical and laboratory features. The patient had low urinary sodium and chloride levels without definite metabolic alkalosis until the age of 32 months, which led to confusion between BS and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). In addition, the clinical onset of the patient was far beyond the neonatal period. Genetic study eventually led to the diagnosis of BS type I. The low urinary sodium and chloride concentrations may be caused by secondary NDI, and the later onset may suggest the existence of a genotype-phenotype correlation.
In summary, BS type I may have phenotype variability including low urine sodium and chloride levels and later onset. A definitive diagnosis can be confirmed by genetic testing.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2010.53.8.809
PMCID: PMC3004498  PMID: 21189980
Bartter syndrome; Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; SLC12A1 gene; Child
16.  Clinical Correlates of Mass Effect in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0144526.
Mass effect from polycystic kidney and liver enlargement can result in significant clinical complications and symptoms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In this single-center study, we examined the correlation of height-adjusted total liver volume (htTLV) and total kidney volume (htTKV) by CT imaging with hepatic complications (n = 461) and abdominal symptoms (n = 253) in patients with ADPKD. “Mass-effect” complications were assessed by review of medical records and abdominal symptoms, by a standardized research questionnaire. Overall, 91.8% of patients had 4 or more liver cysts on CT scans. Polycystic liver disease (PLD) was classified as none or mild (htTLV < 1,600 mL/m); moderate (1,600 ≤ htTLV <3,200 mL/m); and severe (htTLV ≥ 3,200 mL/m). The prevalence of moderate and severe PLD in our patient cohort was 11.7% (n = 54/461) and 4.8% (n = 22/461), respectively, with a female predominance in both the moderate (61.1%) and severe (95.5%) PLD groups. Pressure-related complications such as leg edema (20.4%), ascites (16.6%), and hernia (3.6%) were common, and patients with moderate to severe PLD exhibited a 6-fold increased risk (compared to no or mild PLD) for these complications in multivariate analysis. Similarly, abdominal symptoms including back pain (58.8%), flank pain (53.1%), abdominal fullness (46.5%), and dyspnea/chest-discomfort (44.3%) were very common, and patients with moderate to severe PLD exhibited a 5-fold increased risk for these symptoms. Moderate to severe PLD is a common and clinically important problem in ~16% of patients with ADPKD who may benefit from referral to specialized centers for further management.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144526
PMCID: PMC4671651  PMID: 26641645
17.  Clinico-Genetic Study of Nail-Patella Syndrome 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(Suppl 1):S82-S86.
Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant disease that typically involves the nails, knees, elbows and the presence of iliac horns. In addition, some patients develop glomerulopathy or adult-onset glaucoma. NPS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the LMX1B gene. In this study, phenotype-genotype correlation was analyzed in 9 unrelated Korean children with NPS and their affected family members. The probands included 5 boy and 4 girls who were confirmed to have NPS, as well as 6 of their affected parents. All of the patients (100%) had dysplastic nails, while 13 patients (86.7%) had patellar anomalies, 8 (53.3%) had iliac horns, 6 (40.0%) had elbow contracture, and 4 (26.7%) had nephropathy including one patient who developed end-stage renal disease at age 4.2. The genetic study revealed 8 different LMX1B mutations (5 missense mutations, 1 frame-shifting deletion and 2 abnormal splicing mutations), 6 of which were novel. Genotype-phenotype correlation was not identified, but inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability was observed. Overall, these findings are similar to the results of previously conducted studies, and the mechanism underlying the phenotypic variations and predisposing factors of the development and progression of nephropathy in NPS patients are still unknown.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.S1.S82
PMCID: PMC2633198  PMID: 19194568
Nail-Patella Syndrome; LMX1B Gene; Phenotype-Genotype Correlation
18.  Two Korean Infants with Genetically Confirmed Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome of Finnish Type 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(Suppl 1):S210-S214.
Congenital nephrotic syndrome is defined as nephrotic syndrome which manifests in utero or during the first 3 months of life. The prototype of congenital nephrotic syndrome is congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type (CNF, OMIM #602716), which is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the nephrin gene (NPHS1). There have been few clinical case reports of CNF in Korea, but none of which was confirmed by genetic study. Here, we report two children with congenital nephrotic syndrome. Genetic analysis of the NPHS1 gene revealed compound heterozygous frame-shifting mutations (c.2156_2163 delTGCACTGC causing p.L719DfsX4 and c.3250_3251insG causing p.V1084GfsX12) in one patient and a missense mutation (c.1381G>A causing p.R460Q) and a nonsense mutation (c.2442C>G causing p.Y814X) in the other patient. The nonsense mutation was novel. The clinical courses of the patients were typical of CNF. This is the first report of genetically confirmed CNF in Korea to date. The early genetic diagnosis of CNF is important for proper clinical management of the patients and precise genetic counseling of the families.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.S1.S210
PMCID: PMC2633182  PMID: 19194555
Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome; Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome of Finnish Type; NPHS1 Gene; Nephrin; Mutation
19.  Two Novel Mutations in the Aquaporin 2 Gene in a Girl with Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(6):1076-1078.
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by insensitivity of the kidney to the antidiuretic effect of vasopressin. There are three inheritance patterns of CNDI: the X-linked recessive form associated with vasopressin V2 receptor gene mutations, and the autosomal recessive and dominant forms associated with aquaporin-2 gene (AQP2) mutations. The evaluation for polyuria and polydipsia in a one-month-old Korean girl revealed no response to vasopressin and confirmed the diagnosis of CNDI. Because the child was female without family history of CNDI, her disease was thought to be an autosomal recessive form. We analyzed the AQP2 gene and detected a compound heterozygous missense point mutation: 70Ala (GCC) to Asp (GAC) in exon 1 inherited from her father and 187Arg (CGC) to His (CAC) in exon 3 inherited from her mother. The first mutation is located within the first NPA motif of the AQP2 molecule and the second one right after the second NPA motif. This is the first report to characterize AQP2 mutations in Korean patients with autosomal recessive CNDI, and expands the spectrum of AQP2 mutations by reporting two novel mutation, 70Ala (GCC) to Asp (GAC) and 187Arg (CGC) to His (CAC).
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.6.1076
PMCID: PMC2779314  PMID: 16361827
Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic; aquaporin 2; Mutation; NPA Motif
20.  Increased urinary Angiotensinogen/Creatinine (AGT/Cr) ratio may be associated with reduced renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients 
BMC Nephrology  2015;16:86.
Background
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common hereditary kidney diseases that frequently result in renal failure. In this cross-sectional observational cohort study, we evaluated urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) as a potential biomarker to assess renal function in ADPKD.
Methods
Urinary AGT was measured in 233 ADPKD patients and its association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) were evaluated. The localization of AGT and other renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-related molecules were identified using immunohistochemistry in human ADPKD tissues.
Results
Baseline urinary AGT/Cr was negatively correlated with CKD-EPI eGFR (r2  = 0.162, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with htTKV (r2 = 0.107, P < 0.001). Both urinary AGT/Cr and plasma renin activity levels were significantly elevated in hypertensive ADPKD patients. Among hypertensive subjects, urinary AGT/Cr was significantly increased in the advanced CKD stages (III-V) compared to early CKD stages (I-II) (28.6 ± 60.3 vs. 93.2 ± 139.3 μg/g, P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical study showed strong expression of AGT along the cyst-lining epithelial cells as well as the nearby compressed tubular epithelial cells.
Conclusions
Our results suggested that urinary AGT/Cr may be a valuable biomarker for renal damage in ADPKD since intrarenal ischemic insults induced by cyst growth and subsequent intrarenal RAS activation may play a potential role in the development of hypertension and renal dysfunction in ADPKD.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12882-015-0075-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12882-015-0075-8
PMCID: PMC4475321  PMID: 26092580
Angiotensinogen; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Biomarkers; Renal function; Renin-angiotensin system
21.  Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with Bartter syndrome due to a novel activating mutation of calcium sensing receptor, Y829C 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2015;58(4):148-153.
The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. Activating mutations of CaSR cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia by affecting parathyroid hormone secretion in parathyroid gland and calcium resorption in kidney. They can also cause a type 5 Bartter syndrome by inhibiting the apical potassium channel in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney. This study presents a patient who had autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with Bartter syndrome due to an activating mutation Y829C in the transmembrane domain of the CaSR. Symptoms of hypocalcemia occurred 12 days after birth and medication was started immediately. Medullary nephrocalcinosis and basal ganglia calcification were found at 7 years old and at 17 years old. Three hypercalcemic episodes occurred, one at 14 years old and two at 17 years old. The Bartter syndrome was not severe while the serum calcium concentration was controlled, but during hypercalcemic periods, the symptoms of Bartter syndrome were aggravated.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2015.58.4.148
PMCID: PMC4414630  PMID: 25932037
Calcium-sensing receptors; Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia; Bartter syndrome
22.  Identification and Functional Characterization of P159L Mutation in HNF1B in a Family with Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young 5 (MODY5) 
Genomics & Informatics  2014;12(4):240-246.
Mutation in HNF1B, the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) gene, results in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) 5, which is characterized by gradual impairment of insulin secretion. However, the functional role of HNF-1β in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism is not fully understood. We identified a family with early-onset diabetes that fulfilled the criteria of MODY. Sanger sequencing revealed that a heterozygous P159L (CCT to CTT in codon 159 in the DNA-binding domain) mutation in HNF1B was segregated according to the affected status. To investigate the functional consequences of this HNF1B mutation, we generated a P159L HNF1B construct. The wild-type and mutant HNF1B constructs were transfected into COS-7 cells in the presence of the promoter sequence of human glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2). The luciferase reporter assay revealed that P159L HNF1B had decreased transcriptional activity compared to wild-type (p < 0.05). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed reduced DNA binding activity of P159L HNF1B. In the MIN6 pancreatic β-cell line, overexpression of the P159L mutant was significantly associated with decreased mRNA levels of GLUT2 compared to wild-type (p < 0.05). However, INS expression was not different between the wild-type and mutant HNF1B constructs. These findings suggests that the impaired insulin secretion in this family with the P159L HNF1B mutation may be related to altered GLUT2 expression in β-cells rather than decreased insulin gene expression. In conclusion, we have identified a Korean family with an HNF1B mutation and characterized its effect on the pathogenesis of diabetes.
doi:10.5808/GI.2014.12.4.240
PMCID: PMC4330261  PMID: 25705165
glucose transporter type 2; hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β; point mutation; type 2 diabetes mellitus
23.  Prevalence of 25(OH) Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency in Pediatric Patients on Chronic Dialysis 
♦ Background: 25(OH) Vitamin D [25(OH)D] is the major circulating form of vitamin D and the parameter used to reflect vitamin D status. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are likely to have low levels of 25(OH)D, and recent observations have linked suboptimal vitamin D status with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, inflammation, insulin resistance, and the rate of progression of renal insufficiency. Little is known about the magnitude of vitamin D deficiency in pediatric patients with stage 5 CKD on chronic dialysis.
♦ Objectives: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal vitamin D status in children on chronic dialysis.
♦ Methods: Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were evaluated in 59 pediatric patients on chronic dialysis. Weekly renal Kt/V and creatinine clearance (CCr) were evaluated as parameters reflecting residual renal function. In these patients, serum 25(OH)D concentrations less than 10 ng/mL were considered deficiency and concentrations of 10 - 30 ng/mL were considered insufficiency.
♦ Results: Of the 59 pediatric patients (mean age: 14.4 ± 5.1 years), 51 (86.4%) were on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 8 (13.6%) were on hemodialysis. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 32.2% of the patients (n = 19), and vitamin D insufficiency, in 50.8% (n = 30). Patients with serum 25(OH)D concentrations less than 30 ng/mL were older than those with normal 25(OH)D concentrations (15.4 ± 4.5 years vs 9.2 ± 5.1 years, p = 0.000). Patients with 25(OH) D concentrations less than 30 ng/mL had higher PTH levels than did those with normal 25(OH)D concentrations (349.5 ± 318.3 pg/mL vs 142.5 ± 116.9 pg/mL, p = 0.001). In the univariate analysis, there was no correlation between serum 25(OH)D and serum 1,25(OH)2D (r = 0.242, p = 0.064), calcium (r = 0.108, p = 0.415), phosphorus (r = -0.050, p = 0.706), or body mass index (r = -0.046, p = 0.729). In PD patients, serum 25(OH)D was positively correlated with weekly renal Kt/V (r = 0.385, p = 0.005) and CCr (r = 0.443, p = 0.001). In addition, serum 25(OH)D and serum albumin were positively correlated (r = 0.297, p = 0.035) in the PD patients.
♦ Conclusions: The present study found a high prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency and insufficiency in children on chronic dialysis. Serum 25(OH)D was associated with residual renal function in children on PD. Further studies to evaluate the consequences of vitamin D deficiency and the impact of therapeutic interventions are needed in pediatric CKD patients.
doi:10.3747/pdi.2011.00246
PMCID: PMC3707718  PMID: 23209039
Chronic kidney disease; 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency; chronic dialysis; residual renal function
24.  Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a novel mutation in the aquaporin 2 gene 
Biomedical Reports  2014;2(4):596-598.
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) is a rare disorder caused by mutations of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) V2 receptor or aquaporin 2 (AQP2) genes. The current study presented the case of CNDI in a 1-month-old male with a novel mutation in the AQP2 gene. The patient was referred due to the occurrence of hypernatremia and mild-intermittent fever since birth. An AVP stimulation test was compatible with CNDI as there was no significant response to desmopressin. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated two mutations in exon 1 of the AQP2 gene: C to T transition, which resulted in a missense mutation of 108Thr (ACG) to Met (ATG); and a 127, 128 delCA, which resulted in a deletion mutation of glutamine in position 43 at codon CAG as the first affected amino acid, with the new reading frame endign in a termination codon at position 62. The molecular genetic analysis of the parents showed that the missense mutation was inherited maternally and the deletion mutation was inherited paternally. The parents showed no signs or symptoms of CNDI, indicating autosomal recessive inheritance. The 108Thr (ACG) to Met (ATG) mutation was confirmed as a novel mutation. Therefore, the molecular identification of the AQP2 gene has clinical significance, as early recognition of CNDI in infants that show only non-specific symptoms, can be facilitated. Thus, repeated episodes of dehydration, which may cause physical and mental retardation can be avoided.
doi:10.3892/br.2014.283
PMCID: PMC4051480  PMID: 24944815
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; aquaporin 2 gene; missense mutation; deletion mutation
25.  Hyperuricemia and deterioration of renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:63.
Background
The role of hyperuricemia in disease progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has not been defined well. We investigated the association of serum uric acid (sUA) with renal function and the effect of hypouricemic treatment on the rate of renal function decline.
Methods
This is a single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 365 patients with ADPKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and who were followed up for > 1 year were included in our analysis. Hyperuricemia was defined by a sUA level of ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in male and ≥ 6.0 mg/dL in female or when hypouricemic medications were prescribed.
Results
Hyperuricemia was associated with reduced initial eGFR, independent of age, sex, hypertension, albuminuria, and total kidney volume. During a median follow-up period of over 6 years, patients with hyperuricemia showed a faster annual decline in eGFR (−6.3% per year vs. −0.9% per year, p = 0.008). However, after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension and initial eGFR, sUA was no longer associated with either annual eGFR decline or the development of ESRD. Among 53 patients who received hypouricemic treatment, the annual eGFR decline appeared to be attenuated after hypouricemic treatment (pretreatment vs. posttreatment: −5.3 ± 8. 2 vs. 0.2 ± 6.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year, p = 0.001 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test).
Conclusions
Although hyperuricemia was associated with reduced eGFR, it was not an independent factor for renal progression in ADPKD. However, the correction of hyperuricemia may attenuate renal function decline in some patients with mild renal insufficiency.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-63
PMCID: PMC4021172  PMID: 24739095
Glomerular filtration rate; Hyperuricemia; Polycystic kidney; Autosomal dominant; Uric acid

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