Bupropion is widely used for the treatment of depressive disorder and smoking cessation. Hyponatremia, including a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), is not rare complication of treatment with antipsychotic drugs. We report a 60-year-old man who experienced severe hyponatremia after a treatment with bupropion for depressive disorder for the first time in the Korea.
bupropion; antipsychotic agents; hyponatremia; elderly
Most cases of hypercalcaemia are secondary to malignancy or primary hyperparathyroidism. We report a patient presenting with a triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal failure secondary to treatment of iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism and osteoporosis. Persistent ingestion of calcium carbonate and vitamin D caused milk-alkali syndrome. The patient was managed with intravenous fluids and withdrawal of calcium carbonate and vitamin D. She responded well to the treatment and the calcium concentration, renal function and metabolic alkalosis were normalized. Milk-alkali syndrome may be important as a reemerging cause of hypercalcemia.
calcium; metabolic alkalosis; acute kidney injury
Hospital-acquired anemia (HAA) is common in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is an independent indicator of long-term mortality in these patients. However, limited information exists regarding the development and prognostic impact of HAA associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in AMI patients.
Methods and Results
We retrospectively analyzed 2,289 patients with AMI, and excluded those with anemia at admission. The study population included 1,368 patients, of whom 800 (58.5%) developed HAA. Age, Hgb level at admission, Length of hospital stay, documented in-hospital bleeding and use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, presence of CKD and occurrence of AKI were significantly associated with the development of HAA. HAA was significantly associated with higher 3-year mortality (4.8% and 11.4% for non-HAA and HAA patients, respectively; P < 0.001). After adjustment for multivariable confounders, the risk for long-term mortality was increased in HAA patients with AKI and/or CKD but not in HAA patients without AKI and/or CKD, compared to non-HAA patients (HAA patients without AKI and CKD, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–2.56; HAA patients with either AKI or CKD, HR: 2.80, 95% CI: 1.37–5.73; HAA patients with AKI and CKD, HR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.28–8.24; compared with the non-HAA group).
AKI and CKD were strongly associated with the development of HAA in AMI patients. HAA, when accompanied by AKI or CKD, is an independent risk predictor for long-term mortality in AMI patients.
We investigated the effects of proteinuria and renal insufficiency on all-cause mortality in patients with colorectal cancer, with special emphasis on cancer staging and cancer-related deaths.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. In protocol 1, patients were classified into four groups based on the operability of cancer and proteinuria: group 1, early-stage cancer patients (colorectal cancer stage ≤3) without proteinuria; group 2, early-stage cancer patients with proteinuria; group 3, advanced-stage cancer patients without proteinuria (colorectal cancer stage=4); and group 4, advanced-stage cancer patients with proteinuria. In protocol 2, patients were classified into four similar groups based on cancer staging and renal insufficiency (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2009, 3379 patients were enrolled in this cohort and followed until May 1, 2012 or until death.
The number of patients with proteinuria was 495 (14.6%). The prevalence of proteinuria was higher in advanced-stage cancer (n=151, 22.3%) than in early-stage cancer patients (n=344, 12.7%). After adjusting for age, gender and other clinical variables, the proteinuric, early-stage cancer group was shown to be associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.67 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.38-2.01, compared with non-proteinuric early-stage cancer patients. However, renal insufficiency was not associated with colorectal cancer mortality.
Proteinuria is an important risk factor for cancer mortality, especially in relatively early colorectal cancer.
Cancer; death; proteinuria; GFR; stage
The aim of this study was to investigate clinical characteristics and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with sepsis and septic shock. Additionally, we explored whether the severity of AKI affects on the clinical outcomes.
Materials and Methods
Data were collected retrospectively in a single center. Among 5680 patients who visited emergency department from January to December 2010, 992 patients with sepsis and septic shock were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups, patients who developed AKI or not, to compare the baseline characteristics, and laboratory and physiologic data. Patients with AKI were subdivided according to its stages for survival analysis.
AKI was developed in 57.7% of patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that development of septic AKI was associated with older age, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, presence of shock, positive blood culture results, and low white blood cell and platelet counts. Hospital mortality was higher in AKI group. Crude Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated reduced 30-day survival rate was significantly associated with the severity of acute kidney injury.
The development of septic AKI was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Furthermore, the severity of AKI was associated with increased mortality.
Acute kidney injury; mortality; risk factors; sepsis; septic shock
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on short- and long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in elderly (>75 yr old) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with renal dysfunction. As part of Korea AMI Registry (KAMIR), elderly patients with AMI and renal dysfunction (GFR<60 mL/min) received either medical (n=439) or PCI (n=1,019) therapy. Primary end point was in-hospital death. Secondary end point was MACE during a 1 month and 1 yr follow-up. PCI group showed a significantly lower incidence of in-hospital death (20.0% vs 14.3%, P=0.006). Short-term and long-term MACE rates were higher in medical therapy group (31.9% vs 19.0%; 57.7% vs 31.3%, P<0.001), and this difference was mainly attributed to cardiac death (29.3% vs 17.6%; 51.9% vs 25.0%, P<0.001). MACE-free survival time after adjustment was also higher in PCI group on short-term (hazard ratio, 0.67; confidence interval, 0.45-0.98; P=0.037) and long-term follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.61, confidence interval, 0.45-0.83; P=0.002). In elderly AMI patients with renal dysfunction, PCI therapy yields favorable in-hospital and short-term and long-term MACE-free survival.
Acute Myocardial Infarction; Renal Dysfunction; Elderly; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Major Adverse Cardiac Event
A 27-year-old man presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of massive gross hematuria and urinary retention. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging showed uneven, dilated calices and a narrowing of the renal pelvis in the left kidney; in addition, a large hematoma was noted in the urinary bladder. An emergency cystoscopy was performed following detection of the hematoma and blood clots were removed. A lesional biopsy, a tuberculosis (TB) culture, and urine cytology showed positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The clinical manifestations of genitourinary tuberculosis are nonspecific and are usually detected at a chronic stage. In conclusion, we report an unusual cause of acute kidney injury associated with a subacute stage of genitourinary tuberculosis that caused mucosal erosion and bleeding in the bladder.
Tuberculosis; Acute kidney injury; Hematuria
The present study investigated the changes that occurred in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the kidney as a result of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Rats were implanted with DOCA strips (200 mg/kg) 1 week after unilateral nephrectomy and were then supplied with 0.9% saline to drink. Four weeks after DOCA implantation, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by use of the tail-cuff method. The expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mTOR, as well as the protein expression levels of ED-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2, were then examined in the kidney by semiquantitative immunoblotting. DOCA-salt hypertensive rats were found to have significantly increased SBP as well as an increased kidney weight-to-body weight ratio. Moreover, the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR was increased in the kidney of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats compared with the control, as was the protein expression of ED-1, COX-2, TGF-β1, and α-SMA. The expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax were increased significantly, whereas Bcl-2 expression was decreased. In conclusion, the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR was increased in the kidney of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.
Deoxycorticosterone; Hypertension; Kidney
Sjögren’s syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease in which lymphatic cells destroy the salivary and lacrimal glands. Glomerulonephritis is thought to be a rare occurrence in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Furthermore, concurrent glomerular involvement and lymphoma in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome has seldom been reported.
A 52-year-old woman with primary Sjögren’s syndrome developed membranous glomerulonephritis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). She was diagnosed with Sjögren’s syndrome based on the dry eyes, dry mouth, positive anti-nuclear antibody test, anti-Ro (SS-A) antibody, salivary gland biopsy, and salivary scintigraphy. Moreover, renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of membranous glomerulonephritis. Three months later, her small bowel was perforated with pneumoperitoneum, and the biopsy revealed Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL.
We observed the first case of primary Sjögren’s syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr Virus-positive DLBCL and membranous glomerulonephritis. Because of the possibility of malignancy-associated membranous glomerulonephritis in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome, we should be careful and examine such patients for hidden malignancy.
Primary Sjögren’s syndrome; Membranous glomerulonephritis; EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
The clinical outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are poor in patients with renal insufficiency. This study investigated changes in the likelihood that patients received optimal medical care throughout the entire process of myocardial infarction management, on the basis of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
This study analyzed 7,679 patients (age, 63 ± 13 years; men 73.6%) who had STEMI and were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) from November 2005 to August 2008. The study subjects were divided into 5 groups corresponding to strata used to define chronic kidney disease stages.
Patients with lower GFR were less likely to present with typical chest pain. The average symptom-to-door time, door-to-balloon time, and symptom-to-balloon time were longer with lower GFR than higher GFR. Primary reperfusion therapy was performed less frequently and the results of reperfusion therapy were poorer in patients with renal insufficiency; these patients were less likely to receive adjunctive medical treatment, such as treatment with aspirin, clopidogrel, β-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), or statin, during hospitalization and at discharge. Patients who received less intense medical therapy had worse clinical outcomes than those who received more intense medical therapy.
Patients with STEMI and renal insufficiency had less chance of receiving optimal medical care throughout the entire process of MI management, which may contribute to worse outcomes in these patients.
Myocardial infarction; Optimal medical care; Renal function
A 59-year-old female with diabetes mellitus presented with hypercalcemia and polycythemia. Her serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were increased, and Tc-99m sesta-MIBI scanning showed hot uptake in the lower portion of the left thyroid lobe. After parathyroidectomy, her calcium, iPTH, and polycythemia were normalized. In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of polycythemia and hypercalcemia should also include the possibility of a parathyroid tumor in addition to other neoplasms.
Hypercalcemia; Polycythemia vera; Parathyroid tumor
The role of the kidney in combating metabolic acidosis has been a subject of considerable interest for many years. The present study was aimed to determine whether there is an altered regulation of renal acid base transporters in acute and chronic acid loading. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Metabolic acidosis was induced by administration of NH4Cl for 2 days (acute) and for 7days (chronic). The serum and urinary pH and bicarbonate were measured. The protein expression of renal acid base transporters [type 3 Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), type 1 Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC1), Na-K+ ATPase, H+-ATPase, anion exchanger-1 (AE-1)] was measured by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Serum bicarbonate and pH were decreased in acute acid loading rats compared with controls. Accordingly, urinary pH decreased. The protein expression of NHE3, H+-ATPase, AE-1 and NBC1 was not changed. In chronic acid loading rats, serum bicarbonate and pH were not changed, while urinary pH was decreased compared with controls. The protein expression of NHE3, H+-ATPase was increased in the renal cortex of chronic acid loading rats. These results suggest that unaltered expression of acid transporters combined with acute acid loading may contribute to the development of acidosis. The subsequent increased expression of NHE3, H+-ATPase in the kidney may play a role in promoting acid excretion in the later stage of acid loading, which counteract the development of metabolic acidosis.
Ammonium chloride; Acidosis; Sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3; Proton-Translocating ATPases
A 30-year-old male presented with pitting edema. He had received a kidney transplantation 3 months previously. His serum creatinine level was increased, and a renal ultrasound showed hypoechoic fluid collection in the perirenal space and pelvic cavity. We conducted sono-guided percutaneous drainage of the fluid collected in the pelvic cavity. The chemistry of the peritoneal fluid was more equivalent to serum chemistry values than to urinary values. Simple aspiration and treatment with antibiotics were performed. We have presented a case of lymphocele after kidney transplantation. This case suggests that physicians should remember how to differentiate the pelvic cavity fluid collection in patients who have received a kidney transplant.
Lymphocele; Kidney; Transplantation
We report the case of a female patient with incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis with nephrocalcinosis. She was admitted to the hospital because of acute pyelonephritis. Imaging studies showed dual medullary nephrocalcinosis. Subsequent evaluations revealed hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia with normal acid-base status. A modified tubular acidification test with NH4Cl confirmed a defect of urine acidification, which is compatible with incomplete distal tubular acidosis. We treated our patient with potassium citrate, which corrects hypokalemia and prevents further deposition of calcium salts.
Renal tubular acidosis; Nephrocalcinosis; Kidney
Diabetes mellitus and renal dysfunction are prognostic factors after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, few studies have assessed the effects of renal insufficiency in association with diabetes in the context of AMI. Here, we investigated the clinical outcomes according to the concomitance of renal dysfunction and diabetes mellitus in patients with AMI.
From November 2005 to August 2008, 9905 patients (63 ± 13 years; 70% men) with AMI were enrolled in a nationwide prospective Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) and were categorized into 4 groups: Group I (n = 5700) had neither diabetes nor renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), Group II (n = 1730) had diabetes but no renal insufficiency, Group III (n = 1431) had no diabetes but renal insufficiency, and Group IV (n = 1044) had both diabetes and renal insufficiency. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including a composite of all cause-of-death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and coronary artery bypass graft after 1-year clinical follow-up.
Primary endpoints occurred in 1804 (18.2%) patients. There were significant differences in composite MACE among the 4 groups (Group I, 12.5%; Group II, 15.7%; Group III, 30.5%; Group IV, 36.5%; p < 0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, after adjusting for multiple covariates, the 1-year mortality increased stepwise from Group III to IV as compared with Group I (hazard ratio [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-2.86; p = 0.001; and HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.62-3.62; p < 0.001, respectively). However, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant difference in probability of death at 1 year between Group III and IV (p = 0.288).
Renal insufficiency, especially in association with diabetes, is associated with the occurrence of composite MACE and indicates poor prognosis in patients with AMI. Categorization of patients with diabetes and/or renal insufficiency provides valuable information for early-risk stratification of AMI patients.
acute myocardial infarction; diabetes mellitus; major adverse cardiac events; renal insufficiency
Nitric oxide (NO) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) may induce vascular relaxation by increasing the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), an important mediator of vascular tone during sepsis. This study aimed to determine whether regulation of NO and the ANP system is altered in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced kidney injury. LPS (10 mg.kg-1) was injected in the tail veins of male Sprague-Dawley rats; 12 hours later, the kidneys were removed. Protein expression of NO synthase (NOS) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) was determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. As an index of synthesis of NO, its stable metabolites (nitrite/nitrate, NOx) were measured using colorimetric assays. mRNA expression of the ANP system was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To determine the activity of guanylyl cyclase (GC), the amount of cGMP generated in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and ANP was calculated. Creatinine clearance decreased and fractional excretion of sodium increased in LPS-treated rats compared with the controls. Inducible NOS protein expression increased in LPS-treated rats, while that of endothelial NOS, neuronal NOS, and NEP remained unchanged. Additionally, urinary and plasma NOx levels increased in LPS-treated rats. SNP-stimulated GC activity remained unchanged in the glomerulus and papilla in the LPS-treated rats. mRNA expression of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-C decreased in LPS-treated rats, while that of ANP and NPR-A did not change. ANP-stimulated GC activity reduced in the glomerulus and papilla. In conclusion, enhancement of the NO/cGMP pathway and decrease in ANP clearance were found play a role in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced kidney injury.
Lipopolysaccharide; Atrial natriuretic peptide; Nitric oxide; Guanylyl cyclase
A 59-year-old man with confused mental status was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory reports showed him to have severe hyponatremia, and additional studies revealed panhypopituitarism. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a sellar cystic lesion, which consisted of a Rathke cleft cyst. Thus, the mass effect of the Rathke cleft cyst resulted in panhypopituitarism and finally induced euvolemic hyponatremia. On the basis of these results, supplementation with thyroid hormone and glucocorticoid was started, and the patient's serum sodium level was gradually corrected and maintained within the normal range. Here, we report this case of euvolemic hyponatremia caused by a Rathke cleft cyst.
Rathke cleft cyst; Hyponatremia; Panhypopituitarism
This study aimed to compare the incidence and clinical significance of transient versus persistent acute kidney injury (AKI) on acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Materials and Methods
The study was a retrospective cohort of 855 patients with STEMI. AKI was defined as an increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL in creatinine level at any point during hospital stay. The study population was classified into 5 groups: 1) patients without AKI; 2) patients with mild AKI that was resolved by discharge (creatinine change less than 0.5mg/dL compared with admission creatinine during hospital stay, transient mild AKI); 3) patients with mild AKI that did not resolve by discharge (persistent mild AKI); 4) patients with moderate/severe AKI that was resolved by discharge (creatinine change more than 0.5 mg/dL compared with admission creatinine, transient moderate/severe AKI); 5) patients with moderate/severe AKI that did not resolve by discharge (persistent moderate/severe AKI). We investigated 1-year all-cause mortality after hospital discharge for the primary outcome of the study. The relation between AKI and 1-year mortality after STEMI was analyzed.
AKI occurred in 74 (8.7%) patients during hospital stay. Adjusted hazard ratio for mortality was 3.139 (95% CI 0.764 to 12.897, p=0.113) in patients with transient, mild AKI, and 8.885 (95% CI 2.710 to 29.128, p<0.001) in patients with transient, moderate/severe AKI compared to patients without AKI. Persistent moderate/severe AKI was also independent predictor of 1 year mortality (hazard ratio, 5.885; 95% CI 1.079 to 32.101, p=0.041).
Transient and persistent moderate/severe AKI during acute myocardial infarction is strongly related to 1-year all cause mortality after STEMI.
Acute kidney injury; myocardial infarction; mortality
A 34-year-old female presented with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated by peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) complained of a dry cough. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed massive right hydrothorax. Because the glucose concentration of pleural fluid was markedly high compared with that of serum, we performed isotope and contrast peritoneography. We used CT for localizing it. MRI was also trying to show transdiaphragmatic leakage in peritoneoflural fistula. Temporary discontinuation of CAPD, tetracycline instillation into the pleural space and surgical patch grafting of the diaphragmatic leak have all been described. A novel method may be video-assisted talc pleurodesis.
Pleural effusion; Dialysis; Kidney
The collecting duct endothelin (ET) system, which involves ET-1 and its two receptors, may play a role in the regulation of renal sodium in association with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system. We determined whether sodium retention is associated with changes in the endothelin and NOS systems at different stages (i.e., a sodium retaining stage and a compensatory stage) of nephrotic syndromes. On day 7 after puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) injection, urinary sodium excretion was decreased, ascites had developed, and there was a positive sodium balance. ET-1 mRNA expression was increased in the inner medulla of the kidney, whereas protein expression of ET receptor type B (ETBR) was unchanged. The expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) was decreased in the inner medulla. On day 14, urinary sodium excretion was unchanged compared with controls. The expression of ETBR increased, while nNOS expression in the inner medulla was comparable to controls. These findings suggest that decreased nNOS plays a role in the development of sodium retention in the nephrotic syndrome. Recovery of nNOS and increased renal ETBR synthesis may promote sodium excretion in later stages of the nephrotic syndrome (on day 14).
Nephrotic syndrome; Endothelin receptor type B; Nitric oxide synthase; Puromycin aminonucleoside
Heart failure is the pathophysiological state characterized by ventricular dysfunction and associated clinical symptoms. Decreased cardiac output or peripheral vascular resistance lead to arterial underfilling. That is an important signal which triggers multiple neurohormonal systems to maintain adequate arterial pressure and peripheral perfusion of the vital organs. The kidney is the principal organ affected when cardiac output declines. Alterations of hemodynamics and neurohormonal systems in heart failure result in renal sodium and water retention. Activation of sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and non-osmotic vasopressin release stimulate the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. Dysregulation of aquaporin-2 and sodium transporters also play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal sodium and water retention.
heart failure; aquaporins; sodium-potassium-chloride symporters; sodium chloride symporters; epithelial sodium channel
Sodium retention is a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome. We investigated whether sodium retention is associated with changes of natriuretic peptide system at different stages (i.e., a sodium retaining stage and a compensatory stage) of nephrotic syndrome. At day 7 after PAN (puromycin aminonucleoside) injection, the urinary excretion of sodium was decreased, along with the development of ascites and positive sodium balance. The plasma and urinary ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) immunoreactivities were increased. ANP mRNA expression was increased in the heart and kidney, whereas that of NPR (natriuretic peptide receptor)-A and NPR-C mRNA was decreased in the kidney. The expression of NEP was decreased in the kidney. At day 14, urinary excretion of sodium did not differ from the control. The plasma ANP level and heart ANP mRNA expression returned to their control values. The expression of ANP mRNA in the kidney was increased in association with increased urinary ANP immunoreactivities. The expression of NPR-A in the kidney became normal, whereas that of NPR-C kept decreased. The expression of NEP (neutral endopeptidase) remained decreased. These findings suggest that the increased renal ANP synthesis in association with decreased metabolism via NEP and NPR-C may play a compensatory role against the development of sodium retention in nephrotic syndrome. The decreased of NPR-A expression in the kidney may contribute to the ANP resistance at day 7. The subsequent recovery of NPR-A expression may play a role in promoting sodium excretion in later stage (at day 14).
Nephrotic syndrome; Natriuretic peptide; Puromycin aminonucleoside
The present study was aimed to determine whether there is an altered regulation of tubular transporters in gentamicin-induced nephropathy. Sprague-Dawley male rats (200~250 g) were subcutaneously injected with gentamicin (100 mg/kg per day) for 7 days, and the expression of tubular transporters was determined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein expression of OAT was also determined. Gentamicin-treated rats exhibited significantly decreased creatinine clearance along with increased plasma creatinine levels. Accordingly, the fractional excretion of sodium increased. Urine volume was increased, while urine osmolality and free water reabsorption were decreased. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, NHE3, NBC1, and AQP1 in the kidney of gentamicin-treated rats. The expression of OAT1 and OAT3 was also decreased. Gentamicin-induced nephropathy may at least in part be causally related with a decreased expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, NHE3, NBC1, AQP1 and OAT.
Gentamicin; Sodium transporters; Aquaporin-1; Organic anion transporters
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has been widely used for treating critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Whether CRRT is better than intermittent hemodialysis for the treatment of AKI remains controversial. We sought to identify the clinical features that can predict survival for the patients who are treated with CRRT.
We analyzed the data of 125 patients who received CRRT between 2005 and 2007. We identified the demographic variables, the underlying diagnoses, the duration of CRRT, the mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II. The classification/staging system for acute kidney injury (AKI) was applied to all the patients, who were then divided into stage 1-3 subgroups.
The average age of the patients was 61.414.3 years and the mortality rate was 60% (75 of 125 patients). The survivors had a significantly higher mean ABP and a higher mean serum bicarbonate level, which were measured the day after CRRT, than the nonsurvivors (86.723.7 vs. 69.224.6 mm Hg, respectively, 21.43.5 vs. 16.45.4 mmol/L, respectively,; p<0.05 for each). The stage 3 AKI patients showed the worst parameters for the SAPS II score and the serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The mortality rate was higher for the stage 3 subgroup than the other groups (70.5%, p<0.05).
The patients with AKI and who require CRRT continue to have a high mortality rate. A higher mean ABP and a higher serum bicarbonate level measured the day after CRRT may predict a more favorable prognosis. The staging system for AKI can improve the ability to predict the outcomes of CRRT patients.
Hemodiafiltration; Acute kidney injury
4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), the aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation, may be responsible for the pathogenesis of progressive renal disease. Recently, paricalcitol (19-nor-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2) was shown to be renoprotective through its anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in various experimental nephropathy models. In this study, we investigated the effects of paricalcitol on inflammation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) after HHE-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying HHE-induced renal tubular cell injury, the human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells cultured with 10 µM HHE in the presence or absence of paricalcitol. In HK-2 cells, paricalcitol attenuated the HHE-induced expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and prevented nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. The expression of the inflammatory proteins inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 was attenuated by paricalcitol pretreatment. In addition, HHE increased the expression of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling proteins and fibrotic proteins, such as α-smooth muscle actin and connective tissue growth factor; this inducible expression was suppressed by pretreatment with paricalcitol. Treatment with HHE resulted in the activation of the β-catenin signaling pathway, and paricalcitol pretreatment reduced the expression of β-catenin in HHE-treated HK-2 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation shows that paricalcitol induced vitamin D receptor (VDR)/β-catenin complex formation in HK-2 cells. Also immunofluorescence staining revealed that co-localization of VDR and β-catenin in the nuclei. ICG-001, an inhibitor of β-catenin, decreased the expression of TGF-β1 and attenuated HHE-induced tubular EMT. These results show that paricalcitol attenuated HHE-induced renal tubular cell injury by suppressing inflammation and EMT process through inhibition of the NF-κB, TGF-β/Smad, and β-catenin signaling pathways.