Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) with menarcheal age were also examined.
This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes.
The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03–5.05)], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39–7.42)], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12–5.27)] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44–7.87) after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1). Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant.
Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.
A sound understanding of community perceptions and experiences regarding barriers to a healthy diet is a prerequisite for the design of effective interventions aimed at prevention of diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study focused on exploring barriers to healthy nutrition as experienced by women participating in the Tehran Lipid Glucose Study (TLGS).
A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the participants’ experiences and their perceptions regarding these barriers. Data collection was conducted through sixteen semi-structured focus group discussions, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were 102 women, aged 25-65 years, selected and recruited from the TGLS cohort. All interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method.
The study revealed that the most important barriers to healthy nutrition were: 1) Interpersonal/cultural effects, 2) Lack of access to healthy foods, and 3) Food preferences.
Understanding these barriers might contribute to existing literature by providing evidence from a different culture, and help design effective preventive strategies, and implement appropriate interventions among Tehranian families.
Healthy nutrition; Barriers; Qualitative study; Non-communicable diseases
High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have favorable effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index (PI) in relation to 3-year change in weight, waist circumference (WC), body adiposity index (BAI) among Tehranian adults.
This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, on 1938 adults, aged 19–70 y. The usual intake of participants was measured at baseline using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary PI was calculated. Anthropometric measures were assessed both at baseline and 3 years later. Multiple regression models were used to estimate mean difference changes in anthropometrics associated with various dietary PI.
The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 y, at baseline, respectively. Mean weight gain was 1.49 ± 5.06 kg (1.65 ± 5.3 kg in men and 1.34 ± 4.9 kg in women) during 3-year period. After adjustment for potential confounding variables including age at baseline, sex, BMI, educational levels, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, dietary intake of carbohydrate, fat and protein, dietary intakes of whole grains in the highest quartile category of PI were inversely associated with 3-year changes in weight and WC (P for trend <0.05). Dietary intake of fruits in the highest quartile was also associated with lower weight gain during the study period (P for trend <0.05). There was significant inverse association between the highest quartile category of dietary PI with the 3-year changes in weight and BAI (P for trend <0.05).
Higher dietary PI could have favorable effects on prevention of weight gain and reduction of body adiposity in adults.
Dietary phytochemical index; Waist circumference; Body adiposity index; Weight gain; Tehran lipid and Glucose study
Data about the risk factors of stroke are sparse in the Middle East populations. We aimed to determine the potential risk factors and their population attributable fraction (PAF) for stroke in an Iranian population.
A cohort Study consisted of 1089 men and 1289 women, with mean (SD) ages of 61.1(7.6) and 59.0(6.7) years, respectively. Cox regression was implemented to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of each risk factor for stroke events in a stepwise method. We calculated a multivariate adjusted population attributable fraction (PAF) for any risk factors remained in the model.
During 9.3 years of follow-up, 69 events of stroke occurred with incidence rates of 4.5 (95% CI: 3.3-6.0) and 2.5 (1.7-3.6) in 1000 person-years for men and women respectively. Among potential risk factors, only age ≥ 65 years (HR: 2.03, CI: 1.24-3.31), male gender (HR: 2.00, CI: 1.16-3.43), hypertension (HR: 3.03, CI: 1.76-5.22), diabetes mellitus (HR: 2.18, CI: 1.34-3.56), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (HR: 2.01, CI: 1.22-3.33), were independently associated with increased risk of stroke events in the total population. A paired homogeneity test showed that the hazard ratio of CKD did not differ from other independent risk factors. The PAFs were 29.7% and 25% for male gender and age ≥ 65 as non-modifiable and 48.6%, 29.1% and 22.0% for hypertension, CKD and diabetes as modifiable risk factors respectively.
Following this population based study of Iranians, we demonstrated that among modifiable risk factors, CKD as well as hypertension and diabetes are the strongest independent predictors of stroke.
Chronic kidney disease; Hypertension; Diabetes; Stroke; Population attributable fraction
The effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (M-SCH) on the neuropsychological development of the offspring are not clear. We evaluated the intellectual development of children of mothers who had M-SCH during the pregnancy for these children.
Sixty-two children were recruited. After excluding those age <4 or age >15, 44 were enrolled. The mothers of these children were part of a sub-pool of 90, of 441 hypothyroid women of reproductive age seen in Tehran endocrine clinics between 1991 and 2003 and who were observed during gestation. Mothers were receiving levothyroxine (LT4) before gestation. Mothers of 19 children (control group) had normal serum thyrotropin (TSH) during the pregnancy that produced these children. Mothers of the other 25 children had increased TSH during the comparable pregnancy. Nineteen mothers had M-SCH (case group) and six had overt hypothyroidism. Serum TSH and free T4 (FT4) and urine iodine were measured, and seven cognitive performance and intelligence quotient (IQ) tests were performed.
Case children were similar to control children with respect to gender, age, parental education, maternal age at time of pregnancy and at the time of their hypothyroidism, percent mothers having thyroid peroxidase antibodies, LT4 dose of mothers during pregnancy, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, and duration of breast feeding. Maternal TSH (mean±standard deviation) in the case group during their mother's pregnancies was 11.3±5.3 and 1.4±1.0 mU/L in the controls (p<0.001). Serum TSH, FT4 and urinary iodine concentrations were similar in the two groups. Total IQ, performance IQ, and verbal IQ were similar, being 120±14, 117±12, and 121±16, respectively, in the case group and 121±11, 120±7, and 117±15 in the control group. Cognitive performance tests were similar in both groups. No relationships were observed between variables and IQ except for education level of the mother and neonatal weight.
IQ level and cognitive performance of children born to LT4-treated hypothyroid mothers is similar in those whose mothers have M-SCH during pregnancy compared with those whose mothers have normal serum TSH concentrations during pregnancy.
To examine, the predictors of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a community-based cohort of Middle East population, during a mean follow-up of 9.9 years. In a sample of 3313 non-CKD Iranian adults ≥20 years the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated at baseline and at three year intervals during three consecutive phases. The eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was defined as CKD. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent variables associated with incident CKD. The incidence density rates of CKD were 285.3 and 132.6 per 10,000 person-year, among women and men, respectively. Female gender per se was associated with higher risk of CKD, compared with males. Among women, age, eGFR, known diabetes, being single or divorced/widowed, hypertension (marginally significant) and current smoking were independent risk factors for CKD; however the intermediate degree of education and family history of diabetes decreased the risk by 40% (P<0.05). Among male subjects, independent predictors of developing CKD included aging and hypertension (with significantly higher risk than in women, P for interaction<0.05), eGFR, new diagnosed diabetes, high normal blood pressure; abdominal obesity decreased the risk of CKD about 30% which was marginally significant. In the Iranian population,>2% of individuals develops CKD each year. Our findings confirmed that sex- specific risk predictors should be considered in primary prevention for incident CKD.
To compare the predictive ability of adolescent lipoprotein classification using the National Examination Survey (NHANES) cut points and those of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) for predicting abnormal levels in adulthood.
From 1032 adolescents, aged 14–19 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, all lipid measures were determined at baseline and again after 6 years. Multivariable Odds Ratios (ORs) were calculated for borderline and high categories of lipids to predict dyslipidemia in adulthood, considering the normal level as a reference. Area under the receiving characteristics curve (AUC) was used to assess the predictive ability of each adolescent lipid classification.
Applying the NCEP classification, the prevalences of high total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in males were 12.1%, 12.9%, 26.1% and 34.2% respectively; in females the corresponding prevalences were 15.4%, 17.9%, 21.4% and 25.0%, respectively. Using NHANES cut points, the prevalence of high TC, LDL-C and triglycerides were lower, than those defined by NCEP; the ORs of high categories of lipids (defined by NHANES) were higher than ORs based on the NECP classification, except for HDL-C. For all lipid measures, both classifications had similar predictive abilities, except for TC/HDL-C, which had higher predictive power applying the NHANES classification rather than the NCEP one (AUC 71% vs. 68%, respectively).
No differences were found between NCEP and NHANES classifications for prediction of adult dyslipidemia, except for TC/HDL-C. Because of their simple application, NCEP cut points can be used in clinical settings.
There is growing evidence that dietary antioxidants could have favorable effects on the attenuation and prevention of metabolic disorders. In the current study we investigated the association of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and the occurrence of the MetS during a 3-year follow-up.
This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, on 1983 adults, aged 19–70 y. The usual intakes of participant were measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary TAC was estimated at baseline. The MetS components were assessed at baseline and 3 years later. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of the MetS and its components according to dietary TAC quartile categories.
The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 y, and mean BMI was 27.03 ± 4.9 kg/m2 at baseline. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, TAC was associated with MetS components at baseline. Participant with highest TAC score had lower weight and abdominal fat gain during the 3 year follow-up. The chance of having the MetS, abdominal obesity and hypertension after 3 years decreased across the increasing dietary TAC quartile (P for trend < 0.01). Dietary TAC more than 1080 μmolTE/100 g of food, resulted in a 38% decrease in the risk of central obesity (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.38-0.99).
We demonstrated that higher dietary antioxidant intakes have favorable effects on metabolic disorders and, more interestingly, prevent subsequent weight and abdominal fat gain during a 3-year follow-up.
Dietary total antioxidant capacity; Antioxidant-rich foods; Metabolic syndrome
Chronic kidney disease(CKD) has been proposed as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is conflicting evidence among community based studies regarding the association between CKD and CVD. Furthermore, in order to assess the possible interaction between CKD and BMI, we also examined the association between CKD and CVD, across different BMI categories.
The risk of CVD events was evaluated in a large cohort of participants selected from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Participants(mean age, 47.4 years) free of previous CVD were followed up for 9.1 years. GFR ml/min per 1.73 m2 was estimated using the MDRD formula.
Of the 6,209 participants, 22.2%(1381) had CKD with eGFR ml/min per 1.73 m2 <60 at baseline. Almost all of them (99%) were in stage 3a. Moderate renal insufficiency only predicted CVD outcomes independently when we adjusted for age and sex. After further adjustment, the presence of moderate CKD lost its statistical significance to confer an independent increased risk of CVD events with a hazard ratio of: HR: 1.14, CI 95% 0.91-1.42. Furthermore, when participants were categorized according to CKD status and BMI groups, after further adjustment, no interaction was found(P = 0.2).
CKD was not an independent risk factor for CVD events in a community-based study in a Tehranian population and the higher prevalence of CVD in subjects with mild to moderate renal insufficiency might be due to the co-occurrence of traditional CVD risk factors in this group.
Chronic kidney disease; Cardiovascular disease; Body mass index; Glomerular filtration rate; General population
We contrasted impacts on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality of diabetes vs. CVD.
Among participants the Tehran lipid and glucose study aged ≥ 30 years (n = 9752), we selected those who participated in the follow-up study until 20 March 2009 (n = 8795). Complete data on covariate were available for 8, 469 participants, contributing to a 67935 person-year follow up. In the analysis of outcomes (all-cause and CVD mortality), diabetes and CVD were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression model adjusting for established CVD risk factors. We used population attributable hazard fraction (PAHF) and rate advancement period (RAP) that expresses how much sooner a given mortality rate is reached among exposed than among unexposed individuals.
Ten percent of the participants self-reported to have pervious CVD, and diabetes was ascertained in 17% of participants at baseline examination. During a median follow-up of 9 years 386 participants died of which 184 were due to CVD. All-cause and CVD mortality rate (95% CIs) were 5.5 (5.0-6.1) and 2.6 (2.3-3.0) per 1000 person-year, respectively. The PAHF of all-cause mortality for diabetes 9.2 (7.3-11.1) was greater than the one for CVD 3.5 (1.1-5.5). RAP estimates for all-cause mortality associated with diabetes ranged from 7.4 to 8.6 years whereas the RAP estimates for all-cause mortality associated with CVD ranged from 3.1 to 4.3 years. The PAHF of CVD mortality for diabetes 9.4 (6.8-12.0) was greater than the one for CVD 4.5 (1.8-7.0). RAP estimates for CVD mortality associated with diabetes ranged from 8.2 to 9.8 years whereas the RAP estimates for CVD mortality associated with CVD ranged from 4.7 to 6.7 years.
We demonstrated that diabetes, which was shown to be keeping pace with prevalent CVD in terms of conferring excess risk of incident CVD, is currently causing more deaths in the population than does CVD.
Cardiovascular disease; Diabetes; Mortality; Population-attributable mortality
Aims. To investigate the trend of metabolic syndrome and its components in Tehran children and adolescents during a median followup of 6.6 years. Methods. Data from 1999–2001 (phase I), 2002–2005 (phase II), and 2006–2008 (phase III) of the Tehran, Lipid and Glucose Study were analyzed (n = 5439; age 6–18 years) for the trend of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. General estimation equation (GEE) models were used to analyze this correlated data. Results. The crude prevalence of MetS for boys at baseline was 13.2%, which increased to 16.4% in the third phase. In girls, the prevalence of Mets decreased from 11.8% at baseline to 6% during followup. The odd ratios (OR) of obesity over the whole study period were raised in both sexes. The OR of abdominal obesity increased significantly in boys, but no change was observed in girls. No significant OR was observed in boys, while OR for MetS was shown to have a decreasing trend in girls during the followup. In the three time points, the ORs of MetS decreased significantly in girls but no significant difference was observed in boys. Conclusion. Inspite of increasing trend for obesity in both sexes, the trend of MetS decreased in girls and was relatively stable in boys, in Tehranian children, and adolescents.
Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has recently been suggested to be used as a surrogate of visceral adiposity. We examined if VAI could improve predictive performances for CVD of the Framingham's general CVD algorithm (a multivariate model incorporating established CVD risk factors). We compared the predictive abilities of the VAI with those of simple anthropometric measures i.e. BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) or waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR).
Design and methods
In a nine-year population-based follow-up, 6 407 (2 778 men) participants, free of CVD at baseline, aged ≥ 30 years were eligible for the current analysis. The risk of CVD was estimated by incorporating VAI, BMI, WHpR, and WHtR, one at a time, into multivariate accelerated failure time models.
We documented 534 CVD events with the annual incidence rate (95%CIs) being 7.3 (6.4-8.3) among women and 13.0 (11.7-14.6) among men. Risk of future CVD increased with increasing levels of VAI among both men and women. VAI was associated with multivariate-adjusted increased risk of incident CVD among women. However, the magnitude of risk conferred by VAI was not significantly higher than those conferred by BMI, WHpR, or WHtR. Among men, after adjustment for established CVD risk factors, VAI was no longer associated with increased risk of CVD. VAI failed to add to the predictive ability of the Framingham general CVD algorithm.
Using VAI instead of simple anthropometric measures may lead to loss of much information needed for predicting incident CVD.
Body mass index; Cardiovascular disease; Prediction; Visceral adiposity index; Waist- to-height ratio; Waist-to-hip ratio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of cause of death stated in death certificates in Tehran using outcome measures of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), an ongoing prospective cohort study.
The cohort was established in 1999 in a population of 15005 people, 3 years old and over, living in Tehran; 3551 individuals were added to this population three years later. As part of cohort's outcome measures, deaths occurring in the cohort are investigated by a panel of medical specialists (Cohort Outcome Panel-COP) and underlying cause of death is determined for each death. The cause of death assigned in a deceased's original death certificate was evaluated against the cause of death determined by COP and sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were determined. In addition, determinants of assigning accurate underlying cause of death were determined using logistic regression model.
A total of 231 death certificates were evaluated. The original death certificates over reported deaths due to neoplasms and underreported death due to circulatory system and transport accidents. Neoplasms with sensitivity of 0.91 and PPV of 0.71 were the most valid category. The disease of circulatory system showed moderate degree of validity with sensitivity of 0.67 and PPV of 0.78. The result of logistic regression indicated if the death certificate is issued by a general practitioner, there is 2.3 (95% CI 1.1, 5.1) times chance of being misclassified compared with when it is issued by a specialist. If the deceased is more than 60 years, the chance of misclassification would be 2.5 times (95% CI of 1.1, 5.9) compared with when the deceased is less than 60 years.
This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0) Generic Core Scales in children.
A standard forward and backward translation procedure was used to translate the US English version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales for children into the Iranian language (Persian). The Iranian version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales was completed by 503 healthy and 22 chronically ill children aged 8-12 years and their parents. The reliability was evaluated using internal consistency. Known-groups discriminant comparisons were made, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted.
The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70. All monotrait-multimethod correlations were higher than multitrait-multimethod correlations. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between the children self-report and parent proxy-reports showed moderate to high agreement. Exploratory factor analysis extracted six factors from the PedsQL™ 4.0 for both self and proxy reports, accounting for 47.9% and 54.8% of total variance, respectively. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis for 6-factor models for both self-report and proxy-report indicated acceptable fit for the proposed models. Regarding health status, as hypothesized from previous studies, healthy children reported significantly higher health-related quality of life than those with chronic illnesses.
The findings support the initial reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 as a generic instrument to measure health-related quality of life of children in Iran.
Health-related quality of life; PedsQL™; Iran; Children
There is no clear and contemporaneous method for screening of idiopathic hirsutism (IH) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) at the community level and current estimates regarding their prevalence are limited. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence of IH and PCOS in a randomly selected sample of reproductive aged female participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS).
One thousand and two women, aged 18-45 years, were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women who participated in the TLGS. Those women with either hirsutism or menstrual dysfunction were assessed for biochemical hyperandrogenemia; whereas those participants with hirsutism per se were further assessed for subclinical menstrual dysfunction. PCOS were diagnosed using the National Institute of Health (NIH) criteria. IH was defined as hirsutism without clinical or sub clinical menstrual dysfunction or biochemical hyperandrogenemia (BH).
The mean ± SD of age of study population was 29.2 ± 8.7 years. Estimated prevalences of idiopathic hirsutism and pure menstrual dysfunction were 13.0% (95% CI: 10.9%-15.1%) and 1.5%(95% CI: 1.1%-1.9%), respectively. The prevalence of PCOS was 8.5% (95% CI: 6.8% - 10.2%); more than one third of these cases would possibly have remained undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, had we not assessed them for subclinical menstrual dysfunction or biochemical hyperandrogenemia.
These data from a large representative and non selected population of women confirm the concept that IH and PCOS are the two most common gynecological endocrinopathies among reproductive aged women. The estimated prevalence of these conditions is highly influenced by their screening methods at the community level.
Prevalence; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS); NIH criteria; Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS); Idiopathic Hirsutism (IH)
The aim of this study was to assess leisure time physical activity and its determinants among adults in Tehran.
This cross-sectional study comprised adults (n = 7285), aged 20 years and older. The subjects were participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study between 2002 and 2004. Information on the number of days spent on different activities during a week and the time devoted to each activity on a typical day was recorded. In addition, each activity, weighted by its relative intensity, was referred to as a metabolic equivalent.
The prevalence of inactivity was 69.8% (95% CI: 68.7-70.8) in the whole population and 30.2% (95% CI: 27.2-33.1%) of men and 30.3% (95% CI: 27.7-32.8%) of women were considered as active. Leisure time physical activity less than 30 min/week was scored in 1590 (50.6%) men and 1803 (43.5%) women. The most frequent leisure time physical activity performed by men (96.1%) and women (95.2%) was walking. A negative association was observed in men between leisure time physical activity and increased work hours, older age, more cigarette smoking and higher body mass index (69.8% were overweight and 75.3% were obese; P < 0.05). Leisure time physical activity was more likely to be associated with high educational levels in men. In addition, there was a statistically significant relationship between physical inactivity and occupation in both men and women.
The prevalence of physical inactivity among adults in Tehran was high. Leisure time physical inactivity was more likely to be associated with older age, more cigarette smoking, more working hours, and higher body mass index. Public health efforts are needed to improve people's participation in physical activities in Iran.
Physical inactivity; Adults; Tehran; Leisure time
To assess the incidence and trend of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in adolescents from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study during 3.6 years of follow-up.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 932 adolescents, aged 10–19 years, who had complete data and returned for reassessment 3.6 years later were investigated.
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome at baseline and after 3.6 years was 7.4 and 6.7%, respectively, based on the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III definitions; 3.5 and 8.0%, respectively, based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions; 4.1 and 9.4%, respectively, based on the American Heart Association (AHA) definitions; and 13.6 and 13.4%, respectively, based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) definitions. Incidence rates were 5.2% (95% CI 3–6) based on ATP III, 6.8% (5–8) based on IDF, 8.3% (6–10) based on AHA, and 8.8% (6–10) based on NHANES definitions.
Incidence of metabolic syndrome is high in Tehranian adolescents.
Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome.
The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Tehranian adults.
This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults.
The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9) and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6) in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63) and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27) higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17) and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14) higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15) and 9% (1.04-1.12) higher risk of impaired fasting glucose.
Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.
Dietary fructose; Metabolic syndrome; Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Medullary thyroid carcinoma occurs in both sporadic (75%) and hereditary (25%) forms. The missense mutations of RET proto-oncogene in MTC development have been well demonstrated. To investigate the spectrum of predominant RET germline mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 in hereditary MTC in Iranian population, 217 participants were included. Genomic DNAs were extracted from the leukocytes using the standard Salting Out/Proteinase K method. Mutation detection was performed through PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. In 217 participants, 43 missense mutations were identified in exons 10 (6%), 11 (13%), and 16 (0.9%). Moreover, a novel germline mutation was detected in exon 11 (S686N). Also four different polymorphisms were found in intron 16 in eight patients. The obtained data showed the frequency profile of RET mutations in Iranian individuals with MTC (19.8%). The most frequent mutation in our population was C634G whereas in most population it was C634R. Altogether, these results underline the importance of the genetic background of family members of any patient with MTC.
During the last decades, global migration has increased and many immigrant groups have a higher prevalence than the native born population of several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including poor dietary habits. However, it is uncertain if dietary habits in immigrant populations reflect dietary habits in their country of origin or if the current diet is a consequence of the migration and possible change of dietary habits. The aim of this study was to examine possible dietary differences between elderly Iranians living in Stockholm, Sweden with elderly Iranians living in Tehran, Iran, taking into account sex, age, marital status, and education.
Dietary intakes were assessed by semi - quantitative food frequency questionnaire in a cross-sectional study of 121 Iranians living in Stockholm and 52 Iranians living in Tehran, aged 60-80. Differences in dietary habits between the two groups was analysed by bootstrapped regression analyses with 1000 replications.
Iranians living in Sweden had significantly higher intake of protein, total fat, fiber than Iranians living in Iran, but lower consumption of carbohydrates. The observed differences in intake of macronutrients were reflected in consumed amount of all food items, which were higher among Iranians living in Iran with the exception of bread and grain consumption which was lower.
There are general differences in dietary habits between Iranians living in Iran and Iranians living in Sweden. Parts of observed differences in dietary habits may reflect a favourable adoption process to the Swedish dietary habits after migration. Meanwhile other differences are point of concern in light of the high prevalence of overweight, among Iranians living in Sweden and can have unfavourable impact in particular in the context of cardiovascular health.
Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has recently been developed based on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides (TGs), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We examined predictive performances for incident diabetes of the VAI per se and as compared to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR).
Participants free of diabetes at baseline with at least one follow-up examination (5,964) were included for the current study. Weibull regression models were developed for interval-censored survival data. Absolute and relative integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) and cut-point-based and cut-point-free net reclassification improvement index (NRI) were used as measures of predictive ability for incident diabetes added by VAI, as compared to the MetS and WHtR.
The annual incidence rate of diabetes was 0.85 per 1000 person. Mean VAI was 3.06 (95%CIs 2.99-3.13). Diabetes risk factors levels increased in stepwise fashion across VAI quintiles. Risk gradient between the highest and lowest quintile of VAI was 4.5 (95%CIs 3.0-6.9). VAI significantly improved predictive ability of the MetS. The relative IDI and cut-point free NRI for predictive ability added to MetS by VAI were 30.3% (95%CIs 18.8-41.8%) and 30.7% (95%CIs 20.8-40.7%), respectively. WHtR, outperformed VAI with cut-point-free NRI of 24.6% (95%CIs 14.1-35.2%).
In conclusion, although VAI could be a prognostic tool for incident diabetes events, gathering information on its components (WC, BMI, TGs, and HDL-C) is unlikely to improve the prediction ability beyond what could be achieved by the simply assessable and commonly available information on WHtR.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and body mass index (BMI, kg.m-2) are established independent risk factors in the development of diabetes; we prospectively examined their relative contributions and joint relationship with incident diabetes in a Middle Eastern cohort.
participants of the ongoing Tehran lipid and glucose study are followed on a triennial basis. Among non-diabetic participants aged≥ 20 years at baseline (8,121) those with at least one follow-up examination (5,250) were included for the current study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate sex-specific adjusted odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of baseline BMI-MetS categories (normal weight without MetS as reference group) for incident diabetes among 2186 men and 3064 women, aged ≥ 20 years, free of diabetes at baseline.
During follow up (median 6.5 years); there were 369 incident diabetes (147 in men). In women without MetS, the multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2) and obese (BMI≥30) participants were 2.3 (1.2-4.3) and 2.2 (1.0-4.7), respectively. The corresponding ORs for men without MetS were 1.6 (0.9-2.9) and 3.6 (1.5-8.4) respectively. As compared to the normal-weight/without MetS, normal-weight women and men with MetS, had a multivariate-adjusted ORs for incident diabetes of 8.8 (3.7-21.2) and 3.1 (1.3-7.0), respectively. The corresponding ORs for overweight and obese women with MetS reached to 7.7 (4.0-14.9) and 12.6 (6.9-23.2) and for men reached to 3.4(2.0-5.8) and 5.7(3.9-9.9), respectively.
This study highlights the importance of screening for MetS in normal weight individuals. Obesity increases diabetes risk in the absence of MetS, underscores the need for more stringent criteria to define healthy metabolic state among obese individuals. Weight reduction measures, thus, should be encouraged in conjunction with achieving metabolic targets not addressed by current definition of MetS, both in every day encounter and public health setting.
diabetes; prediction; metabolic syndrome; body mass index
Despite the heavy burden and impact of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in reproduction and public health, estimates regarding its prevalence at community levels are limited. We aimed to ascertain prevalence of PCOS in a community based sample using the National Institute of Health (NIH), the Rotterdam consensus (Rott.) and the Androgen Excess Society (AES) criteria.
Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method, 1126 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. PCOS were diagnosed using universal assessment of ultrasonographic parameters, hormonal profiles and clinical histories.
The mean +/- SD of age of study population was 34.4 +/- 7.6 years. Estimated prevalence of idiopathic hirsutism was 10.9% (95% CI: 8.9-12.9%); 8.3% of women had only oligo/anovulation and 8.0% had only polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS was 7.1% (95% CI: 5.4-8.8%) using the NIH definition, 11.7% (95% CI: 9.5-13.7%) by AES criteria and 14.6% (95% CI: 12.3-16.9%) using the Rott definition.
At community level, widespread screening of Rotterdam criteria will increase the estimated prevalence of PCOS over twofold. Establishing an explicit and contemporaneous method for definition and screening of each PCOS criteria has important investigational implications and increase the comparability of published research.