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author:("Abe, marino")
1.  The Prevalence of the Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis among Type 2 Diabetic Patients Is Greater in the Progressive Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease 
Nephron Extra  2013;3(1):66-72.
Background/Aims
The prevalence of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, other than diabetes mellitus, among type 2 diabetic patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) determined by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was investigated.
Methods
The prevalence of ten risk factors (age ≥65 years, history of smoking, male gender, obesity, albuminuria, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, hyperuricemia and anemia) was determined in 2,107 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with different stages of CKD (six stages according to GFR).
Results
The risk factors for age ≥65 years and male gender were found in 49 and 62% of the study subjects, respectively. The percentages of subjects with a current history of smoking, obesity, albuminuria, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, hyperuricemia and anemia were 35, 44, 47, 70, 61, 13, 21 and 26%, respectively. The prevalence of age ≥65 years, male gender, albuminuria, hypertension, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, hyperuricemia and anemia was greater in the later stages of GFR, whereas the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and obesity did not differ between stages. The prevalence of a current history of smoking was lower in the later stages of GFR. The cumulative number of risk factors increased from 3.1 to 6.8 in the later stages of GFR.
Conclusion
Among type 2 diabetic patients with CKD, the total number of risk factors increases with the progression of renal dysfunction. It is important to pay attention to newly recognized risk factors for hyperuricemia and anemia, in addition to hypertension, albuminuria and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, in monitoring diabetic patients with later stages of CKD.
doi:10.1159/000353592
PMCID: PMC3728600  PMID: 23904855
Chronic kidney disease; Hyperuricemia; Atherosclerosis; Anemia; Diabetic nephropathy
2.  Vildagliptin is Effective for Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Undergoing either Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis 
Diabetes Therapy  2013;4(2):321-329.
Introduction
Vildagliptin can be used in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal impairment. However, there have been few reports investigating the clinical effectiveness of vildagliptin in diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis. No previous studies have evaluated the use of vildagliptin in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The authors determined the usefulness of vildagliptin for treating type 2 diabetic patients receiving chronic dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis.
Methods
A retrospective study of ten diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and five diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis who were treated with 50 mg/day of vildagliptin was performed. Clinical parameters were investigated for a period of 6 months starting from the vildagliptin therapy.
Results
The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were significantly reduced after baseline in both the peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis groups, whereas the hemoglobin levels did not change during the follow-up period. The mean change in the HbA1c level (ΔHbA1c) was −0.6 ± 0.9% and −0.5 ± 0.7% among the patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis, respectively. The glycated albumin (GA) levels were also significantly reduced compared with baseline in the peritoneal dialysis group, although the serum albumin levels did not change. The mean change in the GA level (ΔGA) was −3.4 ± 3.1% and −2.1 ± 2.5% among the patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis, respectively. Stepwise multivariate analyses demonstrated the level of HbA1c at baseline to be significantly associated with the ΔHbA1c and that the level of GA at baseline was significantly associated with the ΔGA.
Conclusion
Vildagliptin exhibits effectiveness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. The degree of improvement in the HbA1c and GA levels was dependent on these levels at baseline, similar to the findings of previous reports of subjects without end-stage kidney disease.
doi:10.1007/s13300-013-0029-8
PMCID: PMC3889330  PMID: 23801219
Diabetes; End-stage kidney disease; Hemodialysis; Hemoglobin A1c; Glycated albumin; Peritoneal dialysis; Renal impairment; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Vildagliptin
3.  Hypertension resistant to antihypertensive agents commonly occurs with the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective observational study 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:48.
Background
We investigated 1) the frequency of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes graded by the new classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) reported by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) and 2) the number of antihypertensive agents needed to achieve treatment goals using a prospective observational study.
Methods
A population of 2018 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was recruited for the study. The CKD stage was classified according to the eGFR and the urinary albumin excretion levels.
Results
Hypertension was found in 1420 (70%) of the patients, and the proportion of subjects showing a blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg was 31% at the baseline. Although the mean blood pressure was approximately 130/75 mmHg, the rate of patients with a blood pressure of < 130/80 mmHg became limited to 41-50% during the observation period. The number of antihypertensive agents required for treatment was significantly higher at the endpoint (2.0 ± 1.3) than at the baseline (1.6 ± 1.2). Furthermore, it increased with the progression of the CKD stage at both the baseline and the endpoint of the observation. However, the frequency of subjects who did not achieve the blood pressure target was found to increase in the group demonstrating the later stage of CKD.
Conclusions
Hypertension resistant to antihypertensive agents was common in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased with the progression of CKD. Although powerful combination therapy using antihypertensive agents is considered necessary for the strict control of blood pressure, this became difficult in individuals who were in advanced stages as graded based on the eGFR and the urinary albumin excretion levels.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-48
PMCID: PMC3437202  PMID: 22738384
Hypertension; Antihypertensive agents; Chronic kidney disease; CKD stage; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; KDIGO
4.  Hyperuricemia Is Independently Associated with Coronary Heart Disease and Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27817.
Aims
To investigate the relationship between hyperuricemia (HUA) and the clinical backgrounds in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods
After a cross-sectional study evaluating the association of HUA with the clinical characteristics in 1,213 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the incidence of diabetic macroangiopathies was investigated in a prospective observational study in 1,073 patients during a 3.5 year period. HUA was defined by serum uric acid levels >327 μmol/L or as patients using allopurinol.
Results
The frequency of HUA was significantly higher in the diabetic patients (32% in men and 15% in women) than in the normal controls (14% in men and 1% in women). In total, HUA was found in 299 (25%) of the patients during the cross-sectional study. Even after adjusting for sex, drinking status, treatment for diabetes mellitus, body mass index, hypertension, use of diuretics, hyperlipidemia, HbA1c and/or the eGFR, the HUA was independently associated with some diabetic complications. The eGFR was significantly reduced in HUA patients compared to those with normouricemia in the 12 months after observation was started. HUA was also an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease even after adjustment in the Cox proportional hazard model.
Conclusions
HUA is a associated with diabetic micro- and macroangiopathies. HUA is a predictor of coronary heart disease and renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the influence of HUA is considered to be limited.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027817
PMCID: PMC3220675  PMID: 22125626
5.  Survivin Selectively Modulates Genes Deregulated in Human Leukemia Stem Cells 
Journal of Oncology  2010;2011:946936.
ITD-Flt3 mutations are detected in leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. While antagonizing Survivin normalizes ITD-Flt3-induced acute leukemia, it also impairs hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function, indicating that identification of differences in signaling pathways downstream of Survivin between LSC and HSC are crucial to develop selective Survivin-based therapeutic strategies for AML. Using a Survivin-deletion model, we identified 1,096 genes regulated by Survivin in ITD-Flt3-transformed c-kit+, Sca-1+, and lineageneg (KSL) cells, of which 137 are deregulated in human LSC. Of the 137, 124 genes were regulated by Survivin exclusively in ITD-Flt3+ KSL cells but not in normal CD34neg KSL cells. Survivin-regulated genes in LSC connect through a network associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway and falls into various functional categories independent of effects on apoptosis. Pathways downstream of Survivin in LSC that are distinct from HSC can be potentially targeted for selective anti-LSC therapy.
doi:10.1155/2011/946936
PMCID: PMC3021862  PMID: 21253548
6.  Long-term effect of metformin on blood glucose control in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Background
We aimed to investigate the long-term effect of metformin on the blood glucose control in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods
A retrospective study was performed in 213 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under the administration of metformin for more than one year. The clinical parameters were investigated for 3 years. The obese and non-obese individuals were defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 or over (n = 105) and a BMI of less than 25 kg/m2 (n = 108), respectively.
Results
HbA1c levels were significantly decreased compared with those at the baseline time. The course of HbA1c was similar between the non-obese and the obese groups, while the dose of metformin required to control blood glucose was significantly lower in the non-obese group than in the obese group. The reductions in HbA1c were 1.2% and 1.1% at 12 months, 0.9% and 0.9% at 24 months, and 0.8% and 1.0% at 36 months in the non-obese and obese groups, respectively. BMI did not change during the observation periods. Approximately half of all patients required no additional antidiabetic agents or a reduction in other treatments after the initiation of metformin in either of the two groups.
Conclusions
The present study demonstrated the long-term beneficial effect of metformin in non-obese (BMI < 25 kg/m2) diabetic patients. This effect appears to be maintained even after the observation period of this study, because metformin was limited to a relatively low dose in the non-obese group and the observed worsening in glycemic control over time can probably be attenuated by increasing the dose of metformin.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-83
PMCID: PMC2991324  PMID: 21070671

Results 1-6 (6)