To examine the association between work stress, according to the job strain model and the effort-reward imbalance model, and the risk of death from cardiovascular disease.
Prospective cohort study. Baseline examination in 1973 determined cases of cardiovascular disease, behavioural and biological risks, and stressful characteristics of work. Biological risks were measured at 5 year and 10 year follow up.
Staff of a company in the metal industry in Finland.
812 employees (545 men, 267 women) who were free from cardiovascular diseases at baseline.
Main outcome measure
Cardiovascular mortality 1973-2001 from the national mortality register.
Mean length of follow up was 25.6 years. After adjustment for age and sex, employees with high job strain, a combination of high demands at work and low job control, had a 2.2-fold (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.2) cardiovascular mortality risk compared with their colleagues with low job strain. The corresponding risk ratio for employees with effort-reward imbalance (low salary, lack of social approval, and few career opportunities relative to efforts required at work) was 2.4 (1.3 to 4.4). These ratios remained significant after additional adjustment for occupational group and biological and behavioural risks at baseline. High job strain was associated with increased serum total cholesterol at the 5 year follow up. Effort-reward imbalance predicted increased body mass index at the 10 year follow up.
High job strain and effort-reward imbalance seem to increase the risk of cardiovascular mortality. The evidence from industrial employees suggests that attention should be paid to the prevention of work stress.
What is already known on this topicJob strain (high demands and low job control) and effort-reward imbalance (high demands, low security, few career opportunities) elicit stress at workTheir status as risk factors for cardiovascular mortality has, however, remained uncertainWhat this study addsJob strain and effort-reward imbalance were each associated with a doubling of the risk of cardiovascular death among employees who were free from overt cardiovascular diseases at baselineJob strain and effort-reward imbalance also predicted adverse changes in biological factors such as cholesterol concentration and body mass index