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1.  Variation in percentage weight bearing with changes in standing posture during water immersion: implication for clinical practice 
The degree of weightlessness during water immersion is usually estimated through percentage weight bearing (PWB). However, variations in PWB in different standing postures have not been documented. The study was designed to investigate the PWB of apparently healthy individuals in four standing postures at the anterior superior iliac spine level of immersion.
One hundred and ninety-three consenting undergraduates were purposively enlisted in this study. Participants’ body weight (BW) was measured on land as well as in Erect Standing (ES), Grasp-Inclined-Prone-Standing (GIPS), Half-Grasp-Inclined-Towards-Side Standing (HGITSS) and Inclined-Standing with Head Support (ISHS) postures in hydro pool, using a specially designed water-proof weighing scale. PWB was calculated by dividing BW in water by BW on land and multiplying by 100. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and ANOVA at α = 0.05.
The mean age and BW (on land) of the participants were 22.4 years and 60.7 kg respectively. Participants’ PWB were significantly different (p < 0.05) across the four standing postures. PWB was highest in ES and lowest in ISHS; PWB in ES (52.3 ± 5.8) being significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that observed in the derived standing postures. Further, PWB in GIPS (43.3 ± 5.6) and ISHS (43.2 ± 7.3) were significantly lower than in HGITSS (47.4 ± 5.2) posture while PWB in GIPS and ISHS postures were not significantly different (p > 0.05).
Changes in standing posture have significant effect on PWB in hydro pool. The finding has implication for partial weight bearing exercises in hydro pool.
PMCID: PMC4236649  PMID: 25091034
Weight bearing; Hydro pool; Body weight; Standing posture
2.  Effects of aerobic exercise on selected physiological parameters and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise program on physiological parameters and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Patients attending a diabetes clinic participated in this randomized control trial. They were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group by ballot. The intervention group, in addition to regular conventional treatment, received individually prescribed aerobic exercise for 30 minutes, at 50%–75% of maximum heart rate three times weekly. Main outcome measures included fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and a World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF). Data analysis involved paired and unpaired t-tests and mixed-design two-way analysis of variance.
Eighteen patients with type 2 diabetes and of mean age 46.22 ± 9.79 years participated in the study. Mean duration since onset of diabetes in the intervention and control groups was 4.44 ± 3.33 years and 3.92 ± 2.66 years, respectively. Both groups were similar for duration since onset, baseline physiological parameters, and quality of life. Within-group comparison did not show any significant differences (P > 0.05) for HbA1c, fasting blood sugar, low-density lipoprotein, or high-density lipoprotein. The intervention group improved significantly (P < 0.05) in their postexercise quality of life compared with baseline. Between-group comparison did not show any significant differences in physiological parameters or quality of life.
Patients with type 2 diabetes improved in fasting blood sugar, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and quality of life following 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. These perceived improvements were not reflected by statistically significant differences in between-group comparison for any parameters.
PMCID: PMC3219758  PMID: 22114516
type 2 diabetes mellitus; aerobic exercise; physiological parameters; quality of life
3.  Nosocomial infections: knowledge and source of information among clinical health care students in Ghana 
This study determined and compared the knowledge of nosocomial infections among clinical health care students at the College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana.
Two hundred undergraduate health care students from four academic programs participated in the study. The study sample was drawn from each academic program by a simple random sampling technique using the class directory from each course. The Infection Control Standardized Questionnaire (ICSQ) was used to assess the knowledge of students about three main domains, ie, hand hygiene, nosocomial infections, and standard precautions. A maximum score of 50 was obtainable, and respondents with scores ≥70% were classified as having a satisfactory knowledge. The response on each item was coded numerically to generate data for statistical analysis. Comparison of knowledge on the domains among categories of students was assessed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, while associations between courses of study and knowledge about nosocomial infections were determined using the Chi-square test. All statistical tests had a significant level of 5% (P < 0.05)
Overall mean percentage score of the participants on ICSQ was 65.4 ± 2.58, with medical, physiotherapy, radiography, and nursing students recording mean percentage scores of 70.58 ± 0.62, 65.02 ± 2.00, 64.74 ± 1.19, and 61.31 ± 2.35, respectively. The main source of information about the prevention of nosocomial infections as cited by participants was their routine formal training in class. There was no significant association (P > 0.05) between course of study and knowledge of students about preventive measures for nosocomial infections.
The students sampled demonstrated moderate knowledge of nosocomial infections and this was acquired largely through formal classroom training. These findings underscore the need for more emphasis on education about this important source of infection in the clinical training curriculum.
PMCID: PMC3160866  PMID: 21887110
knowledge; prevention; nosocomial infections
4.  Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among Nigerian Physiotherapists 
Physiotherapists are known to be prone to Work- related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) but its prevalence among physiotherapists in Nigeria has not been reported. This study investigated the prevalence and work factors of WRMDs among physiotherapists in Nigeria.
A cross- sectional survey was administered to physiotherapists in different parts of Nigeria using a 2- part questionnaire with items adopted from questionnaires used for similar studies around the world. Two hundred and seventeen copies of the questionnaire were distributed for self administration but 126 physiotherapists returned completed surveys for a 58.1% response. The data were analyzed using SPPS version 10 at alpha level of 0.05. Descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages and inferential statistics of x2 were used as appropriate for data analysis.
Reported 12- month prevalence of WRMDs among Nigerian physiotherapists was 91.3%. Prevalence of WRMDs was significantly higher in female physiotherapists (p = 0.007) and those with lower body mass index (p = 0.045). The low back (69.8%) was the most commonly affected body part, followed by the neck (34.1%). Fifty percent of the physiotherapists first experienced their WRMDs within five years of graduation and the highest prevalence (61.7%) was found among physiotherapists younger than 30 years. Treating large number of patients in a day was cited by most (83.5%) of the respondents as the most important work factor for their WRMDs. The most commonly adopted coping strategy identified was for the therapists to modify their position and/or the patient's position (64.3%). Majority of the respondents (87.0%) did not leave the profession but 62.6% changed and/or modified their treatment because of their WRMDs.
The prevalence of WRMDs among physiotherapists in Nigeria is higher than most values reported for their counterparts around the world. The coping strategies and work factors of WRMDs among Nigerian physiotherapists are mostly similar to those of their counterparts elsewhere.
PMCID: PMC2535595  PMID: 18710570
5.  Test-retest reliability of IPAQ environmental- module in an African population 
There is overwhelming evidence of the benefits of physical activity and the physical environment is increasingly recognized as a promising determinant of physical activity participation. The influence of the environment on physical activity has not been evaluated among black Africans and no specific measure exists for assessing environmental factors related to physical activity in an African environment. The IPAQ E- module was designed to assess environmental factors for physical activity participation and was considered to be relevant to all countries regardless of the stage of economic development. The objective of this study was to assess the test- retest reliability of IPAQ E- module in an African population.
One hundred and three clinical students of a University in Nigeria were invited to participate in the reliability testing of IPAQ E- module. Sixteen of the 17- items on the environmental measure were assessed for test- retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% Confidence interval (CI) overall and by gender. The measure addressed items regarding residential density, access to destinations, neighborhood infrastructures, aesthetic qualities, social environment, street connectivity and neighborhood safety.
Of the total respondents, 51.5% were males and 48.5% were females. Overall, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.43 to 0.91. The item regarding many interesting things to look at (aesthetic) produced the overall highest reliability score (ICC = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86 – 0.94), while the item regarding safety from crime during the day (neighborhood safety) produced the lowest overall score (ICC = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26 – 0.57). Reliability of items on neighborhood infrastructures ranged between substantial agreement to almost perfect agreement overall (ICC = 0.66 – 0.88) and by gender (male- ICC = 0.68 – 0.90 and female- ICC = 0.63 – 0.86). The access to destination items (ICC = 0.49 – 0.74), social environment (ICC = 0.62) and street connectivity (ICC = 0.78) all had acceptable reliability overall. Meaningful differences were found between males and females on two items on neighborhood safety and one item on access to destinations.
The test- retest of IPAQ E- module resulted in moderate to almost perfect agreement for most of the items with few meaningful differences by gender. Environmental items of physical activity in an African population exhibited reliability similar to that in other environments. These results suggest that IPAQ E- module may be a useful measure for assessing environmental correlates of physical activity among population in Africa.
PMCID: PMC2531132  PMID: 18680599

Results 1-5 (5)