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2.  PLoS Medicine— A Medical Journal for the Internet Age 
PLoS Medicine  2004;1(1):e31.
A message from the founders of the Public Library of Science
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010031
PMCID: PMC523847
3.  DOK2 Inhibits EGFR-Mutated Lung Adenocarcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79526.
Somatic mutations in the EGFR proto-oncogene occur in ~15% of human lung adenocarcinomas and the importance of EGFR mutations for the initiation and maintenance of lung cancer is well established from mouse models and cancer therapy trials in human lung cancer patients. Recently, we identified DOK2 as a lung adenocarcinoma tumor suppressor gene. Here we show that genomic loss of DOK2 is associated with EGFR mutations in human lung adenocarcinoma, and we hypothesized that loss of DOK2 might therefore cooperate with EGFR mutations to promote lung tumorigenesis. We tested this hypothesis using genetically engineered mouse models and find that loss of Dok2 in the mouse accelerates lung tumorigenesis initiated by oncogenic EGFR, but not that initiated by mutated Kras. Moreover, we find that DOK2 participates in a negative feedback loop that opposes mutated EGFR; EGFR mutation leads to recruitment of DOK2 to EGFR and DOK2-mediated inhibition of downstream activation of RAS. These data identify DOK2 as a tumor suppressor in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079526
PMCID: PMC3821857  PMID: 24255704
5.  Cell-Specific Transduction of Prdm1-Expressing Lineages Mediated by a Receptor for Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup B▿ †  
Journal of Virology  2009;83(10):4835-4843.
The transcription factor Blimp-1 has emerged as a regulator of cell fate in embryonic (germ cell) and adult (B- and T-cell immune effector and epithelial) lineages. It has also been proposed to act as a tumor suppressor in B-cell malignancy. Here, we present a novel in vivo system enabling the targeted genetic manipulation of cells expressing Prdm1, the gene encoding Blimp-1. We created bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice expressing the avian leukosis virus (ALV) receptor TVB, fused to monomeric red fluorescent protein, under regulation by Prdm1 transcriptional elements, and we achieved transduction of TVB-expressing lymphocytes by ALV vectors bearing a subgroup B envelope. The system presented here incorporates a number of innovations. First, it is the first mammalian transgenic system that employs the ALV receptor TVB, thus expanding the flexibility and scope of ALV-mediated gene delivery. Second, it represents the first ALV-based system that allows gene transfer and expression into in vivo-activated mature lymphocytes, a cell type that has traditionally presented formidable challenges to efficient retroviral transduction. Third, Prdm1:TVB-mRFP transgenic animals could provide an invaluable tool for exploring the diverse roles of Blimp-1 in lineage commitment, immune regulation, and tumorigenesis.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02254-08
PMCID: PMC2682090  PMID: 19279099
6.  MYC-induced myeloid leukemogenesis is accelerated by all six members of the anti-apoptotic BCL family 
Oncogene  2009;28(9):1274-1279.
Signals that control the fine balance between cell death and cell survival are altered in cells during tumorigenesis. Understanding the mechanisms by which this balance is perturbed, leading to excessive cell survival, is important for designing effective therapies. Proteins belonging to the BCL family are known to regulate death responses to apoptotic signals, especially those originating within cells. A subset of BCL family members capable of inhibiting cell death is known to contribute to tumorigenesis; however, it is not known whether all six anti-apoptotic BCL family members play a causal role in tumor development. Using a mouse model of MYC-driven leukemia we demonstrate that, in addition to the well characterized BCL2 and BCLxl (BCL2L1), the other four family members- BCLw (BCL2L2), BCLb (BCL2L10), BFL1 (BCL2A1), and MCL1- also cooperate with MYC to accelerate leukemogenesis. In addition, high levels of each family member are found in either solid human tumors or cell lines derived from human leukemias or lymphomas.
doi:10.1038/onc.2008.466
PMCID: PMC2743088  PMID: 19137012
BCL2; BCLxl; BCLw; MCL1; BFL1; BCLb
7.  Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma 
Ding, Li | Getz, Gad | Wheeler, David A. | Mardis, Elaine R. | McLellan, Michael D. | Cibulskis, Kristian | Sougnez, Carrie | Greulich, Heidi | Muzny, Donna M. | Morgan, Margaret B. | Fulton, Lucinda | Fulton, Robert S. | Zhang, Qunyuan | Wendl, Michael C. | Lawrence, Michael S. | Larson, David E. | Chen, Ken | Dooling, David J. | Sabo, Aniko | Hawes, Alicia C. | Shen, Hua | Jhangiani, Shalini N. | Lewis, Lora R. | Hall, Otis | Zhu, Yiming | Mathew, Tittu | Ren, Yanru | Yao, Jiqiang | Scherer, Steven E. | Clerc, Kerstin | Metcalf, Ginger A. | Ng, Brian | Milosavljevic, Aleksandar | Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L. | Osborne, John R. | Meyer, Rick | Shi, Xiaoqi | Tang, Yuzhu | Koboldt, Daniel C. | Lin, Ling | Abbott, Rachel | Miner, Tracie L. | Pohl, Craig | Fewell, Ginger | Haipek, Carrie | Schmidt, Heather | Dunford-Shore, Brian H. | Kraja, Aldi | Crosby, Seth D. | Sawyer, Christopher S. | Vickery, Tammi | Sander, Sacha | Robinson, Jody | Winckler, Wendy | Baldwin, Jennifer | Chirieac, Lucian R. | Dutt, Amit | Fennell, Tim | Hanna, Megan | Johnson, Bruce E. | Onofrio, Robert C. | Thomas, Roman K. | Tonon, Giovanni | Weir, Barbara A. | Zhao, Xiaojun | Ziaugra, Liuda | Zody, Michael C. | Giordano, Thomas | Orringer, Mark B. | Roth, Jack A. | Spitz, Margaret R. | Wistuba, Ignacio I. | Ozenberger, Bradley | Good, Peter J. | Chang, Andrew C. | Beer, David G. | Watson, Mark A. | Ladanyi, Marc | Broderick, Stephen | Yoshizawa, Akihiko | Travis, William D. | Pao, William | Province, Michael A. | Weinstock, George M. | Varmus, Harold E. | Gabriel, Stacey B. | Lander, Eric S. | Gibbs, Richard A. | Meyerson, Matthew | Wilson, Richard K.
Nature  2008;455(7216):1069-1075.
Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers—including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM—and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment.
doi:10.1038/nature07423
PMCID: PMC2694412  PMID: 18948947
8.  Characterizing the cancer genome in lung adenocarcinoma 
Nature  2007;450(7171):893-898.
Somatic alterations in cellular DNA underlie almost all human cancers1. The prospect of targeted therapies2 and the development of high-resolution, genome-wide approaches3–8 are now spurring systematic efforts to characterize cancer genomes. Here we report a large-scale project to characterize copy-number alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. By analysis of a large collection of tumors (n = 371) using dense single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, we identify a total of 57 significantly recurrent events. We find that 26 of 39 autosomal chromosome arms show consistent large-scale copy-number gain or loss, of which only a handful have been linked to a specific gene. We also identify 31 recurrent focal events, including 24 amplifications and 7 homozygous deletions. Only six of these focal events are currently associated with known mutations in lung carcinomas. The most common event, amplification of chromosome 14q13.3, is found in ~12% of samples. On the basis of genomic and functional analyses, we identify NKX2-1 (NK2 homeobox 1, also called TITF1), which lies in the minimal 14q13.3 amplification interval and encodes a lineage-specific transcription factor, as a novel candidate proto-oncogene involved in a significant fraction of lung adenocarcinomas. More generally, our results indicate that many of the genes that are involved in lung adenocarcinoma remain to be discovered.
doi:10.1038/nature06358
PMCID: PMC2538683  PMID: 17982442
9.  The Classic: Integration of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Specific for Rous Sarcoma Virus after Infection of Permissive and Nonpermissive Hosts 
A relatively simple but stringent technique was developed to detect the integration of virus-specific DNA into the genomes of higher organisms. In both permissive (duck) and nonpermissive (mammalian) cells which normally contain no nucleotide sequences specific for Rous sarcoma virus, transformation by the virus results in the appearance of DNA specific for Rous sarcoma virus covalently integrated into strands of host-cell DNA containing reiterated sequences. Early after infection of mouse or duck cells by Rous sarcoma virus, unintegrated DNA specific for the virus can be demonstrated.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0355-8
PMCID: PMC2493013  PMID: 18597148
10.  Induction of ovarian cancer by defined multiple genetic changes in a mouse model system 
Cancer cell  2002;1(1):53-62.
Summary
We have developed a mouse model for ovarian carcinoma by using an avian retroviral gene delivery technique for the introduction of multiple genes into somatic ovarian cells of adult mice. Ovarian cells from transgenic mice engineered to express the gene encoding the avian receptor TVA were efficiently infected in vitro with multiple vectors carrying coding sequences for oncogenes and marker genes. When target cells were derived from TVA transgenic mice deficient for p53, the addition of any two of the oncogenes c-myc, K-ras, and Akt were sufficient to induce ovarian tumor formation when infected cells were injected at subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, or ovarian sites. We demonstrated that the ovarian surface epithelium is the precursor tissue for these ovarian carcinomas, and that introduction of oncogenes causes phenotypic changes in the ovarian surface epithelial cells. The induced ovarian tumors in mice resembled human ovarian carcinomas in their rapid progression and intraperitoneal metastatic spread.
PMCID: PMC2267863  PMID: 12086888
11.  Changes in gene expression during the development of mammary tumors in MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mice 
Genome Biology  2005;6(10):R84.
cDNA microarray-derived expression profiles of MMTV-Wnt-1 and MMTV-Neu transgenic mice reveal several hundred genes to be differentially expressed at each stage of breast tumor development.
Background
In human breast cancer normal mammary cells typically develop into hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive cancer, and metastasis. The changes in gene expression associated with this stepwise progression are unclear. Mice transgenic for mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Wnt-1 exhibit discrete steps of mammary tumorigenesis, including hyperplasia, invasive ductal carcinoma, and distant metastasis. These mice might therefore be useful models for discovering changes in gene expression during cancer development.
Results
We used cDNA microarrays to determine the expression profiles of five normal mammary glands, seven hyperplastic mammary glands and 23 mammary tumors from MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mice, and 12 mammary tumors from MMTV-Neu transgenic mice. Adipose tissues were used to control for fat cells in the vicinity of the mammary glands. In these analyses, we found that the progression of normal virgin mammary glands to hyperplastic tissues and to mammary tumors is accompanied by differences in the expression of several hundred genes at each step. Some of these differences appear to be unique to the effects of Wnt signaling; others seem to be common to tumors induced by both Neu and Wnt-1 oncogenes.
Conclusion
We described gene-expression patterns associated with breast-cancer development in mice, and identified genes that may be significant targets for oncogenic events. The expression data developed provide a resource for illuminating the molecular mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, especially through the identification of genes that are critical in cancer initiation and progression.
doi:10.1186/gb-2005-6-10-r84
PMCID: PMC1257467  PMID: 16207355
12.  The Absence of p53 Promotes Metastasis in a Novel Somatic Mouse Model for Hepatocellular Carcinoma†  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2005;25(4):1228-1237.
We have generated a mouse model for hepatocellular carcinoma using somatic delivery of oncogene-bearing avian retroviral vectors to the liver cells of mice expressing the viral receptor TVA under the control of the albumin gene promoter (Alb-TVA mice). Viruses encoding mouse polyoma virus middle T antigen (PyMT) induced tumors, which can be visualized with magnetic resonance imaging, in 65% of TVA-positive animals. While these tumors can exceed 10 mm in diameter, they do not invade locally or metastasize to the lungs. Delivery of PyMT-expressing viruses to Alb-TVA mice lacking an intact p53 gene does not increase tumor incidence. However, the resulting tumors are poorly differentiated, invasive, and metastatic to the lungs. Gene expression microarrays identified over 100 genes that are differentially expressed between tumors found in p53 wild-type and p53 null mice. Some of these genes, such as cathepsin E and Igf2, have been previously implicated in tumor cell migration and invasion. Tumors induced in p53 null, TVA transgenic mice by PyMT mutants with changes in specific tyrosine residues fail to form metastases, indicating that metastasis is dependent on both the oncogene and the absence of p53.
doi:10.1128/MCB.25.4.1228-1237.2005
PMCID: PMC548003  PMID: 15684377
13.  KRAS Mutations and Primary Resistance of Lung Adenocarcinomas to Gefitinib or Erlotinib 
PLoS Medicine  2005;2(1):e17.
Background
Somatic mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are found in adenocarcinomas of the lung and are associated with sensitivity to the kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva). Lung adenocarcinomas also harbor activating mutations in the downstream GTPase, KRAS, and mutations in EGFR and KRAS appear to be mutually exclusive.
Methods and Findings
We sought to determine whether mutations in KRAS could be used to further enhance prediction of response to gefitinib or erlotinib. We screened 60 lung adenocarcinomas defined as sensitive or refractory to gefitinib or erlotinib for mutations in EGFR and KRAS. We show that mutations in KRAS are associated with a lack of sensitivity to either drug.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that treatment decisions regarding use of these kinase inhibitors might be improved by determining the mutational status of both EGFR and KRAS.
Mutational analysis of the KRAS gene in lung cancer patients treated with two different kinase inhibitors suggests that tumors with KRAS mutations do not respond to these drugs
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020017
PMCID: PMC545207  PMID: 15696205
14.  Evolution of somatic mutations in mammary tumors in transgenic mice is influenced by the inherited genotype 
BMC Medicine  2004;2:24.
Background
MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice develop mammary hyperplasia early in development, followed by the appearance of solitary mammary tumors with a high proportion of cells expressing early lineage markers and many myoepithelial cells. The occurrence of tumors is accelerated in experiments that activate FGF proto-oncogenes or remove the tumor suppressor genes Pten or P53, implying that secondary oncogenic events are required for progression from mammary hyperplasia to carcinoma. It is not known, however, which oncogenic pathways contribute to Wnt1-induced tumorigenesis – further experimental manipulation of these mice is needed. Secondary events also appear to be required for mammary tumorigenesis in MMTV-Neu transgenic mice because the transgene in the tumors usually contains an acquired mutation that activates the Neu protein-tyrosine kinase.
Methods
cDNA or DNA from the mammary glands and mammary tumors from MMTV-Wnt1, MMTV-Wnt1/p53-/-, MMTV-Neu transgenic mice, and newly generated MMTV-Wnt1/MMTV-Neu bitransgenic mice, was sequenced to seek activating mutations in H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras genes, or in the MMTV-Neu transgene. In addition, tumors from bitransgenic animals were examined to determine the cellular phenotype.
Results
We found activating mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 of H-Ras in just over half of the mammary tumors in MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice, and we confirmed the high frequency of activating mutations of Neu in tumors in MMTV-Neu transgenic mice. Tumors appeared earlier in bitransgenic MMTV-Wnt1/MMTV-Neu mice, but no Ras or MMTV-Neu mutations were found in these tumors, which were phenotypically similar to those arising in MMTV-Wnt1 mice. In addition, no Ras mutations were found in the mammary tumors that arise in MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice lacking an intact P53 gene.
Conclusions
Tumorigenic properties of cells undergoing functionally significant secondary mutations in H-Ras or the MMTV-Neu transgene allow selection of those cells in MMTV-Wnt1 and MMTV-Neu transgenic mice, respectively. Alternative sources of oncogenic potential, such as a second transgenic oncogene or deficiency of a tumor suppressor gene, can obviate the selective power of those secondary mutations. These observations are consistent with the notion that somatic evolution of mouse mammary tumors is influenced by the specific nature of the inherited cancer-promoting genotype.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-2-24
PMCID: PMC446228  PMID: 15198801
15.  Development of an Avian Leukosis-Sarcoma Virus Subgroup A Pseudotyped Lentiviral Vector 
Journal of Virology  2001;75(19):9339-9344.
We are using avian leukosis-sarcoma virus (ALSV) vectors to generate mouse tumor models in transgenic mice expressing TVA, the receptor for subgroup A ALSV. Like other classical retroviruses, ALSV requires cell division to establish a provirus after infection of host cells. In contrast, lentiviral vectors are capable of integrating their viral DNA into the genomes of nondividing cells. With the intention of initiating tumorigenesis in resting, TVA-positive cells, we have developed a system for the preparation of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based lentiviral vector, pseudotyped with the envelope protein of ALSV subgroup A (EnvA). The HIV(ALSV-A) vector retains the requirement for TVA on the surface of target cells and can be produced at titers of 5 × 103 infectious units (IU)/ml. By inserting the central polypurine tract (cPPT) from the HIV-1 pol gene and removing the cytoplasmic tail of EnvA, the pseudotype can be produced at titers approaching 105 IU/ml and can be concentrated by ultracentrifugation to titers of 107 IU/ml. HIV(ALSV-A) also infects embryonic fibroblasts derived from transgenic mice in which TVA expression is driven by the β-actin promoter. In addition, this lentivirus pseudotype efficiently infects these fibroblasts after cell cycle arrest, when they are resistant to infection by ALSV vectors. This system may be useful for introducing genes into somatic cells in adult TVA transgenic animals and allows evaluation of the effects of altered gene expression in differentiated cell types in vivo.
doi:10.1128/JVI.75.19.9339-9344.2001
PMCID: PMC114502  PMID: 11533197
16.  Requirements for activation and RAFT localization of the T-lymphocyte kinase Rlk/Txk 
BMC Immunology  2001;2:3.
Background
The Tec family kinases are implicated in signaling from lymphocyte antigen receptors and are activated following phosphorylation by Src kinases. For most Tec kinases, this activation requires an interaction between their pleckstrin homology (PH) domains and the products of phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, which localizes Tec kinases to membrane RAFTs. Rlk/Txk is a Tec related kinase expressed in T cells that lacks a pleckstrin homology domain, having instead a palmitoylated cysteine-string motif. To evaluate Rlk's function in T cell receptor signaling cascades, we examined the requirements for Rlk localization and activation by Src family kinases.
Results
We demonstrate that Rlk is also associated with RAFTs, despite its lack of a pleckstrin homology domain. Rlk RAFT association requires the cysteine-string motif and is independent of PI3 Kinase activity. We further demonstrate that Rlk can be phosphorylated and activated by Src kinases, leading to a decrease in its half-life. A specific tyrosine in the activation loop of Rlk, Y420, is required for phosphorylation and activation, as well as for decreased stability, but is not required for lipid RAFT association. Mutation of this tyrosine also prevents increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Rlk after stimulation of the T cell receptor, suggesting that Rlk is phosphorylated by Src family kinases in response to T cell receptor engagement.
Conclusions
Like the other related Tec kinases, Rlk is associated with lipid RAFTs and can be phosphorylated and activated by Src family kinases, supporting a role for Rlk in signaling downstream of Src kinases in T cell activation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-2-3
PMCID: PMC31577  PMID: 11353545
17.  Deficiency of Pten accelerates mammary oncogenesis in MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mice 
Background
Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor PTEN predispose human beings to breast cancer, and genetic and epigenetic alterations of PTEN are also detected in sporadic human breast cancer. Germline Pten mutations in mice lead to the development of a variety of tumors, but mammary carcinomas are infrequently found, especially in mice under the age of six months.
Results
To better understand the role of PTEN in breast tumor development, we have crossed Pten heterozygous mice to MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mice that routinely develop ductal carcinomas in the mammary gland. Female Wnt-1 transgenics heterozygous for Pten developed mammary tumors earlier than Wnt-1 transgenics that were wild type for Pten. In most tumors arising in Pten heterozygotes, the Pten wild-type allele was lost, suggesting that cells lacking Pten function have a growth advantage over cells retaining a wild type allele. Tumors with LOH contained high levels of activated AKT/PKB, a downstream target of the PTEN/PI3K pathway.
Conclusions
An animal model has been developed in which the absence of Pten collaborates with Wnt-1 to induce ductal carcinoma in the mammary gland. This animal model may be useful for testing therapies specific for tumors deregulated in the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-2-2
PMCID: PMC29091  PMID: 11178110
18.  rlk/TXK Encodes Two Forms of a Novel Cysteine String Tyrosine Kinase Activated by Src Family Kinases 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1999;19(2):1498-1507.
Rlk/Txk is a member of the BTK/Tec family of tyrosine kinases and is primarily expressed in T lymphocytes. Unlike other members of this kinase family, Rlk lacks a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain near the amino terminus and instead contains a distinctive cysteine string motif. We demonstrate here that Rlk protein consists of two isoforms that arise by alternative initiation of translation from the same cDNA. The shorter, internally initiated protein species lacks the cysteine string motif and is located in the nucleus when expressed in the absence of the larger form. In contrast, the larger form is cytoplasmic. We show that the larger form is palmitoylated and that mutation of its cysteine string motif both abolishes palmitoylation and allows the protein to migrate to the nucleus. The cysteine string, therefore, is a critical determinant of both fatty acid modification and protein localization for the larger isoform of Rlk, suggesting that Rlk regulation is distinct from the other Btk family kinases. We further show that Rlk is phosphorylated and changes localization in response to T-cell-receptor (TCR) activation and, like the other Btk family kinases, can be phosphorylated and activated by Src family kinases. However, unlike the other Btk family members, Rlk is activated independently of the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, consistent with its lack of a PH domain. Thus, Rlk has two distinct isoforms, each of which may have unique properties in signaling downstream from the TCR.
PMCID: PMC116078  PMID: 9891083
19.  Genetic Mapping of the Cloned Subgroup A Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Virus Receptor Gene to the TVA Locus 
Journal of Virology  1998;72(3):2505-2508.
A chicken gene conferring susceptibility to subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses (ASLV-A) was recently identified by a gene transfer strategy. Classical genetic approaches had previously identified a locus, TVA, that controls susceptibility to ASLV-A. Using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) mapping in inbred susceptible (TVA*S) and resistant (TVA*R) chicken lines, we demonstrate that in 93 F2 progeny an RFLP for the cloned receptor gene segregates with TVA. From these analyses we calculate that the cloned receptor gene lies within 5 centimorgans of TVA, making it highly probable that the cloned gene is the previously identified locus TVA. The polymorphism that distinguishes the two alleles of TVA in these inbred lines affects the encoded amino acid sequence of the region of Tva that encompasses the viral binding domain. However, analysis of the genomic sequence encoding this region of Tva in randomly bred chickens suggests that the altered virus binding domain is not the basis for genetic resistance in the chicken lines analyzed.
PMCID: PMC109553  PMID: 9499114
20.  Proposal for Naming Host Cell-Derived Inserts in Retrovirus Genomes † 
Journal of Virology  1981;40(3):953-957.
We propose a system for naming inserted sequences in transforming retroviruses (i.e., onc genes), based on using trivial names derived from a prototype strain of virus.
PMCID: PMC256709  PMID: 7321107
21.  Dexamethasone Induction of the Intracellular RNAs of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus 
Journal of Virology  1981;40(3):673-682.
We have studied the kinetics of dexamethasone induction of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) RNAs and proteins in virus-infected rat XC cells and GR mouse mammary tumor cells. A detectable increase in viral RNA in infected XC cells was present within 10 min after hormone addition, and half-maximal induction was achieved in less than 2 h. The increase in viral RNA concentration was apparent first in nuclear RNA and later in the cytoplasm. Within the first 15 min of induction, only genome-sized RNA (35S, 7.8 kilobases) was present in augmented amounts, whereas the major subgenomic RNA (24S, 3.8 kilobases) did not appear until at least 30 to 60 min postinduction. The sequential appearance of these RNAs, the probable mRNA's for the gag and env proteins, paralleled the order of appearance of the gag and env proteins, respectively, after hormone treatment. An additional species of viral RNA (20S, 2.5 kilobases) was detected during these induction experiments, but the role of this RNA is not known. Both subgenomic RNAs contain sequences derived from both the 5′ and 3′ termini of genomic RNA and are presumably spliced. After dexamethasone induction of infected XC cells, we detected two smaller env-related proteins which were not found in full hormone induction. The functional role of these smaller proteins is not known. A previously reported smaller species of RNA (13S, 1.0 kilobase) did not appear to be induced and was shown to be cellular rather than viral in origin. In the fully induced infected XC and GR mammary tumor cells, the only viral RNAs present were the 35S and 24S RNAs. In addition, mammary tumors contained only these two viral RNAs. Thus, tumor cells appear to contain only the viral RNAs which direct the synthesis of the gag, pol, and env proteins of the virion.
Images
PMCID: PMC256679  PMID: 6275112
22.  env Gene of Chicken RNA Tumor Viruses: Extent of Conservation in Cellular and Viral Genomes 
Journal of Virology  1978;27(3):465-474.
The env gene of avian sarcoma-leukosis viruses codes for envelope glycoproteins that determine viral host range, antigenic specificity, and interference patterns. We used molecular hybridization to analyze the natural distribution and possible origins of the nucleotide sequences that encode env; our work exploited the availability of radioactive DNA (cDNAgp) complementary to most or all of env. env sequences were detectable in the DNAs of chickens which synthesized an env gene product (chick helper factor positive) encoded by an endogenous viral gene and also in the DNAs of chickens which synthesized little or no env gene product (chick helper factor negative). env sequences were not detectable in DNAs from Japanese quail, ring-necked pheasant, golden pheasant, duck, squab, salmon sperm, or calf thymus. The detection of sequences closely related to viral env only in chicken DNA contrasts sharply with the demonstration that the transforming gene (src) of avian sarcoma viruses has readily detectable homologues in the DNAs of all avian species tested [D. Stehelin, H. E. Varmus, J. M. Bishop, and P. K. Vogt, Nature (London) 260: 170-173, 1976] and in the DNAs of other vertebrates (D. Spector, personal communication). Thermal denaturation studies on duplexes formed between cDNAgp and chicken DNA and also between cDNAgp and RNAs of subgroup A to E viruses derived from chickens indicated that these duplexes were well matched. In contrast, cDNAgp did not form stable hybrids with RNAs of viruses which were isolated from ring-necked and golden pheasants. We conclude that substantial portions of nucleotide sequences within the env genes of viruses of subgroups A to E are closely related and that these genes probably have a common, perhaps cellular, evolutionary origin.
PMCID: PMC525833  PMID: 212576
23.  Use of DNA-DNA Annealing to Detect New Virus-Specific DNA Sequences in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts After Infection by Avian Sarcoma Virus 
Journal of Virology  1974;14(4):895-903.
Labeled, virus-specific DNA synthesized in vitro by the virion-associated polymerase of avian sarcoma virus (ASV) was used to measure virus-specific sequences in cell DNA in three ways: (i) by determining the effect of cell DNA upon the reassociation rate of double-stranded polymerase products; (ii) by measuring the kinetics of annealing of single-stranded polymerase product (cDNA) to cell DNA; or (iii) by measuring the amount of cDNA which anneals to a large excess of cell DNA. With these three assays and modifications of them, we show that fewer than five copies of ASV-specific DNA sequences are present per diploid cell in uninfected chicken embryos; that a two- to several-fold increase in copy number of viral DNA follows infection by ASV; that infection introduces to the cell viral sequences not present before infection; and that DNAs from uninfected Pekin duck and Japanese quail embryos show no homology with DNA synthesized by the ASV polymerase. Some of these results differ from data in a previous report from this laboratory (H. E. Varmus, R. A. Weiss, R. R. Friis, W. Levinson, and J. M. Bishop, 1972) and, in general, reconcile our observations with those from other laboratories.
PMCID: PMC355596  PMID: 4138674
24.  Why PLoS Became a Publisher 
PLoS Biology  2003;1(1):e36.
Public Library of Science has grown from a grassroots movement to a nonprofit publisher, in order to catalyze change towards open-access publishing of the scientific literature
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0000036
PMCID: PMC212706  PMID: 14551926
25.  Membrane-anchored Plakoglobins Have Multiple Mechanisms of Action in Wnt Signaling 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1999;10(10):3151-3169.
In Wnt signaling, β-catenin and plakoglobin transduce signals to the nucleus through interactions with TCF-type transcription factors. However, when plakoglobin is artificially engineered to restrict it to the cytoplasm by fusion with the transmembrane domain of connexin (cnxPg), it efficiently induces a Wnt-like axis duplication phenotype in Xenopus. In Xenopus embryos, maternal XTCF3 normally represses ventral expression of the dorsalizing gene Siamois. Two models have been proposed to explain the Wnt-like activity of cnxPg: 1) that cnxPg inhibits the machinery involved in the turnover of cytosolic β-catenin, which then accumulates and inhibits maternal XTCF3, and 2) that cnxPg directly acts to inhibit XTCF3 activity. To distinguish between these models, we created a series of N-terminal deletion mutations of cnxPg and examined their ability to induce an ectopic axis in Xenopus, activate a TCF-responsive reporter (OT), stabilize β-catenin, and colocalize with components of the Wnt signaling pathway. cnxPg does not colocalize with the Wnt pathway component Dishevelled, but it does lead to the redistribution of APC and Axin, two proteins involved in the regulation of β-catenin turnover. Expression of cnxPg increases levels of cytosolic β-catenin; however, this effect does not completely explain its signaling activity. Although cnxPg and Wnt-1 stabilize β-catenin to similar extents, cnxPg activates OT to 10- to 20-fold higher levels than Wnt-1. Moreover, although LEF1 and TCF4 synergize with β-catenin and plakoglobin to activate OT, both suppress the signaling activity of cnxPg. In contrast, XTCF3 suppresses the signaling activity of both β-catenin and cnxPg. Both exogenous XLEF1 and XTCF3 are sequestered in the cytoplasm of Xenopus cells by cnxPg. Based on these data, we conclude that, in addition to its effects on β-catenin, cnxPg interacts with other components of the Wnt pathway, perhaps TCFs, and that these interactions contribute to its signaling activity.
PMCID: PMC25571  PMID: 10512857

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