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1.  The Effect of Vasopressin on Ciliary Blood Flow and Aqueous Flow 
Previous experiments have shown that arginine-vasopressin (AVP) reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) dose-dependently. The present study investigated the relationships between IOP, ciliary blood flow (CilBF), and aqueous flow (AqF) responses to AVP in anesthetized rabbits.
CilBF was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and AqF by fluorophotometry. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and IOP were monitored continuously and simultaneously. Perfusion pressure (PP) was varied mechanically. Four experimental protocols were performed: the dose-response (n = 11) and the pressure-flow relationship (n = 8) for CilBF and the effects on CilBF, and AqF at low (0.08 ng/kg/min; n = 14) and high AVP infusion rates (1.33 ng/kg/min; n = 12).
AVP decreased CilBF and IOP dose-dependently. At the low AVP infusion rate, AqF was reduced by 21.48% ± 2.52% without changing CilBF significantly. The high AVP infusion rate caused a 24.49% ± 3.53% decrease of AqF and a significant reduction in CilBF (35.60% ± 3.58%). IOP was reduced by 9.56% ± 2.35% at low and by 41.02% ± 3.19% at high AVP infusion rates. Based on the Goldmann equation, the decrease of AqF at the low AVP infusion rate accounted for 77.1% of the IOP reduction, whereas at the high AVP infusion rate, decreased AqF accounted for 28.4% of the IOP decline.
The results indicate that AVP can modulate IOP by different dose-dependent physiological mechanisms. The shifts of the CilBF-AqF relationship suggest that the reduction of AqF by the low AVP infusion rate is mainly provoked by inhibiting secretory processes in the ciliary epithelium. In contrast, at the high AVP infusion rate, the AqF reduction is caused by either reduced CilBF or more likely by a combined effect of reduced CilBF and secretory inhibition.
The dose-dependent effect of vasopressin on ciliary blood flow and aqueous flow, including the contribution of indirect vascular effects and direct secretory mechanisms on the ciliary epithelium, in aqueous flow modulation is investigated.
PMCID: PMC3900272  PMID: 24327617
vasopressin; ciliary blood flow; aqueous flow; aqueous humor production
2.  PIM-1 kinase interacts with the DNA binding domain of the vitamin D receptor: a further kinase implicated in 1,25-(OH)2D3 signaling 
BMC Molecular Biology  2012;13:18.
The vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) is responsible for mediating the pleiotropic and, in part, cell-type-specific effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) on the cardiovascular and the muscle system, on the bone development and maintenance, mineral homeostasis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, vitamin D metabolism, and immune response modulation.
Based on data obtained from genome-wide yeast two-hybrid screenings, domain mapping studies, intracellular co-localization approaches as well as reporter transcription assay measurements, we show here that the C-terminus of human PIM-1 kinase isoform2 (amino acid residues 135–313), a serine/threonine kinase of the calcium/calmodulin-regulated kinase family, directly interacts with VDR through the receptor’s DNA-binding domain. We further demonstrate that PIM-1 modulates calcitriol signaling in HaCaT keratinocytes by enhancing both endogenous calcitriol response gene transcription (osteopontin) and an extrachromosomal DR3 reporter response.
These results, taken together with previous reports of involvement of kinase pathways in VDR transactivation, underscore the biological relevance of this novel protein-protein interaction.
PMCID: PMC3404970  PMID: 22720752
Coactivator; PIM-1 kinase; Protein-Protein interaction; Serine/Threonine kinase; Vitamin D; Vitamin D receptor
3.  The Effect of Vasopressin on Choroidal Blood Flow, Intraocular Pressure, and Orbital Venous Pressure in Rabbits 
Choroidal blood flow is influenced by vasoactive substances of local and systemic origin. Vasopressin is a potent choroidal blood flow modulator and is involved in homeostatic regulation of choroidal hemodynamics and ocular hydrodynamics.
To investigate the effects of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) on intraocular pressure (IOP), orbital venous pressure (OVP), and choroidal blood flow (ChorBF) regulation in anesthetized rabbits.
Mean arterial pressure (MAP), IOP, and OVP were measured by direct cannulation of the central ear artery, the vitreous, and the orbital venous sinus, respectively. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to record ChorBF. To change the perfusion pressure (PP), MAP was manipulated mechanically with occluders around the aorta and vena cava. In the first group of animals (n = 11) the dose-response relationship was measured. In the second group of animals (n = 8) pressure-flow relationships were determined at baseline and in response to intravenous application of a low (0.08 ng/kg/min) and a high (1.33 ng/kg/min) infusion rate of AVP.
AVP caused a dose-dependent increase of MAP and choroidal vascular resistance (ChorR), whereas IOP, OVP, ChorBF, and heart rate (HR) were decreased. In contrast to the high infusion rate, the low infusion rate of AVP had no effect on baseline ChorBF. However, the pressure-flow relationship was shifted downward significantly by both infusion rates at PP below baseline.
AVP reduces IOP and OVP significantly and is a potent vasoconstrictor in the choroidal vascular bed. In the choroid, the effect of AVP is not only dose-dependent, but also PP-dependent, which is indicated by the reduced perfusion relative to control with low-dosed AVP at low PP.
PMCID: PMC3207716  PMID: 21791588
4.  miR-17, miR-19b, miR-20a, and miR-106a are down-regulated in human aging 
Aging Cell  2010;9(2):291-296.
Aging is a multifactorial process where deterioration of body functions is driven by stochastic damage while counteracted by distinct genetically encoded repair systems. To better understand the genetic component of aging, many studies have addressed the gene and protein expression profiles of various aging model systems engaging different organisms from yeast to human. The recently identified small non-coding miRNAs are potent post-transcriptional regulators that can modify the expression of up to several hundred target genes per single miRNA, similar to transcription factors. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs contribute to the regulation of most if not all important physiological processes, including aging. However, so far the contribution of miRNAs to age-related and senescence-related changes in gene expression remains elusive. To address this question, we have selected four replicative cell aging models including endothelial cells, replicated CD8+ T cells, renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, and skin fibroblasts. Further included were three organismal aging models including foreskin, mesenchymal stem cells, and CD8+ T cell populations from old and young donors. Using locked nucleic acid-based miRNA microarrays, we identified four commonly regulated miRNAs, miR-17 down-regulated in all seven; miR-19b and miR-20a, down-regulated in six models; and miR-106a down-regulated in five models. Decrease in these miRNAs correlated with increased transcript levels of some established target genes, especially the cdk inhibitor p21/CDKN1A. These results establish miRNAs as novel markers of cell aging in humans.
PMCID: PMC2848978  PMID: 20089119
aging; miR-106a; miR-17; miR-17-92 cluster; miR-19b; miR-20a; miRNA microarray; p21 (CDKN1A); senescence

Results 1-4 (4)