This paper proposes entitymetrics to measure the impact of knowledge units. Entitymetrics highlight the importance of entities embedded in scientific literature for further knowledge discovery. In this paper, we use Metformin, a drug for diabetes, as an example to form an entity-entity citation network based on literature related to Metformin. We then calculate the network features and compare the centrality ranks of biological entities with results from Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). The comparison demonstrates the usefulness of entitymetrics to detect most of the outstanding interactions manually curated in CTD.
Turner syndrome is well known to be associated with significant cardiovascular abnormalities. This paper studied the incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in asymptomatic adolescent patients with Turner syndrome using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) instead of echocardiography. Twenty subjects diagnosed with Turner syndrome who had no cardiac symptoms were included. Blood pressure and electrocardiography (ECG) was checked. Cardiovascular abnormalities were checked by MDCT. According to the ECG results, 11 had a prolonged QTc interval, 5 had a posterior fascicular block, 3 had a ventricular conduction disorder. MDCT revealed vascular abnormalities in 13 patients (65%). Three patients had an aberrant right subclavian artery, 2 had dilatation of left subclavian artery, and others had an aortic root dilatation, aortic diverticulum, and abnormal left vertebral artery. As for venous abnormalities, 3 patients had partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and 2 had a persistent left superior vena cava. This study found cardiovascular abnormalities in 65% of asymptomatic Turner syndrome patients using MDCT. Even though, there are no cardiac symptoms in Turner syndrome patients, a complete evaluation of the heart with echocardiography or MDCT at transition period to adults must be performed.
Turner Syndrome; Adolescent; Cardiovascular Malformation; Multidetector Computed Tomography
The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effects of ionizing radiation on endothelial cells derived from diverse normal tissues. We first compared the effects of radiation on clonogenic survival and tube formation of endothelial cells, and then investigated the molecular signaling pathways involved in endothelial cell survival and angiogenesis. Among the different endothelial cells studied, human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HHSECs) were the most radio-resistant and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were the most radio-sensitive. The radio-resistance of HHSECs was related to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated expression of MMP-2 and VEGFR-2, whereas the increased radio-sensitivity of HDMECs was related to extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated generation of angiostatin. These observations demonstrate that there are distinct differences in the radiation responses of normal endothelial cells obtained from diverse organs, which may provide important clues for protection of normal tissue from radiation exposure.
ionizing radiation; normal endothelial cells; angiogenesis
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research field that applies advanced computational techniques to biological data. Bibliometrics analysis has recently been adopted to understand the knowledge structure of a research field by citation pattern. In this paper, we explore the knowledge structure of Bioinformatics from the perspective of a core open access Bioinformatics journal, BMC Bioinformatics with trend analysis, the content and co-authorship network similarity, and principal component analysis. Publications in four core journals including Bioinformatics – Oxford Journal and four conferences in Bioinformatics were harvested from DBLP. After converting publications into TF-IDF term vectors, we calculate the content similarity, and we also calculate the social network similarity based on the co-authorship network by utilizing the overlap measure between two co-authorship networks. Key terms is extracted and analyzed with PCA, visualization of the co-authorship network is conducted. The experimental results show that Bioinformatics is fast-growing, dynamic and diversified. The content analysis shows that there is an increasing overlap among Bioinformatics journals in terms of topics and more research groups participate in researching Bioinformatics according to the co-authorship network similarity.
As the amount of publicly available biomedical data increases, discovering hidden knowledge from biomedical data (i.e., Undiscovered Public Knowledge (UPK) proposed by Swanson) became an important research topic in the biological literature mining field. Drug indication inference, or drug repositioning, is one of famous UPK tasks, which infers alternative indications for approved drugs. Many previous studies tried to find novel candidate indications of existing drugs, but these works have following limitations: 1) models are not fully automated which required manual modulations to desired tasks, 2) are not able to cover various biomedical entities, and 3) have inference limitations that those works could infer only pre-defined cases using limited patterns. To overcome these problems, we suggest a new drug indication inference model.
In this paper, we adopted the Typed Network Motif Comparison Algorithm (TNMCA) to infer novel drug indications using topology of given network. Typed Network Motifs (TNM) are network motifs, which store types of data, instead of values of data. TNMCA is a powerful inference algorithm for multi-level biomedical interaction data as TNMs depend on the different types of entities and relations. We utilized a new normalized scoring function as well as network exclusion to improve the inference results. To validate our method, we applied TNMCA to a public database, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD).
The results show that enhanced TNMCA was able to infer meaningful indications with high performance (AUC = 0.801, 0.829) compared to the ABC model (AUC = 0.7050) and previous TNMCA model (AUC = 0.5679, 0.7469). The literature analysis also shows that TNMCA inferred meaningful results.
We proposed and enhanced a novel drug indication inference model by incorporating topological patterns of given network. By utilizing inference models from the topological patterns, we were able to improve inference power in drug indication inferences.
Influenza vaccines are prepared annually based on global epidemiological surveillance data. However, since there is no method by which to predict the influenza strain that will cause the next pandemic, the demand to develop new vaccination strategies with broad cross-reactivity against influenza viruses are clearly important. The ectodomain of the influenza M2 protein (M2e) is an attractive target for developing a vaccine with broad cross-reactivity. For these reasons, we investigated the efficacy of an inactivated H9N2 virus vaccine (a-H9N2) mixed with M2e (1xM2e or 4xM2e) proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, which contains the consensus of sequence the extracellular domain of matrix 2 (M2e) of A/chicken/Vietnam/27262/09 (H5N1) avian influenza virus, and investigated its humoral immune response and cross-protection against influenza A viruses.
Mice were intramuscularly immunized with a-H9N2, 1xM2e alone, 4xM2e alone, a-H9N2/1xM2e, or a-H9N2/4xM2e. Three weeks post-vaccination, mice were challenged with lethal homologous (A/ chicken /Korea/ma163/04, H9N2) or heterosubtypic virus (A/Philippines/2/82, H3N2 and A/aquatic bird/Korea/maW81/05, H5N2). Our studies demonstrate that the survival of mice immunized with a-H9N2/1xM2e or with a-H9N2/4xM2e (100% survival) was significantly higher than that of mouse-adapted H9N2 virus-infected mice vaccinated with 1xM2e alone or with 4xM2e alone (0% survival). We also evaluated the protective efficacy of the M2e + vaccine against infection with mouse-adapted H5N2 influenza virus. Protection from death in the control group (0% survival) was similar to that of the 1×M2e alone and 4xM2e alone-vaccinated groups (0% survival). Only 40% of mice vaccinated with vaccine alone survived challenge with H5N2, while the a-H9N2/1×M2e and a-H9N2/4×M2e groups showed 80% and 100% survival following mouse-adapted H5N2 challenge, respectively. We also examined cross-protection against human H3N2 virus and found that the a-H9N2/1×M2e group displayed partial cross-protection against H3N2 (40% survival), whereas vaccine alone, 1×M2e alone, 4×M2e alone, or H9N2/1×M2e groups showed incomplete protection (0% survival) in response to challenge with a lethal dose of human H3N2 virus.
Taken together, these results suggest that prokaryote-expressed M2e protein improved inactivated H9N2 virus vaccine efficacy and achieved cross-protection against lethal influenza A virus infection in mice.
Influenza A virus; M2e protein; Escherichia coli; Inactivated vaccine
Decremental loss of PTEN results in cancer susceptibility and tumor progression. In turn this raises the possibility that PTEN elevation might be an attractive option for cancer prevention and therapy. We have generated several transgenic mouse lines with variably elevated PTEN expression levels, taking advantage of BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome)-mediated transgenesis. Super-PTEN mutants are viable and show reduced body size due to decreased cell number, with no effect on cell size. Unexpectedly, PTEN elevation at the organism level results in healthy metabolism characterized by increased energy expenditure and reduced body fat accumulation. Cells derived from these mice show reduced glucose and glutamine uptake, increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and are resistant to oncogenic transformation. Mechanistically we find that PTEN elevation orchestrates this metabolic switch by regulating PI3K-dependent and independent pathways, and negatively impacts two of the most pronounced metabolic features of tumor cells: glutaminolysis and the Warburg effect.
We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment of Aβ-immunization with simvastatin in an Alzheimer mouse model at age 22 months. DNA prime-adenovirus boost immunization induced modest anti-Aβ titers and simvastatin increased the seropositive rate. Aβ-KLH was additionally administered to boost the titers. Irrespective of simvastatin, the immunization did not decrease cerebral Aβ deposits but increased soluble Aβ and tended to exacerbate amyloid angiopathy in the hippocampus. The immunization increased cerebral invasion of leukocytes and simvastatin counteracted the increase. Thus, modest anti-Aβ titers can increase soluble Aβ and simvastatin may reduce inflammation associated with vaccination in aged Alzheimer mouse models.
Alzheimer’s disease; statin; adenovirus; vaccine; amyloid; inflammation
Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is the most common form of Usher syndrome, characterized by moderate to severe hearing impairment and progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. It has been shown that mutations in the USH2A gene are responsible for USH2. The authors herein describe a 34-year-old Korean woman with the typical clinical manifestation of USH2; she had bilateral hearing disturbance and progressive visual deterioration, without vestibular dysfunction. Molecular genetic study of the USH2A gene revealed a novel frameshift mutation (c.2310delA; Glu771LysfsX17). She was heterozygous for this mutation, and no other mutation was found in USH2A, suggesting the possibility of an intronic or large genomic rearrangement mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a genetically confirmed case of USH2 in Korea. More investigations are needed to delineate genotype-phenotype correlations and ethnicity-specific genetic background of Usher syndrome.
Usher syndrome type II; USH2A; Mutation; Frameshift; Korea
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and frequently presents with an advanced disease at diagnosis. There is only limited knowledge of genome-scale methylation changes in HCC.
Methods and Findings
We performed genome-wide methylation profiling in a total of 47 samples including 27 HCC and 20 adjacent normal liver tissues using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We focused on differential methylation patterns in the promoter CpG islands as well as in various less studied genomic regions such as those surrounding the CpG islands, i.e. shores and shelves. Of the 485,577 loci studied, significant differential methylation (DM) was observed between HCC and adjacent normal tissues at 62,692 loci or 13% (p<1.03e-07). Of them, 61,058 loci (97%) were hypomethylated and most of these loci were located in the intergenic regions (43%) or gene bodies (33%). Our analysis also identified 10,775 differentially methylated (DM) loci (17% out of 62,692 loci) located in or surrounding the gene promoters, 4% of which reside in known Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) including reprogramming specific DMRs and cancer specific DMRs, while the rest (10,315) involving 4,106 genes could be potential new HCC DMR loci. Interestingly, the promoter-related DM loci occurred twice as frequently in the shores than in the actual CpG islands. We further characterized 982 DM loci in the promoter CpG islands to evaluate their potential biological function and found that the methylation changes could have effect on the signaling networks of Cellular development, Gene expression and Cell death (p = 1.0e-38), with BMP4, CDKN2A, GSTP1, and NFATC1 on the top of the gene list.
Substantial changes of DNA methylation at a genome-wide level were observed in HCC. Understanding epigenetic changes in HCC will help to elucidate the pathogenesis and may eventually lead to identification of molecular markers for liver cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide and has been implicated in neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunosuppression and teratogenicity. However, the molecular mechanism of endosulfan toxicity is not yet clear. Recent studies demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by endosulfan is involved in its toxicity and accumulating evidence suggests that endosulfan can modulate the activities of stress-responsive signal transduction pathways including extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2. However, none of the previous studies investigated the ability of endosulfan to modulate activating protein-1 (AP-1) binding and antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated transcription as an underlying mechanism of endosulfan toxicity. In this report, we show that treatment of HepG2 cells with endosulfan significantly increased oxidative stress-responsive transcription via AP-1 activation. In addition, endosulfan-induced transcription was enhanced in cells depleted of glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment. Exposure to endosulfan resulted in a significant increase in the activities of MAPKs, ERK1/2 and p38. Endosulfan-induced increases in enzymatic activities of these MAPKs were consistent with MAPK phosphorylation. Endosulfan exposure also caused an increase in c-Jun phosphorylation. These results suggest a model for endosulfan toxicity in which endosulfan increases ERK1/2 and p38 activities and these activated MAPKs then increase c-Jun phosphorylation. Phosphorylated c-Jun, in turn, increases AP-1 activity, which results in activation of ARE-mediated transcription.
Endosulfan; AP-1; ARE; ERK; p38; HepG2
The voltage-gated K+ channel Kv2.1 is expressed as a highly phosphorylated protein in most central neurons, where it plays a key role in regulating neuronal membrane excitability. Previous studies have shown that Kv2.1 channel activity is upregulated by Src-mediated phosphorylation through an unknown mechanism. However, a systematic analysis of the molecular mechanism of Kv2.1 channel phosphorylation by Src is lacking. Here we show that tyrosine phosphorylation by Src plays a fundamental role in regulating Kv2.1-mediated K+ current enhancement. We found that the level of expression of the Kv2.1 protein is increased by Src kinase. Using mass spectrometric proteomic techniques, we identified two novel phosphotyrosine sites, Y686 and Y810, in the cytoplasmic domains of Kv2.1. We found that Src-dependent phosphorylation at these sites affects Kv2.1 through distinct regulatory mechanisms. Whereas phosphorylation at Y686 regulates Kv2.1 activity similarly to the known site Y124, phosphorylation at Y810 plays a significant role in regulating the intracellular trafficking of Kv2.1 channels. Our results show that these two novel tyrosine phosphorylation sites of Kv2.1 are crucial to regulating diverse aspects of Kv2.1 channel function, and provide novel insights into molecular mechanisms for the regulation of Src-dependent modulation of Kv2.1 channels.
delayed-rectifier Kv channel; Kv2.1; Src; tyrosine phosphorylation; mass spectrometry
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity and provide a first line defense against pathogens and tissue injuries. In addition to important roles in infection, inflammation, and immune diseases, recent studies show that TLR signaling is involved in modulation of learning, memory, mood, and neurogenesis. Because MyD88 is essential for the downstream signaling of all TLRs, except TLR3, we investigated the effects of MyD88 deficiency (MyD88-/-) on behavioral functions in mice. Additionally, we recently demonstrated that a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) deficient for MyD88 had decreases in Aβ deposits and soluble Aβ in the brain as compared with MyD88 sufficient AD mouse models. Because accumulation of Aβ in the brain is postulated to be a causal event leading to cognitive deficits in AD, we investigated the effects of MyD88 deficiency on behavioral functions in the AD mouse model at 10 months of age. MyD88 deficient mice showed more anxiety in the elevated plus-maze. In the motor coordination tests, MyD88 deficient mice remained on a beam and a bar for a longer time, but with slower initial movement on the bar. In the Morris water maze test, MyD88 deficiency appeared to improve spatial learning irrespective of the transgene. Our findings suggest that the MyD88-dependent pathway contributes to behavioral functions in an AD mouse model and its control group.
MyD88; toll-like receptors; Alzheimer’s disease; memory; anxiety; cognitive function
Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma (SCEH) is an uncommon cause of acute nontraumatic myelopathy. SCEH presenting as Brown-Sequard syndrome is extremely rare. A 65-year-old man had motor weakness in the left extremities right after his mother's funeral. He received thrombolytic therapy under the impression of acute cerebral infarction at a local hospital. However, motor weakness of the left extremities became aggravated without mental change. After being transferred to our hospital, he showed motor weakness in the left extremities with diminished pain sensation in the right extremities. Diagnosis of SCEH was made by cervical magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent left C3 to C5 hemilaminectomy with hematoma removal. It is important for physicians to be aware that SCEH can be considered as one of the differential diagnoses of hemiplegia, since early diagnosis and management can influence the neurological outcome. We think that increased venous pressure owing to repetitive Korean traditional deep bows may be the cause of SCEH in this case.
Spinal cervical epidural hematoma; Brown-Sequard syndrome; Hemiplegia
Accumulation of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in the brain is thought to be a causal event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Immunotherapy targeting Aβ holds great promise for reducing Aβ in the brain. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-Aβ single-chain antibody (scFv59) delivery via recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) on reducing Aβ deposits in an AD mouse model (TgAPPswe/PS1dE9). First, delivery of scFv59 to the brain was optimized by injecting rAAV serotypes 1, 2, and 5 into the right lateral ventricle. Symmetrical high expression of scFv59 was found throughout the hippocampus and partly in the neocortex in both hemispheres via rAAV1 or rAAV5 while scFv59 expression via rAAV2 was mostly limited to one hemisphere. rAAV1, however, induced apoptosis and microglial activation but rAAV5 did not. Therefore, rAAV5 was selected for therapeutic scFv59 delivery in TgAPPswe/PS1dE9 mice. rAAV5 was similarly injected into the ventricle of 10-month-old TgAPPswe/PS1dE9 mice and 5 months later its efficacy and safety were evaluated. Immunoreactive Aβ deposits reduced in the hippocampus. Aβ42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tended to increase and the Aβ40:42 ratio decreased in CSF, suggesting that Aβ42 was relocated from the parenchyma to CSF. Hemorrhages associated with a focal increase in blood vessel amyloid were found in the brain. While immunotherapy has great potential for clearing cerebral Aβ, caution for cerebrovascular effects should be exercised when rAAV-mediated anti-Aβ immunotherapy is applied.
Alzheimer disease; immunotherapy; single-chain antibodies; amyloid; adeno-associated virus; cerebral hemorrhage
AIM: To study the effect of rescue monotherapy with adefovir (ADV) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed drug resistance to lamivudine (LAM).
METHODS: A total of 76 treated CHB patients with resistance to LAM were enrolled in the present study. The patients’ baseline characteristics, such as age, gender, blood tests and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA were collected; therapy duration and the response of each patient were also recorded. ADV monotherapy was set as the observation group A. Twenty-four patients with LAM resistance, who were set as group B, accepted combined therapy with LAM + ADV. Patients were followed up at 0, 12, 24, 52, 104 and 156 wk. Hepatitis B surface antigen status, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)/anti-HBe status, HBV DNA level and biochemical indexes were monitored. Sequencer of HBV polymerase gene was performed on the ABI 3730 automated sequencer. If no desired effects had been achieved during the course of treatment, patients’ choices were also taken into account. The control group was tested at the same time.
RESULTS: In the two groups, 27 cases developed viral breakthrough after LAM treatment response. The remaining 49 cases underwent biochemical rebound accompanied by rtM204I/V or rtL180M mutation. In group A, 52 cases finished 156 wk of ADV monotherapy; of whom, 36 cases were HBeAg positive and 16 HBeAg negative. In patients whose baseline HBV DNAs were 103-105 copies/mL, 88.8% of patients’ HBV DNAs were lower than the lower test limit (103 copies/mL) after 12 to 156 wk of ADV treatment. In patients whose baseline HBV DNAs were ≥ 106 copies/mL, 41.1%-47.0% of patients’ HBV DNAs were lower than the lower test limit after the same course of ADV therapy (χ2 were 4.35-5.4, 41.1%-47.0% vs 88.8% group 103-105 copies/mL, P < 0.01). In group A, seroconversion of HBeAg developed in 8 of 36 cases (22.2%). In group B, 24 cases finished 156 wk of LAM + ADV; of whom, 17 cases were HBeAg positive and 7 HBeAg negative. In patients whose baseline HBV DNAs were 103-105 copies /mL, 81.8% of patients’ HBV DNAs were lower than the lower test limit (103 copies/mL) after 12 to 156 wk of treatment. In the patients whose baseline HBV DNAs were ≥ 106 copies/mL, 46.1%-53.8% of patients’ HBV DNAs were lower than the lower test limit after the same course of LAM + ADV therapy (χ2 were 4.1-5.0, 46.1%-53.8% vs 81.8% group 103-105 copies/mL, P < 0.05-0.01). In group B, 4 of 17 cases (23.5%) developed seroconversion of HBeAg. Treatment outcomes in groups A and B were comparable.
CONCLUSION: In both group A and B, the ratios of virological response have similar efficacy in patients with lower baseline HBV DNAs.
Adefovir; Lamivudine; Drug resistance; Chronic hepatitis B; Antiviral therapy; Monotherapy
The safety and the feasibility of performing laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) have not yet been established. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery performed after preoperative CRT.
We enrolled 124 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. Of these patients, 56 received preoperative CRT (CRT group), whereas 68 did not (non-CRT group). The patients who were found to have distant metastasis and open conversion during surgery were excluded. The clinicopathologic parameters were evaluated and the short-term outcomes were compared between the CRT and non-CRT groups.
The mean operation time was longer in the CRT group (294 minutes; range, 140 to 485 minutes; P = 0.004). In the non-CRT group, the tumor sizes were larger (mean, 4.0 cm; range, 1.2 to 8.0 cm; P < 0.001) and more lymph nodes were harvested (mean, 12.9; range, 0 to 35; P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in time to first bowel movement, tolerance of a soft diet, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complication rate.
Performing laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer after preoperative CRT may be safe and feasible if performed by a highly skilled laparoscopic surgeon. Randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up studies are necessary to support our results.
Rectal neoplasm; Laparoscopy; Chemoradiotherapy; Outcomes
Crown reattachment is the most conservative treatment which can be used to restore fractured tooth, presumably with sufficient strength, while maintaining original contour, incisal translucency, and reducing chair time and cost.
However, in case of crown fracture with pin-point pulp exposure, we should cautiously minimize the irritation to the pulp and consider pre-treatment pulpal status, choice of pulp capping materials, choice of bonding system and treatment sequence during crown reattachment procedures. This case reports the considerations while crown reattachment with direct pulp capping using calcium hydroxide (Dycal, Dentsply Caulk).
Crown reattachment; Direct pulp capping; Dycal; Etching; Primer
During mesenchymal condensation, the initial step of skeletogenesis, transduction of minute mechanical forces to the nucleus is associated with up or down-regulation of genes, ultimately resulting in formation of the skeletal template and appropriate cell lineage commitment. The summation of these biophysical cues affects the cell's shape and fate. Here, we predict and measure surface strain, in live stem cells, in response to controlled delivery of stresses, providing a platform to direct short-term structure - function relationships and long-term fate decisions. We measure local strains on stem cell surfaces using fluorescent microbeads coated with Concanavalin A. During delivery of controlled mechanical stresses, 4-Dimensional (x,y,z,t) displacements of the bound beads are measured as surface strains using confocal microscopy and image reconstruction. Similarly, micro-particle image velocimetry (μ-piv) is used to track flow fields with fluorescent microspheres. The measured flow velocity gradient is used to calculate stress imparted by fluid drag at the surface of the cell. We compare strain measured on cell surfaces with those predicted computationally using parametric estimates of the cell's elastic and shear modulus. Finally, cross-correlating stress - strain data to measures of gene transcription marking lineage commitment enables us to create stress - strain - fate maps, for live stem cells in situ. The studies show significant correlations between live stem cell stress - strain relationships and lineage commitment. The method presented here provides a novel means to probe the live stem cell's mechanome, enabling mechanistic studies of the role of mechanics in lineage commitment as it unfolds.
Granulomatous hypophysitis is a rare pituitary condition that commonly presents with enlargement of the pituitary gland. A 31-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with a severe headache and bitemporal hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an 18 × 10-mm sellar mass with suprasellar extension and compression of the optic chiasm. Interestingly, brain MRI had shown no abnormal finding 4 months previously. On hormonal examination, hypopituitarism with mild hyperprolactinemia was noted. The biopsy revealed granulomatous changes with multinucleated giant cells. We herein report this rare case and discuss the relevant literature.
Granulomatous hypophysitis; Headache; Hypopituitarism
Genomic changes frequently occur in cancer cells during tumorigenesis from normal cells. Using the Illumina Human NS-12 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip to screen for gene copy number changes in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), we initially detected amplification of 35 genes from four genomic regions (1q21–41, 6p21.2–24.1, 7p13 and 8q13–23). By integrated screening of these genes for both DNA copy number and gene expression in HCC and colorectal cancer, we selected CENPF (centromere protein F/mitosin), GMNN (geminin, DNA replication inhibitor), CDK13 (cyclin-dependent kinase 13), and FAM82B (family with sequence similarity 82, member B) as common cancer genes. Each gene exhibited an amplification frequency of ∼30% (range, 20–50%) in primary HCC (n = 57) and colorectal cancer (n = 12), as well as in a panel of human cancer cell lines (n = 70). Clonogenic and invasion assays of NIH3T3 cells transfected with each of the four amplified genes showed that CENPF, GMNN, and CDK13 were highly oncogenic whereas FAM82B was not. Interestingly, the oncogenic activity of these genes (excluding FAM82B) was highly correlated with gene-copy numbers in tumor samples (correlation coefficient, r>0.423), indicating that amplifications of CENPF, GMNN, and CDK13 genes are tightly linked and coincident in tumors. Furthermore, we confirmed that CDK13 gene copy number was significantly associated with clinical onset age in patients with HCC (P = 0.0037). Taken together, our results suggest that coincidently amplified CDK13, GMNN, and CENPF genes can play a role as common cancer-driver genes in human cancers.
Nuclear exclusion of the PTEN tumour suppressor has been associated with cancer progression1-6. However, the mechanisms leading to this aberrant PTEN localization in human cancers are currently unknown. We have previously reported that ubiquitinylation of PTEN at specific lysine residues regulates its nuclear-cytoplasmic partitioning7. Here we show that functional PML-nuclear bodies co-ordinate PTEN localization by opposing the action of a novel PTEN-deubiquitinylating enzyme, HAUSP, and that the integrity of this molecular framework is required for PTEN to be able to enter the nucleus. We find that PTEN is aberrantly localized in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), where PML function is disrupted by the PML-RARα fusion oncoprotein. Remarkably, treatment with drugs that trigger PML-RARα degradation such as all-trans retinoic acid or arsenic trioxide, restore nuclear PTEN. We demonstrate that PML opposes the activity of HAUSP towards PTEN, through a mechanism involving the adaptor protein DAXX. In support of this paradigm, we show that HAUSP is overexpressed in human prostate cancer and is associated with PTEN nuclear exclusion. Thus our results delineate a novel PML-DAXX-HAUSP molecular network controlling PTEN deubiquitinylation and trafficking, which is perturbed by oncogenic cues in human cancer, in turn defining a new deubiquitinylation-dependent model for PTEN subcellular compartmentalization.
By catabolizing glucose and lipids, mitochondria produce ATPs to meet energy demands. When the number and activity of mitochondria are not sufficient, the human body becomes easily fatigued due to the lack of ATP, thus the control of the quantity and function of mitochondria is important to optimize energy balance. By increasing mitochondrial capacity? it may be possible to enhance energy metabolism and improve exercise endurance. Here, through the screening of various functional food ingredients, we found that chitooligosaccharide (COS) is an effective inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis. In rodents, COS increased the mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle and enhanced exercise endurance. In cultured myocytes, the expression of major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and key components of mitochondrial electron transfer chain was increased upon COS treatment. COS-mediated induction of mitochondrial biogenesis was achieved in part by the activation of silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (Sirt1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Taken together, our data suggest that COS could act as an exercise mimetic by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis and enhancing exercise endurance through the activation of Sirt1 and AMPK.
Cryptococcosis, caused by the basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, is responsible for more than 600,000 deaths annually in AIDS patients. Flucytosine is one of the most commonly used antifungal drugs for its treatment, but its resistance and regulatory mechanisms have never been investigated at the genome scale in C. neoformans. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis by employing two-component system mutants (tco1Δ and tco2Δ) exhibiting opposing flucytosine susceptibility. As a result, a total of 177 flucytosine-responsive genes were identified, and many of them were found to be regulated by Tco1 or Tco2. Among these, we discovered an APSES-like transcription factor, Mbs1 (Mbp1- and Swi4-like protein 1). Expression analysis revealed that MBS1 was regulated in response to flucytosine in a Tco2/Hog1-dependent manner. Supporting this, C. neoformans with the deletion of MBS1 exhibited increased susceptibility to flucytosine. Intriguingly, Mbs1 played pleiotropic roles in diverse cellular processes of C. neoformans. Mbs1 positively regulated ergosterol biosynthesis and thereby affected polyene and azole drug susceptibility. Mbs1 was also involved in genotoxic and oxidative stress responses. Furthermore, Mbs1 promoted production of melanin and capsule and thereby was required for full virulence of C. neoformans. In conclusion, Mbs1 is considered to be a novel antifungal therapeutic target for treatment of cryptococcosis.