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1.  Comparative Study of 17-AAG and NVP-AUY922 in Pancreatic and Colorectal Cancer Cells: Are There Common Determinants of Sensitivity?1 
Translational Oncology  2014;7(5):590-604.
The use of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors is an attractive antineoplastic therapy. We wanted to compare the effects of the benzoquinone 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin) and the novel isoxazole resorcinol–based Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 in a panel of pancreatic and colorectal carcinoma cell lines and in colorectal primary cultures derived from tumors excised to patients. PANC-1, CFPAC-1, and Caco-2 cells were intrinsically resistant to 17-AAG but sensitive to NVP-AUY922. Other cellular models were sensitive to both inhibitors. Human epidermal growth factor receptor receptors and their downstream signaling pathways were downregulated in susceptible cellular models, and concurrently, Hsp70 was induced. Intrinsic resistance to 17-AAG did not correlate with expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters involved in multidrug resistance. Some 17-AAG-resistant, NVP-AUY922–sensitive cell lines lacked NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) enzyme and activity. However, colorectal LoVo cells still responded to both drugs in spite of having undetectable levels and activity of NQO1. Pharmacological and biologic inhibition of NQO1 did not confer resistance to 17-AAG in sensitive cell lines. Therefore, even though 17-AAG sensitivity is related to NQO1 protein levels and enzymatic activity, the absence of NQO1 does not necessarily convey resistance to 17-AAG in these cellular models. Moreover, NVP-AUY922 does not require NQO1 for its action and is a more potent inhibitor than 17-AAG in these cells. More importantly, we show in this report that NVP-AUY922 potentiates the inhibitory effects of chemotherapeutic agents, such as gemcitabine or oxaliplatin, and other drugs that are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as antitumor agents.
doi:10.1016/j.tranon.2014.08.001
PMCID: PMC4225658  PMID: 25389454
2.  Resistance to Selumetinib (AZD6244) in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines is Mediated by p70S6K and RPS6 Activation1 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2014;16(10):845-860.
Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is a MEK1/2 inhibitor that has gained interest as an anti-tumour agent. We have determined the degree of sensitivity/resistance to Selumetinib in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines using cell proliferation and soft agar assays. Sensitive cell lines underwent G1 arrest, whereas Selumetinib had no effect on the cell cycle of resistant cells. Some of the resistant cell lines showed high levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the absence of serum. Selumetinib inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and RSK and had no effect on AKT phosphorylation in both sensitive and resistant cells. Furthermore, mutations in KRAS, BRAF, or PIK3CA were not clearly associated with Selumetinib resistance. Surprisingly, Selumetinib was able to inhibit phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in sensitive cell lines. However, p70S6K and RPS6 phosphorylation remained unaffected or even increased in resistant cells. Moreover, in some of the resistant cell lines p70S6K and RPS6 were phosphorylated in the absence of serum. Interestingly, colorectal primary cultures derived from tumours excised to patients exhibited the same behaviour than established cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of p70S6K using the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, the specific mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin and the specific p70S6K inhibitor PF-4708671 potentiated Selumetinib effects in resistant cells. In addition, biological inhibition of p70S6K using siRNA rendered responsiveness to Selumetinib in resistant cell lines. Furthermore, combination of p70S6K silencing and PF-47086714 was even more effective. We can conclude that p70S6K and its downstream target RPS6 are potential biomarkers of resistance to Selumetinib in colorectal cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.neo.2014.08.011
PMCID: PMC4212257  PMID: 25379021
MEK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; p70S6K, p70 S6 kinase; RPS6, ribosomal protein S6; RSK, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase; CRC, colorectal cancer
3.  Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and Their Ligands in Glioblastoma 
Cells  2014;3(2):199-235.
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent, aggressive and fatal type of brain tumor. Glioblastomas are characterized by their infiltrating nature, high proliferation rate and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Recently, oncologic therapy experienced a rapid evolution towards “targeted therapy,” which is the employment of drugs directed against particular targets that play essential roles in proliferation, survival and invasiveness of cancer cells. A number of molecules involved in signal transduction pathways are used as molecular targets for the treatment of various tumors. In fact, inhibitors of these molecules have already entered the clinic or are undergoing clinical trials. Cellular receptors are clear examples of such targets and in the case of glioblastoma multiforme, some of these receptors and their ligands have become relevant. In this review, the importance of glioblastoma multiforme in signaling pathways initiated by extracellular tyrosine kinase receptors such as EGFR, PDGFR and IGF-1R will be discussed. We will describe their ligands, family members, structure, activation mechanism, downstream molecules, as well as the interaction among these pathways. Lastly, we will provide an up-to-date review of the current targeted therapies in cancer, in particular glioblastoma that employ inhibitors of these pathways and their benefits.
doi:10.3390/cells3020199
PMCID: PMC4092852  PMID: 24709958
RTK; EGFR; PDGFR; IGF-1R; glioblastoma multiforme
4.  Dual regulation of P-glycoprotein expression by Trichostatin A in cancer cell lines 
BMC Molecular Biology  2012;13:25.
Background
It has been reported that the histone deacetylase inhibitor (iHDAc) trichostatin A (TSA) induces an increase in MDR1 gene transcription (ABCB1). This result would compromise the use of iHDACs in combination with other cytotoxic agents that are substrates of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). It has also been reported the use of alternative promoters by the ABCB1 gene and the existence of a translational control of Pgp protein. Finally, the ABCB1 gene is located in a genetic locus with the nested gene RUNDC3B in the complementary DNA strand, raising the possibility that RUNDC3B expression could interfere with ABCB1 alternative promoter regulation.
Methods
A combination of RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR, Western blot and drug accumulation assays by flow cytometry has been used in this study.
Results
The iHDACs-induced increase in MDR1 mRNA levels is not followed by a subsequent increase in Pgp protein levels or activity in several pancreatic and colon carcinoma cell lines, suggesting a translational control of Pgp in these cell lines. In addition, the MDR1 mRNA produced in these cell lines is shorter in its 5′ end that the Pgp mRNA produced in cell lines expressing Pgp protein. The different size of the Pgp mRNA is due to the use of alternative promoters. We also demonstrate that these promoters are differentially regulated by TSA. The translational blockade of Pgp mRNA in the pancreatic carcinoma cell lines could be related to alterations in the 5′ end of the MDR1 mRNA in the Pgp protein expressing cell lines. In addition, we demonstrate that the ABCB1 nested gene RUNDC3B expression although upregulated by TSA is independent of the ABCB1 alternative promoter used.
Conclusions
The results show that the increase in MDR1 mRNA expression after iHDACs treatment is clinically irrelevant since this mRNA does not render an active Pgp protein, at least in colon and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that TSA in fact, regulates differentially both ABCB1 promoters, downregulating the upstream promoter that is responsible for active P-glycoprotein expression. These results suggest that iHDACs such as TSA may in fact potentiate the effects of antitumour drugs that are substrates of Pgp. Finally, we also demonstrate that TSA upregulates RUNDC3B mRNA independently of the ABCB1 promoter in use.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-13-25
PMCID: PMC3441908  PMID: 22846052

Results 1-4 (4)