Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are common in children and mostly caused by viruses, but the significance of the detection of multiple viruses in ARIs is unclear. This study investigated 14 respiratory viruses in ARIs among children and associated meteorological factors in Shantou, southern China.
Paired nasal/throat-flocked swabs collected from 1,074 children with ARIs, who visited outpatient walk-in clinics in a tertiary hospital between December 2010 and November 2011, were examined for fourteen respiratory viruses - influenza viruses (FluA, FluB), respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV A and B), human coronaviruses (hCoV: 229E, OC43, HKU1, NL63), human metapneumoviruses (hMPV A and B), parainfluenza viruses (PIV1-4), human rhinoviruses (HRV A, B, C), enteroviruses (EV), adenoviruses (ADV), human bocavirus (hBoV), and human parechoviruses (hPeV) - by multiplex real-time PCR.
We identified at least one virus in 82.3% (884/1,074) and multiple viruses in 38.6% (415/1,074) of patients. EV and HRV were the most frequently detected single viruses (42.3%, 374/884 and 39.9%, 353/884 respectively) and co-detected pair (23.1%, 96/415). Overlapping seasonal trends of viruses were recorded over the year, with dual peaks for EV and single peaks for the others. By logistic regression analysis, EV was positively associated with the average temperature and humidity, hCoV, and PIV4, but negatively with HRV, PIV3, and hBoV. HRV was inversely associated with EV and PIV3.
This study reports high viral detection and co-detection rates in pediatric ARI cases mainly due to EV and HRV. Many viruses circulated throughout the year with similar seasonal trends in association with temperature, humidity, and wind velocity. Statistically significant associations were present among the viruses. Understanding the polyviral etiology and viral interactions in the cases with multiple viruses warrants further studies.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12879-015-0863-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.