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1.  Myeloid Translocation Gene-16 Co-Repressor Promotes Degradation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0123725.
The myeloid translocation gene 16 (MTG16) co-repressor down regulates expression of multiple glycolytic genes, which are targets of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) heterodimer transcription factor that is composed of oxygen-regulated labile HIF1α and stable HIF1β subunits. For this reason, we investigated whether MTG16 might regulate HIF1 negatively contributing to inhibition of glycolysis and stimulation of mitochondrial respiration. A doxycycline Tet-On system was used to control levels of MTG16 in B-lymphoblastic Raji cells. Results from co-association studies revealed MTG16 to interact with HIF1α. The co-association required intact N-terminal MTG16 residues including Nervy Homology Region 1 (NHR1). Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated an association of MTG16 with hypoxia response elements (HREs) in PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 promoters in-vitro. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed co-occupancy of these and other glycolytic gene promoters by HIF1α, HIF1β and MTG16 in agreement with possible involvement of these proteins in regulation of glycolytic target genes. In addition, MTG16 interacted with prolyl hydroxylase D2 and promoted ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of HIF1α. Our findings broaden the area of MTG co-repressor functions and reveal MTG16 to be part of a protein complex that controls the levels of HIF1α.
PMCID: PMC4431712  PMID: 25974097
2.  The Transcriptional Co-Repressor Myeloid Translocation Gene 16 Inhibits Glycolysis and Stimulates Mitochondrial Respiration 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68502.
The myeloid translocation gene 16 product MTG16 is found in multiple transcription factor–containing complexes as a regulator of gene expression implicated in development and tumorigenesis. A stable Tet-On system for doxycycline–dependent expression of MTG16 was established in B-lymphoblastoid Raji cells to unravel its molecular functions in transformed cells. A noticeable finding was that expression of certain genes involved in tumor cell metabolism including 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 and 4 (PFKFB3 and PFKFB4), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 1 (PDK1) was rapidly diminished when MTG16 was expressed. Furthermore, hypoxia–stimulated production of PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 was inhibited by MTG16 expression. The genes in question encode key regulators of glycolysis and its coupling to mitochondrial metabolism and are commonly found to be overexpressed in transformed cells. The MTG16 Nervy Homology Region 2 (NHR2) oligomerization domain and the NHR3 protein–protein interaction domain were required intact for inhibition of PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 expression to occur. Expression of MTG16 reduced glycolytic metabolism while mitochondrial respiration and formation of reactive oxygen species increased. The metabolic changes were paralleled by increased phosphorylation of mitogen–activated protein kinases, reduced levels of amino acids and inhibition of proliferation with a decreased fraction of cells in S-phase. Overall, our findings show that MTG16 can serve as a brake on glycolysis, a stimulator of mitochondrial respiration and an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Hence, elevation of MTG16 might have anti–tumor effect.
PMCID: PMC3698176  PMID: 23840896
3.  The leukemia associated nuclear corepressor ETO homologue genes MTG16 and MTGR1 are regulated differently in hematopoietic cells 
BMC Molecular Biology  2012;13:11.
MTG16, MTGR1 and ETO are nuclear transcriptional corepressors of the human ETO protein family. MTG16 is implicated in hematopoietic development and in controlling erythropoiesis/megakaryopoiesis. Furthermore, ETO homologue genes are 3'participants in leukemia fusions generated by chromosomal translocations responsible of hematopoietic dysregulation. We tried to identify structural and functional promoter elements of MTG16 and MTGR1 genes in order to find associations between their regulation and hematopoiesis.
5' deletion examinations and luciferase reporter gene studies indicated that a 492 bp sequence upstream of the transcription start site is essential for transcriptional activity by the MTG16 promoter. The TATA- and CCAAT-less promoter with a GC box close to the start site showed strong reporter activity when examined in erythroid/megakaryocytic cells. Mutation of an evolutionary conserved GATA -301 consensus binding site repressed promoter function. Furthermore, results from in vitro antibody-enhanced electrophoretic mobility shift assay and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated binding of GATA-1 to the GATA -301 site. A role of GATA-1 was also supported by transfection of small interfering RNA, which diminished MTG16 expression. Furthermore, expression of the transcription factor HERP2, which represses GATA-1, produced strong inhibition of the MTG16 promoter reporter consistent with a role of GATA-1 in transcriptional activation. The TATA-less and CCAAT-less MTGR1 promoter retained most of the transcriptional activity within a -308 to -207 bp region with a GC-box-rich sequence containing multiple SP1 binding sites reminiscent of a housekeeping gene with constitutive expression. However, mutations of individual SP1 binding sites did not repress promoter function; multiple active SP1 binding sites may be required to safeguard constitutive MTGR1 transcriptional activity. The observed repression of MTG16/MTGR1 promoters by the leukemia associated AML1-ETO fusion gene may have a role in hematopoietic dysfunction of leukemia.
An evolutionary conserved GATA binding site is critical in transcriptional regulation of the MTG16 promoter. In contrast, the MTGR1 gene depends on a GC-box-rich sequence for transcriptional regulation and possible ubiquitous expression. Our results demonstrate that the ETO homologue promoters are regulated differently consistent with hematopoietic cell-type- specific expression and function.
PMCID: PMC3364894  PMID: 22443175
4.  The leukemia associated ETO nuclear repressor gene is regulated by the GATA-1 transcription factor in erythroid/megakaryocytic cells 
BMC Molecular Biology  2010;11:38.
The Eight-Twenty-One (ETO) nuclear co-repressor gene belongs to the ETO homologue family also containing Myeloid Translocation Gene on chromosome 16 (MTG16) and myeloid translocation Gene-Related protein 1 (MTGR1). By chromosomal translocations ETO and MTG16 become parts of fusion proteins characteristic of morphological variants of acute myeloid leukemia. Normal functions of ETO homologues have as yet not been examined. The goal of this work was to identify structural and functional promoter elements upstream of the coding sequence of the ETO gene in order to explore lineage-specific hematopoietic expression and get hints to function.
A putative proximal ETO promoter was identified within 411 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Strong ETO promoter activity was specifically observed upon transfection of a promoter reporter construct into erythroid/megakaryocytic cells, which have endogeneous ETO gene activity. An evolutionary conserved region of 228 bp revealed potential cis-elements involved in transcription of ETO. Disruption of the evolutionary conserved GATA -636 consensus binding site repressed transactivation and disruption of the ETS1 -705 consensus binding site enhanced activity of the ETO promoter. The promoter was stimulated by overexpression of GATA-1 into erythroid/megakaryocytic cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay with erythroid/megakaryocytic cells showed specific binding of GATA-1 to the GATA -636 site. Furthermore, results from chromatin immunoprecipitation showed GATA-1 binding in vivo to the conserved region of the ETO promoter containing the -636 site. The results suggest that the GATA -636 site may have a role in activation of the ETO gene activity in cells with erythroid/megakaryocytic potential. Leukemia associated AML1-ETO strongly suppressed an ETO promoter reporter in erythroid/megakaryocytic cells.
We demonstrate that the GATA-1 transcription factor binds and transactivates the ETO proximal promoter in an erythroid/megakaryocytic-specific manner. Thus, trans-acting factors that are essential in erythroid/megakaryocytic differentiation govern ETO expression.
PMCID: PMC2882371  PMID: 20487545
5.  The human SIN3B corepressor forms a nucleolar complex with leukemia-associated ETO homologues 
SIN3 (SWI-Independent) is part of a transcriptional deacetylase complex, which generally mediates the formation of repressive chromatin. The purpose of this work was to study possible interactions between corepressors human SIN3B (hSIN3B) and the ETO homologues – ETO (eight twenty-one), MTG16 (myeloid-transforming gene 16) and MTGR1 (MTG-related protein 1). In addition, the subnuclear localization of the hSIN3B and the ETO homologues was also examined.
A ubiquitous expression of hSIN3B was observed in adult and fetal tissues. Results with both ectopically expressed proteins in COS-7 cells and endogeneous proteins in the K562 human erytholeukemia cell line demonstrated interactions between hSIN3B and ETO or MTG16 but not MTGR1. Furthermore, nuclear extract of primary placental cells showed complexes between hSIN3B and ETO. The interaction between hSIN3B and ETO required an intact amino-terminus of ETO and the NHR2 domain. A nucleolar localization of hSIN3B and all the ETO homologues was demonstrated upon overexpression in COS-7 cells, and confirmed for the endogeneously expressed proteins in K562 cells. However, hSIN3B did not colocalize or interact with the leukemia-associated AML1 -ETO.
Our data from protein-protein interactions and immunolocalization experiments support that hSIN3B is a potential member of a corepressor complex involving selective ETO homologues.
PMCID: PMC2266940  PMID: 18205948

Results 1-5 (5)