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author:("Lin, Bor-ruii")
1.  Negative regulation of human U6 snRNA promoter by p38 kinase through Oct-1 
Gene  2012;497(2):200-207.
Recruitment of Oct-1 protein to the octamer sequence of U6 promoter is critical for optimal transcription by RNA polymerase III. Here we report that p38 kinase inhibitors, SB202190 and SB203580, stimulated U6 promoter activity and this stimulation can be observed only in the presence of octamer sequence. SB202190-treated cell nuclear extract had about 50% increase in Oct-1 binding activity suggesting that the increased U6 promoter activity by p38 kinase inhibitor is mediated through Oct-1. Mutation in octamer sequence significantly reduced the SB202190-stimulated U6 promoter transcription and the distance between octamer and proximal sequence element of U6 promoter is also critical for the p38 kinase inhibitor-stimulated activity. Exogenous Oct-1 expression showed a concentration-dependent activation of U6 promoter that was further stimulated by the p38 kinase inhibitors. When cells were treated with p38 kinase inducer, hydrogen peroxide or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), U6 promoter activity was down regulated and this inhibition was reversed by p38 kinase inhibitors. Over-expression of p38α kinase down-regulated U6 promoter activity and this inhibition was further enhanced by PMA and p38 kinase inhibitors reversed this inhibition. p38 kinase inhibitor-treated cells had 50% more U6 RNA than the control cells. Taken together, our results show a negative correlation between the p38 kinase levels and Oct-1 binding on U6 promoter, suggesting that U6 promoter is negatively regulated by p38 kinase.
doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.01.041
PMCID: PMC3306512  PMID: 22310390
U6 promoter; Oct-1; p38 kinase; SB202190; MAPK
3.  LIM kinase 1 - dependent cofilin 1 pathway and actin dynamics mediate nuclear retinoid receptor function in T lymphocytes 
BMC Molecular Biology  2011;12:41.
Background
It is known that retinoid receptor function is attenuated during T cell activation, a phenomenon that involves actin remodeling, suggesting that actin modification may play a role in such inhibition. Here we have investigated the role of actin dynamics and the effect of actin cytoskeleton modifying agents on retinoid receptor-mediated transactivation.
Results
Agents that disturb the F-actin assembly or disassembly attenuated receptor-mediated transcription indicating that actin cytoskeletal homeostasis is important for retinoid receptor function. Overexpression or siRNA-induced knockdown of cofilin-1 (CFL1), a key regulator of F-actin assembly, induced the loss of receptor function. In addition, expression of either constitutively active or inactive/dominant-negative mutants of CFL1or CFL1 kinase LIMK1 induced loss of receptor function suggesting a critical role of the LIMK1-mediated CFL1 pathway in receptor-dependent transcription. Further evidence of the role of LMK1/CFL1-mediated actin dynamics, was provided by studying the effect of Nef, an actin modifying HIV-1 protein, on receptor function. Expression of Nef induced phosphorylation of CFL1 at serine 3 and LIMK1 at threonine 508, inhibited retinoid-receptor mediated reporter activity, and the expression of a number of genes that contain retinoid receptor binding sites in their promoters. The results suggest that the Nef-mediated inhibition of receptor function encompasses deregulation of actin filament dynamics by LIMK1 activation and phosphorylation of CFL1.
Conclusion
We have identified a critical role of LIMK1-mediated CFL1 pathway and actin dynamics in modulating retinoid receptor mediated function and shown that LIMK1-mediated phosphocycling of CFL1 plays a crucial role in maintaining actin homeostasis and receptor activity. We suggest that T cell activation-induced repression of nuclear receptor-dependent transactivation is in part through the modification of actin dynamics.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-12-41
PMCID: PMC3187726  PMID: 21923909
4.  Electrophysiological Studies in Xenopus Oocytes for the Opening of Escherichia coli SecA-Dependent Protein-Conducting Channels 
The Journal of membrane biology  2007;214(2):103-113.
Protein translocation in Escherichia coli requires protein-conducting channels in cytoplasmic membranes to allow precursor peptides to pass through with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Here, we report a novel, sensitive method that detects the opening of the SecA-dependent protein-conducting channels at the nanogram level. E. coli inverted membrane vesicles were injected into Xenopus oocytes, and ionic currents were recorded using the two-electrode voltage clamp. Currents were observed only in the presence of E. coli SecA in conjunction with E. coli membranes. Observed currents showed outward rectification in the presence of KCl as permeable ions and were significantly enhanced by coinjection with the precursor protein proOmpA or active LamB signal peptide. Channel activity was blockable with sodium azide or adenylyl 5′-(β,γ-methylene)- diphosphonate, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, both of which are known to inhibit SecA protein activity. Endogenous oocyte precursor proteins also stimulated ion current activity and can be inhibited by puromycin. In the presence of puromycin, exogenous proOmpA or LamB signal peptides continued to enhance ionic currents. Thus, the requirement of signal peptides and ATP hydrolysis for the SecA-dependent currents resembles biochemical protein translocation assay with E. coli membrane vesicles, indicating that the Xenopus oocyte system provides a sensitive assay to study the role of Sec and precursor proteins in the formation of protein-conducting channels using electrophysiological methods.
doi:10.1007/s00232-006-0079-1
PMCID: PMC2896742  PMID: 17530158
Protein-conducting channel; SecA; E. coli inverted membrane vesicle; Signal peptide; Voltage clamp; Xenopus oocyte

Results 1-4 (4)