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author:("kaszab, Aneta")
1.  EGF activates TTP expression by activation of ELK-1 and EGR-1 transcription factors 
Background
Tristetraprolin (TTP) is a key mediator of processes such as inflammation resolution, the inhibition of autoimmunity and in cancer. It carries out this role by the binding and degradation of mRNA transcripts, thereby decreasing their half-life. Transcripts modulated by TTP encode proteins such as cytokines, pro-inflammatory agents and immediate-early response proteins. TTP can also modulate neoplastic phenotypes in many cancers. TTP is induced and functionally regulated by a spectrum of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, mitogens and drugs in a MAPK-dependent manner. So far the contribution of p38 MAPK to the regulation of TTP expression and function has been best described.
Results
Our results demonstrate the induction of the gene coding TTP (ZFP36) by EGF through the ERK1/2-dependent pathway and implicates the transcription factor ELK-1 in this process. We show that ELK-1 regulates ZFP36 expression by two mechanisms: by binding the ZFP36 promoter directly through ETS-binding site (+ 883 to +905 bp) and by inducing expression of EGR-1, which in turn increases ZFP36 expression through sequences located between -111 and -103 bp.
Conclusions
EGF activates TTP expression via ELK-1 and EGR-1 transcription factors.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-13-8
PMCID: PMC3342124  PMID: 22433566
2.  Transcription factors Elk-1 and SRF are engaged in IL1-dependent regulation of ZC3H12A expression 
BMC Molecular Biology  2010;11:14.
Background
MCPIP is a novel CCCH zinc finger protein described as an RNase engaged in the regulation of immune responses. The regulation of expression of the gene coding for MCPIP - ZC3H12A is poorly explored.
Results
Here we report that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β rapidly induces the synthesis of MCPIP in primary monocyte-derived macrophages and HepG2 cells. This up-regulation takes place through the MAP kinase pathway and following activation of the transcription factor Elk-1. Using a ZC3H12A reporter construct we have shown that a ZC3H12A promoter region, stretching from -76 to +60, mediates activation by IL-1β. This region contains binding sites for Elk-1 and its partner SRF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirms in vivo binding of both transcription factors to this region of the ZC3H12A promoter.
Conclusions
We conclude that the transcription factor Elk-1 plays an important role in the activation of ZC3H12A expression in response to IL-1β stimulation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-11-14
PMCID: PMC2829564  PMID: 20137095
3.  Overlapping promoter targeting by Elk-1 and other divergent ETS-domain transcription factor family members 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(22):7368-7380.
ETS-domain transcription factors play important roles in controlling gene expression in a variety of different contexts; however, these proteins bind to very similar sites and it is unclear how in vivo specificity is achieved. In silico analysis is unlikely to reveal specific targets for individual family members and direct experimental approaches are therefore required. Here, we take advantage of an inducible dominant-negative expression system to identify a group of novel target genes for the ETS-domain transcription factor Elk-1. Elk-1 is thought to mainly function through cooperation with a second transcription factor SRF, but the targets we identify are largely SRF-independent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there is a high degree of overlapping, cell type-specific, target gene binding by Elk-1 and other ETS-domain transcription factors. Our results are therefore consistent with the notion that there is a high degree of functional redundancy in target gene regulation by ETS-domain transcription factors in addition to the specific target gene regulation that can be dictated through heterotypic interactions exemplified by the Elk-1-SRF complex.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp804
PMCID: PMC2794171  PMID: 19789270
4.  Mimitin – a novel cytokine-regulated mitochondrial protein 
BMC Cell Biology  2009;10:23.
Background
The product of a novel cytokine-responsive gene discovered by differential display analysis in our earlier studies on HepG2 cells was identified as mimitin – a small mitochondrial protein. Since proinflammatory cytokines are known to affect components of the respiratory chain in mitochondria, and mimitin was reported as a possible chaperone for assembly of mitochondrial complex I, we looked for the effects of modulation of mimitin expression and for mimitin-binding partners.
Results
By blocking mimitin expression in HepG2 cells by siRNA we found that mimitin has no direct influence on caspase 3/7 activities implicated in apoptosis. However, when apoptosis was induced by TNF and cycloheximide, and mimitin expression blocked, the activities of these caspases were significantly increased. This was accompanied by a slight decrease in proliferation of HepG2 cells. Our observations suggest that mimitin may be involved in the control of apoptosis indirectly, through another protein, or proteins. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitation we found MAP1S among proteins interacting with mimitin. MAP1S is a recently identified member of the microtubule-associated protein family and has been shown to interact with NADH dehydrogenase I and cytochrome oxidase I. Moreover, it was implicated in the process of mitochondrial aggregation and nuclear genome destruction. The expression of mimitin is stimulated more than 1.6-fold by IL-1 and by IL-6, with the maximum level of mimitin observed after 18–24 h exposure to these cytokines. We also found that the cytokine-induced signal leading to stimulation of mimitin synthesis utilizes the MAP kinase pathway.
Conclusion
Mimitin is a mitochondrial protein upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines at the transcriptional and protein levels, with MAP kinases involved in IL-1-dependent induction. Mimitin interacts with a microtubular protein (MAP1S), and some changes of mimitin gene expression modulate activity of apoptotic caspases 3/7, suggesting that this protein may indirectly participate in apoptosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2121-10-23
PMCID: PMC2667391  PMID: 19331698
5.  Ternary Complex Factor-Serum Response Factor Complex-Regulated Gene Activity Is Required for Cellular Proliferation and Inhibition of Apoptotic Cell Death 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2004;24(23):10340-10351.
Members of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of the ETS-domain transcription factors are activated through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to a variety of mitogenic and stress stimuli. The TCFs bind and activate serum response elements (SREs) in the promoters of target genes in a ternary complex with a second transcription factor, serum response factor (SRF). The association of TCFs with SREs within immediate-early gene promoters is suggestive of a role for the ternary TCF-SRF complex in promoting cell cycle entry and proliferation in response to mitogenic signaling. Here we have investigated the downstream gene regulatory and phenotypic effects of inhibiting the activity of genes regulated by TCFs by expressing a dominantly acting repressive form of the TCF, Elk-1. Inhibition of ternary complex activity leads to the downregulation of several immediate-early genes. Furthermore, blocking TCF-mediated gene expression leads to growth arrest and triggers apoptosis. By using mutant Elk-1 alleles, we demonstrated that these effects are via an SRF-dependent mechanism. The antiapoptotic gene Mcl-1 is identified as a key target for the TCF-SRF complex in this system. Thus, our data confirm a role for TCF-SRF-regulated gene activity in regulating proliferation and provide further evidence to indicate a role in protecting cells from apoptotic cell death.
doi:10.1128/MCB.24.23.10340-10351.2004
PMCID: PMC529045  PMID: 15542842

Results 1-5 (5)