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1.  Luminal breast cancer metastases and tumor arousal from dormancy are promoted by direct actions of estradiol and progesterone on the malignant cells 
Introduction
Luminal, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers can metastasize but lie dormant for years before recurrences prove lethal. Understanding the roles of estrogen (E) or progestin (P) in development of luminal metastases or in arousal from dormancy is hindered by few preclinical models. We have developed such models.
Methods
Immunocompromised, ovariectomized (ovx’d) mice were intracardiac-injected with luminal or basal human breast cancer cells. Four lines were tested: luminal ER+PR+ cytokeratin 5-negative (CK5−) E3 and MCF-7 cells, basal ER−PR−CK5+ estrogen withdrawn-line 8 (EWD8) cells, and basal ER−PR−CK5− MDA-MB-231 cells. Development of micrometastases or macrometastases was quantified in ovx’d mice and in mice supplemented with E or P or both. Metastatic deposits were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for luminal, basal, and proliferation markers.
Results
ER−PR− cells generated macrometastases in multiple organs in the absence or presence of hormones. By contrast, ovx’d mice injected with ER+PR+ cells appeared to be metastases-free until they were supplemented with E or E+P. Furthermore, unlike parental ER+PR+CK5− cells, luminal metastases were heterogeneous, containing a significant (6% to 30%) proportion of non-proliferative ER−PR−CK5+ cells that would be chemotherapy-resistant. Additionally, because these cells lack receptors, they would also be endocrine therapy-resistant. With regard to ovx’d control mice injected with ER+PR+ cells that appeared to be metastases-free, systematic pathologic analysis of organs showed that some harbor a reservoir of dormant micrometastases that are ER+ but PR−. Such cells may also be endocrine therapy- and chemotherapy-resistant. Their emergence as macrometastases can be triggered by E or E+P restoration.
Conclusions
We conclude that hormones promote development of multi-organ macrometastases in luminal disease. The metastases display a disturbing heterogeneity, containing newly emergent ER−PR− subpopulations that would be resistant to endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. Similar cells are found in luminal metastases of patients. Furthermore, lack of hormones is not protective. While no overt metastases form in ovx’d mice, luminal tumor cells can seed distant organs, where they remain dormant as micrometastases and sheltered from therapies but arousable by hormone repletion. This has implications for breast cancer survivors or women with occult disease who are prescribed hormones for contraception or replacement purposes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13058-014-0489-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13058-014-0489-4
PMCID: PMC4303198  PMID: 25475897
2.  Malignant stroma increases luminal breast cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis through platelet-derived growth factor signaling 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):735.
Background
Luminal, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers represent more than 70% of cases. Despite initial good prognoses one third of Luminal cancers eventually recur locally or at distant sites and exhibit hormone resistance. Here we demonstrate that factors elaborated by malignant stromal cells can induce Luminal tumor cells proliferation and promote angiogenesis and hormone independence. We recently isolated a malignant mouse mammary gland stromal cell line named BJ3Z that increases proliferation and angiogenesis in estrogen-free xenografted Luminal MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Methods
BJ3Z and Normal mouse mammary Fibroblasts (NMFs) were expression profiled using microarray assays. Messenger RNA levels were confirmed by RT-PCR and by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Breast cancer MCF-7, BT-474, BT-20 and MDA-MB-231cell lines and stromal BJ3Z and NMFs were grown for in vitro assays: breast cancer cell lines were treated with stromal cells conditioned media, for three-dimensional (3D) mono and co-cultures in Matrigel, proliferation was measured by Bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation using IHC. Tubule formation in vitro, a proxy for angiogenesis, was assessed using 3D cultured Human Umbilical cord Vascular Endothelial Cells (HUVEC).
Results
We show that under estrogen-free conditions, BJ3Z cells but not NMFs increase proliferation of co-cultured Luminal but not basal-like human breast cancer cells in 2D or as 3D Matrigel colonies. Gene expression profiling, RT-PCR analysis and IHC of colony-derived BJ3Z cells and NMFs shows that Platelet Derived Growth Factor ligands (PDGF-A and -B) are elaborated by BJ3Z cells but not NMFs; while PDGF receptors are present on NMFs but not BJ3Z cells. As a result, in colony co-culture assays, BJ3Z cells but not NMFs increase MCF-7 cell proliferation. This can be mimicked by direct addition of PDGF-BB, and blocked by the PDGF receptor inhibitor Imatinib Mesylate. Both normal and malignant stromal cells enhance angiogenesis in an in vitro model. This effect is also due to PDGF and is suppressed by Imatinib.
Conclusions
We provide evidence that Luminal breast cancer cells can be targeted by the PDGF signaling pathway leading to estrogen-independent proliferation and angiogenesis. We speculate that stroma-directed therapies, including anti-PDGFR agents like Imatinib, may be useful in combination with other therapies for treatment of luminal cancers.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-735) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-735
PMCID: PMC4190420  PMID: 25274034
Stroma; Proliferation; Angiogenesis; Breast cancer
3.  Modeling luminal breast cancer heterogeneity: combination therapy to suppress a hormone receptor-negative, cytokeratin 5-positive subpopulation in luminal disease 
Introduction
Many Luminal breast cancers are heterogeneous, containing substantial numbers of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor-negative cells among the ER+ PR+ ones. One such subpopulation we call “Luminobasal” is ER-, PR- and cytokeratin 5 (CK5)-positive. It is not targeted for treatment.
Methods
To address the relationships between ER+PR+CK5– and ER–PR–CK5+ cells in Luminal cancers and tightly control their ratios we generated isogenic pure Luminal (pLUM) and pure Luminobasal (pLB) cells from the same parental Luminal human breast cancer cell line. We used high-throughput screening to identify pLB-specific drugs and examined their efficacy alone and in combination with hormone therapy in mixed-cell tumor models.
Results
We show that pLUM and MCF7 cells suppress proliferation of pLB cells in mixed-cell 3D colonies in vitro and that pLUM cells suppress growth of pLB cells in mixed-cell xenografts in vivo. High-throughput screening of 89 FDA-approved oncology drugs shows that pLB cells are sensitive to monotherapy with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib. By exploiting mixed-cell 3D colonies and mixed-cell solid mouse tumors models we demonstrate that combination therapy with gefitinib plus the anti-estrogen fulvestrant constitutes a robust treatment strategy.
Conclusions
We propose that response to combination endocrine/EGFR inhibitor therapies in heterogeneous Luminal cancers may improve long-term survival in patients whose primary tumors have been preselected for appropriate biomarkers, including ER, PR, CK5 and EGFR.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13058-014-0418-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13058-014-0418-6
PMCID: PMC4187339  PMID: 25116921
4.  Genomic Signatures of Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer Epithelia and Stroma and their Regulation by Estrogens and Progesterone 
Hormones & cancer  2013;4(3):10.1007/s12672-013-0136-z.
Pregnancy associated breast cancers (PABC) generally present at advanced stages and have a poor prognosis. The reasons are unclear but we hypothesized that the continuous high levels of estrogens and progesterone were involved. We have now carried out a detailed analysis of PABC compared to tumors of age-matched non-pregnant (Non-PABC) women.
Malignant epithelia and tumor-associated stroma of PABC and Non-PABC were isolated by laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiled. Additionally, normal breast epithelia and stroma adjacent to the two tumor types were analyzed. Lastly, subsets of previously identified E- and P-regulated genes were defined in all tissues.
We find that PABC signatures cluster with established breast cancer subtypes. Major hormone-regulated genes whose expression correlated with epithelia of PABC dealt with regulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and tumor aggressiveness, including genes used to predict tumor recurrence. Compared to normal epithelia, a significant number of genes associated with cell cycle processes were enriched in PABC, many of which are hormone regulated. Thus compared to normal epithelia, many of the genes that were differentially expressed in epithelia of PABC were distinct from those differentially expressed in Non-PABC. With regard to the tumor microenvironment, immune-related genes were enriched in tumor-associated stroma of PABC. Compared to normal stroma, PABC-associated stroma overexpressed immune response genes, while genes involved in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix deposition were more commonly downregulated. This suggests that the heightened aggressiveness of PABC may involve a predisposition to metastasis through extracellular matrix degradation, plus angiogenesis independence. Moreover, genes encoding cell proliferative factors, signaling, immunomodulators and cell death, were hormone regulated in stroma.
Conclusion
In sum, these analyses demonstrate complex patterns of enrichment and hormonal regulation of genes in PABC and suggest that it may have a distinct biological nature.
doi:10.1007/s12672-013-0136-z
PMCID: PMC3810166  PMID: 23479404
breast cancer; pregnancy; expression profiling; estrogen; stroma vs. epithelium
5.  Estrogen switches pure mucinous breast cancer to invasive lobular carcinoma with mucinous features 
Mucinous breast cancer (MBC) is mainly a disease of postmenopausal women. Pure MBC is rare and augurs a good prognosis. In contrast, MBC mixed with other histological subtypes of invasive disease loses the more favorable prognosis. Because of the relative rarity of pure MBC, little is known about its cell and tumor biology and relationship to invasive disease of other subtypes. We have now developed a human breast cancer cell line called BCK4, in which we can control the behavior of MBC. BCK4 cells were derived from a patient whose poorly differentiated primary tumor was treated with chemotherapy, radiation and tamoxifen. Malignant cells from a recurrent pleural effusion were xenografted in mammary glands of a nude mouse. Cells from the solid tumor xenograft were propagated in culture to generate the BCK4 cell line. Multiple marker and chromosome analyses demonstrate that BCK4 cells are human, near diploid and luminal, expressing functional estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors. When xenografted back into immunocompromised cycling mice, BCK4 cells grow into small pure MBC. However, if mice are supplemented with continuous estradiol, tumors switch to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) with mucinous features (mixed MBC), and growth is markedly accelerated. Tamoxifen prevents the expansion of this more invasive component. The unexpected ability of estrogens to convert pure MBC into mixed MBC with ILC may explain the rarity of the pure disease in premenopausal women. These studies show that MBC can be derived from lobular precursors and that BCK4 cells are new, unique models to study the phenotypic plasticity, hormonal regulation, optimal therapeutic interventions, and metastatic patterns of MBC.
doi:10.1007/s10549-012-2377-x
PMCID: PMC3543987  PMID: 23247610
Mucinous breast cancer; Hormone receptors; Invasive lobular carcinoma; Xenografts; Estrogen
6.  Unliganded progesterone receptors attenuate taxane-induced breast cancer cell death by modulating the spindle assembly checkpoint 
Breast cancer research and treatment  2011;131(1):10.1007/s10549-011-1399-0.
Whether the presence of steroid receptors in luminal breast cancers renders them resistant to taxanes remains uncertain. Here we assess the role of progesterone receptors (PR) on taxane-induced cell death. We previously showed that estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cells that inducibly express PR-A or PR-B isoforms were protected from taxane-stimulated apoptosis when compared to the identical cells lacking PR. Surprisingly, PR-dependent protection occurred in the absence of progesterone, demonstrating that the unliganded receptors were biologically active. The present studies demonstrate that unliganded PR, focused on PR-A, protect breast cancer cells from taxane-stimulated apoptosis. The studies identify genes regulated by taxanes in isogenic ER-positive cells that either lack or express PR-A. We show that unliganded PR-A alters the gene expression pattern controlled by taxanes, especially multiple genes involved in the spindle assembly checkpoint, a group of proteins that insure proper attachment of microtubules to kinetochores during mitosis. Importantly, taxanes and unliganded PR regulate many of these genes in opposite directions. As a result, mitotic slippage is exacerbated by the presence of PR, leading to an increase in the number of multinucleated cells both in vitro and in xenograft tumors. We describe a simple new assay for assessing multinucleation in paraffin sections. We speculate that rather than inducing cell death, unliganded PR exploits multinucleation to promote cell survival from taxane therapy. This can be prevented with antiprogestin.
doi:10.1007/s10549-011-1399-0
PMCID: PMC3875321  PMID: 21340479
Breast cancer; Progesterone receptor; Taxane; Spindle assembly checkpoint; Cell death; Multinucleation
7.  Cytokeratin 5 positive cells represent a steroid receptor negative and therapy resistant subpopulation in luminal breast cancers 
Breast cancer research and treatment  2010;128(1):10.1007/s10549-010-1078-6.
A majority of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER) positive and have a luminal epithelial phenotype. However, these ER+ tumors often contain heterogeneous subpopulations of ER− tumor cells. We previously identified a population of cytokeratin 5 (CK5) positive cells within ER+ and progesterone receptor positive (PR+) tumors that is both ER−PR− and CD44+, a marker of breast tumor-initiating cells (TICs). These CK5+ cells have properties of TICs in luminal tumor xenografts, and we speculated that they are more resistant to chemo- and anti-ER-targeted therapies than their ER+ neighbors. To test this, we used ER+PR+ T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells. CK5+ cells had lower proliferative indices than CK5− cells, were less sensitive to 5-fluorouracil and docetaxel, and cultures became enriched for CK5+ cells after treatments. CK5+ cells were less prone to drug-induced apoptosis than CK5− cells. In cells treated with 17β-estradiol (E) plus anti-estrogens tamoxifen or fulvestrant, ER protein levels decreased, and CK5 protein levels increased, compared to controls treated with E alone. In ER+ tumors from patients treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapies ER gene expression decreased, and CK5 gene expression increased in post compared to pre-treatment tumors. The number of CK5+ cells in tumors also increased in post- compared to pre-treatment tumors. We conclude that an ER−PR−CK5+ subpopulation found in many luminal tumors is resistant to standard endocrine and chemotherapies, relative to the majority ER+PR+CK5− cells. Compounds that effectively target these cells are needed to improve outcome in luminal breast cancers.
doi:10.1007/s10549-010-1078-6
PMCID: PMC3851293  PMID: 20665103
Tumor-initiating cells; Estrogen receptors; Endocrine therapy; Tamoxifen; Cytokeratin 5; Breast cancer
8.  Tissue Specific Pathways for Estrogen Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Growth and Metastasis 
Cancer research  2010;70(21):8927-8936.
Menopausal estrogen (E2) replacement therapy increases the risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC). Whether E2 is tumorigenic or promotes expansion of undiagnosed pre-existing disease is unknown. To determine E2 effects on tumor promotion, we developed an intraperitoneal mouse xenograft model using ZsGreen fluorescent ER− 2008 and ER+ PEO4 human EOC cells. Tumor growth was quantified by in vivo fluorescent imaging. In ER+ tumors, E2 significantly increased size, induced progesterone receptors, and promoted lymph node metastasis, confirming that ER are functional and foster aggressiveness. Laser captured human EOC cells from ER− and ER+ xenografted tumors were profiled for expression of E2-regulated genes. Three classes of E-regulated EOC genes were defined, but less than 10% were shared with E-regulated breast cancer genes. Since breast cancer selective ER modulators (SERMs) are therapeutically ineffective in EOC, we suggest that our EOC-specific E-regulated genes can assist pharmacologic discovery of ovarian targeted SERM.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-1238
PMCID: PMC3804411  PMID: 20959477
Ovarian Cancer; Xenograft; Estrogen; Metastasis; E-regulated genes
9.  Progesterone Receptors, their Isoforms and Progesterone Regulated Transcription 
This review discusses mechanisms by which progesterone receptors (PR) regulate transcription. We examine available data in different species and tissues regarding: 1) regulation of PR levels; and 2) expression profiling of progestin-regulated genes by total PRs, or their PRA and PRB isoforms. 3) We address current views about the composition of progesterone response elements, and postulate that PR monomers acting through “half-site” elements are common, entailing cooperativity with neighboring DNA-bound transcription factors. 4) We summarize transcription data for multiple progestin-regulated promoters as directed by total PR, or PRA vs. PRB. We conclude that current models and methods used to study PR function are problematical, and recommend that future work employ cells and receptors appropriate to the species, focusing on analyses of the effects of endogenous receptors targeting endogenous genes in native chromatin.
doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.09.016
PMCID: PMC3272316  PMID: 21952082
10.  ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67 and CK5 in Early and Late Relapsing Breast Cancer—Reduced CK5 Expression in Metastases 
Breast cancer can recur even decades after the primary therapy. Markers are needed to predict cancer progression and the risk of late recurrence. The estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), proliferation marker Ki-67, and cytokeratin CK5 were studied to find out whether their expression or occurrence in subgroups of breast cancers correlated with the time of recurrence. The expression of HER2, ER, PR, Ki-67, and CK5 was studied by IHC in 72 primary breast cancers and their corresponding recurrent/metastatic lesions. The patients were divided into three groups according to the time of the recurrence/metastasis: before two years, after 5 years, and after 10 years. Based on their IHC profiles, the tumors were divided into surrogates of the genetically defined subgroups of breast cancers and the subtype definitions were as follows: luminal A (ER or PR+HER2–), luminal B (ER or PR+HER2+), HER2 overexpressing (ER–PR–HER2+), triple-negative (ER–PR–HER2–), basal-like (ER–PR–HER2–CK5+), non-classified (ER–PR–HER2–CK5–) and luminobasal (ER or PR+CK5+). In multivariate analysis, tumor size and HER2 positivity were a significant risk of early cancer relapse. The metastases showed a significantly lower CK5 expression. CK5 positivity distinguished triple negative tumors into rapidly and slowly recurring cancers. The IHC subtype ER or PR+HER2– luminal A presented a significantly lower risk of early tumor recurrence. Ki-67 expression denoted early-relapsing tumors and correlated linearly with tumor progression, since Ki-67 positivity declined gradually from early-relapsing toward late-recurring cancers.
doi:10.4137/BCBCR.S10701
PMCID: PMC3579427  PMID: 23514931
early and late relapsing breast cancers; CK5; immunohistochemistry
11.  Control of progesterone receptor transcriptional synergy by SUMOylation and deSUMOylation 
BMC Molecular Biology  2012;13:10.
Background
Covalent modification of nuclear receptors by the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) is dynamically regulated by competing conjugation/deconjugation steps that modulate their overall transcriptional activity. SUMO conjugation of progesterone receptors (PRs) at the N-terminal lysine (K) 388 residue of PR-B is hormone-dependent and suppresses PR-dependent transcription. Mutation of the SUMOylation motif promotes transcriptional synergy.
Results
The present studies address mechanisms underlying this transcriptional synergy by using SUMOylation deficient PR mutants and PR specifically deSUMOylated by Sentrin-specific proteases (SENPs). We show that deSUMOylation of a small pool of receptors by catalytically competent SENPs globally modulates the cooperativity-driven transcriptional synergy between PR observed on exogenous promoters containing at least two progesterone-response elements (PRE2). This occurs in part by raising PR sensitivity to ligands. The C-terminal ligand binding domain of PR is required for the transcriptional stimulatory effects of N-terminal deSUMOylation, but neither a functional PR dimerization interface, nor a DNA binding domain exhibiting PR specificity, are required.
Conclusion
We conclude that direct and reversible SUMOylation of a minor PR protein subpopulation tightly controls the overall transcriptional activity of the receptors at complex synthetic promoters. Transcriptional synergism controlled by SENP-dependent PR deSUMOylation is dissociable from MAPK-catalyzed receptor phosphorylation, from SRC-1 coactivation and from recruitment of histone deacetylases to promoters. This will provide more information for targeting PR as a part of hormonal therapy of breast cancer. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the SUMOylation/deSUMOylation pathway is an interesting target for therapeutic treatment of breast cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-13-10
PMCID: PMC3373386  PMID: 22439847
12.  Vascular endothelial growth factor secreted by activated stroma enhances angiogenesis and hormone independent growth of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer 
Cancer research  2010;70(7):2655-2664.
“Reactive” or activated stroma characterizes many malignancies including breast cancers. Recently we isolated a reactive mouse mammary gland stromal cell line called BJ3Z (1). These cells express α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and stromal-cell derived factor 1 (SDF-1), and are tumorigenic when injected into mice. Here we show that in vivo, BJ3Z cells influence angiogenesis and proliferation of xenografted estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell-derived solid tumors. The growth promoting effects of BJ3Z cells are equivalent to those of estradiol (E2). BJ3Z cells also increase proliferation of normal mouse mammary luminal cells adjacent to tumors. In vitro BJ3Z cells reorganize and increase proliferation of co-cultured malignant MCF-7 and normal human breast MCF10A cells grown as organoids in three dimensional (3D) culture. The effects of BJ3Z cells on MCF-7 cells are equivalent to those of E2. In contrast, BJ3Z cells do not alter growth of highly aggressive ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. We show that BJ3Z cells secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Growth of MCF-7 organoids induced by BJ3Z can be inhibited by antagonists of VEGF and SDF-1. Conversely, recombinant VEGF stimulates proliferation of MCF-7 but not MDA-MB-231 organoids. We conclude that in addition to angiogenesis, VEGF released by activated stroma increases growth both of ER-positive malignant epithelial cells and of adjacent normal epithelium. Since activated stroma can substitute for E2 and fosters hormone-independent growth of ER-positive tumors, we suggest that breast cancers exhibiting intrinsic hormone resistance may respond to anti-angiogenic therapies.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4373
PMCID: PMC2848872  PMID: 20332242
Stroma; angiogenesis; proliferation; luminal breast cancer; VEGF; intrinsic estrogen resistance
13.  An Immunohistochemical Method to Study Breast Cancer Cell Subpopulations and Their Growth Regulation by Hormones in Three-Dimensional Cultures 
The development of in vitro three-dimensional cell culture matrices offers physiologically relevant alternatives to traditional culture on plastic surfaces. However methods to analyze cell subpopulations therein are poor. Here we present a simple and inexpensive method to analyze cell subpopulations in mixed-cell colonies using standard immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. Briefly, Matrigel™ blocks are sandwiched between two layers of HistoGel™, hardened by rapid cooling then processed for routine fixation, paraffin embedding, and IHC. We demonstrate the assay using mono- and co-cultured normal human breast, human breast cancer, and transformed mouse stromal cells along with hormone treated breast cancer cells. Judicious selection of specific antibodies allows different cell types within heterotypic colonies to be identified. A brief pulse of bromodeoxyuridine in living colonies allows proliferation of cell subpopulations to be quantified. This simple assay is useful for multiple cell types, species, and conditions.
doi:10.3389/fendo.2011.00015
PMCID: PMC3355989  PMID: 22649363
three-dimensional culture; immunohistochemistry; breast cancer; Matrigel; proliferation
14.  The Six1 homeoprotein induces human mammary carcinoma cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in mice through increasing TGF-β signaling 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2009;119(9):2678-2690.
Inappropriate activation of developmental pathways is a well-recognized tumor-promoting mechanism. Here we show that overexpression of the homeoprotein Six1, normally a developmentally restricted transcriptional regulator, increases TGF-β signaling in human breast cancer cells and induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is in part dependent on its ability to increase TGF-β signaling. TGF-β signaling and EMT have been implicated in metastatic dissemination of carcinoma. Accordingly, we used spontaneous and experimental metastasis mouse models to demonstrate that Six1 overexpression promotes breast cancer metastasis. In addition, we show that, like its induction of EMT, Six1-induced experimental metastasis is dependent on its ability to activate TGF-β signaling. Importantly, in human breast cancers Six1 correlated with nuclear Smad3 and thus increased TGF-β signaling. Further, breast cancer patients whose tumors overexpressed Six1 had a shortened time to relapse and metastasis and an overall decrease in survival. Finally, we show that the effects of Six1 on tumor progression likely extend beyond breast cancer, since its overexpression correlated with adverse outcomes in numerous other cancers including brain, cervical, prostate, colon, kidney, and liver. Our findings indicate that Six1, acting through TGF-β signaling and EMT, is a powerful and global promoter of cancer metastasis.
doi:10.1172/JCI37815
PMCID: PMC2735914  PMID: 19726885
15.  GCUNC-45 Is a Novel Regulator for the Progesterone Receptor/hsp90 Chaperoning Pathway 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2006;26(5):1722-1730.
The hsp90 chaperoning pathway is a multiprotein system that is required for the production or activation of many cell regulatory proteins, including the progesterone receptor (PR). We report here the identity of GCUNC-45 as a novel modulator of PR chaperoning by hsp90. GCUNC-45, previously implicated in the activities of myosins, can interact in vivo and in vitro with both PR-A and PR-B and with hsp90. Overexpression and knockdown experiments show GCUNC-45 to be a positive factor in promoting PR function in the cell. GCUNC-45 binds to the ATP-binding domain of hsp90 to prevent the activation of its ATPase activity by the cochaperone Aha1. This effect limits PR chaperoning by hsp90, but this can be reversed by FKBP52, a cochaperone that is thought to act later in the pathway. These findings reveal a new cochaperone binding site near the N terminus of hsp90, add insight on the role of FKBP52, and identify GCUNC-45 as a novel regulator of the PR signaling pathway.
doi:10.1128/MCB.26.5.1722-1730.2006
PMCID: PMC1430258  PMID: 16478993
16.  The progestational and androgenic properties of medroxyprogesterone acetate: gene regulatory overlap with dihydrotestosterone in breast cancer cells 
Breast Cancer Research  2005;7(6):R1036-R1050.
Introduction
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the major progestin used for oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy, has been implicated in increased breast cancer risk. Is this risk due to its progestational or androgenic properties? To address this, we assessed the transcriptional effects of MPA as compared with those of progesterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in human breast cancer cells.
Method
A new progesterone receptor-negative, androgen receptor-positive human breast cancer cell line, designated Y-AR, was engineered and characterized. Transcription assays using a synthetic promoter/reporter construct, as well as endogenous gene expression profiling comparing progesterone, MPA and DHT, were performed in cells either lacking or containing progesterone receptor and/or androgen receptor.
Results
In progesterone receptor-positive cells, MPA was found to be an effective progestin through both progesterone receptor isoforms in transient transcription assays. Interestingly, DHT signaled through progesterone receptor type B. Expression profiling of endogenous progesterone receptor-regulated genes comparing progesterone and MPA suggested that although MPA may be a somewhat more potent progestin than progesterone, it is qualitatively similar to progesterone. To address effects of MPA through androgen receptor, expression profiling was performed comparing progesterone, MPA and DHT using Y-AR cells. These studies showed extensive gene regulatory overlap between DHT and MPA through androgen receptor and none with progesterone. Interestingly, there was no difference between pharmacological MPA and physiological MPA, suggesting that high-dose therapeutic MPA may be superfluous.
Conclusion
Our comparison of the gene regulatory profiles of MPA and progesterone suggests that, for physiologic hormone replacement therapy, the actions of MPA do not mimic those of endogenous progesterone alone. Clinically, the complex pharmacology of MPA not only influences its side-effect profile; but it is also possible that the increased breast cancer risk and/or the therapeutic efficacy of MPA in cancer treatment is in part mediated by androgen receptor.
doi:10.1186/bcr1340
PMCID: PMC1410743  PMID: 16457685
17.  Transcriptional Hyperactivity of Human Progesterone Receptors Is Coupled to Their Ligand-Dependent Down-Regulation by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Phosphorylation of Serine 294 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2001;21(18):6122-6131.
Breast cancers often exhibit elevated expression of tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors; these pathways influence breast cancer cell growth in part by targeting steroid hormone receptors, including progesterone receptors (PR). To mimic activation of molecules downstream of growth factor-initiated signaling pathways, we overexpressed mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase) kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) in T47D human breast cancer cells expressing the B isoform of PR. MEKK1 is a strong activator of p42 and p44 MAPKs. MEKK1 expression increased progestin-mediated transcription 8- to 10-fold above normal PR-driven transcription levels. This was dependent on the presence of a progesterone response element and functional PR. PR protein levels were unchanged by MEKK1 alone but were extensively down-regulated by MEKK1 plus the progestin R5020. MEKK1 expression resulted in phosphorylation of PR on Ser294, a MAPK consensus site known to mediate ligand-dependent PR degradation. MEK inhibitors blocked phosphorylation of Ser294 and attenuated PR transcriptional hyperactivity in response to MEKK1 plus R5020; stabilization of PR by inhibition of the 26S proteasome produced similar results. T47D cells stably expressing mutant S294A PR, in which serine 294 is replaced by alanine, fail to undergo ligand-dependent down-regulation and are resistant to MEKK1-plus-R5020-induced transcriptional synergy but respond to progestins alone. Similarly, c-myc protein levels are synergistically increased by epidermal growth factor and R5020 in cells expressing wild-type PR, but not S294A PR. Thus, highly stable mutant PR are functional in response to progestins but are incapable of cross talk with MAPK-driven pathways. These studies demonstrate a paradoxical coupling between steroid receptor down-regulation and transcriptional hyperactivity. They also suggest a link between phosphorylation of PR by MAPKs in response to peptide growth factor signaling and steroid hormone control of breast cancer cell growth.
doi:10.1128/MCB.21.18.6122-6131.2001
PMCID: PMC87329  PMID: 11509655
18.  Bringing estrogen receptors under control 
Breast Cancer Research  1999;1(1):5-7.
doi:10.1186/bcr3
PMCID: PMC138501  PMID: 11250673

Results 1-18 (18)