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1.  PPAR Activators as Antiinflammatory Mediators in Human T Lymphocytes 
Circulation research  2002;90(6):703-710.
Activation of T lymphocytes and their ensuing elaboration of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)-γ, represent a critical step in atherogenesis and arteriosclerosis. IFNγ pathways also appear integral to the development of transplantation-associated arteriosclerosis (Tx-AA), limiting long-term cardiac allograft survival. Although disruption of these IFNγ signaling pathways limits atherosclerosis and Tx-AA in animals, little is known about inhibitory regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production in humans. The present study investigated whether activators of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) α and PPARγ, with their known antiinflammatory effects, might regulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human CD4-positive T cells. Isolated human CD4-positive T cells express PPARα and PPARγ mRNA and protein. Activation of CD4-positive T cells by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies significantly increased IFNγ protein secretion from 0 to 504±168 pg/mL, as determined by ELISA. Pretreatment of cells with well-established PPARα (WY14643 or fenofibrate) or PPARγ (BRL49653/rosiglitazone or pioglitazone) activators reduced anti-CD3–induced IFNγ secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. PPAR activators also inhibited TNFα and interleukin-2 protein expression. In addition, PPAR activators markedly reduced cytokine mRNA expression in these cells. Such antiinflammatory actions were also evident in cell-cell interactions with medium conditioned by PPAR activator–treated T cells attenuating human monocyte CD64 expression and human endothelial cell major histocompatibility complex class II induction. Thus, activation of PPARα and PPARγ in human CD4-positive T cells limits the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IFNγ, yielding potential therapeutic benefits in pathological processes, such as atherosclerosis and Tx-AA.
PMCID: PMC4231718  PMID: 11934839
atherosclerosis; fibrates; thiazolidinediones; peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors; T cells
6.  Direct inhibitory effects of Ganciclovir on ICAM-1 expression and proliferation in human coronary vascular cells (SI/MPL-ratio: >1) 
Summary
Background
Treatment of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection with ganciclovir has beneficial indirect effects on the complex interactions of HCMV with restenosis, atherosclerosis, and transplant vascular sclerosis. The current study reports on direct effects of ganciclovir on expression of ICAM-1 and cell proliferation, key events of coronary atherosclerosis/restenosis. A potential clinical relevance of the data will be evaluated with the help of SI/MPL-ratio’s.
Material/Methods
Definition of the SI/MPL-ratio: relation between significant inhibitory effects in vitro/ex vivo and the maximal plasma level after systemic administration in vivo (ganciclovir: 9 μg/ml). Part I of the study investigated in cytoflow studies the effect of ganciclovir (0.05–5000 μg/mL) on TNF-a induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins (HUVEC), human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC), and human coronary smooth muscle cells (HCMSMC). Part II of the study analysed the effect of ganciclovir (0.05–5000 μg/mL) on cell proliferation (HUVEC, HCAEC, and HCMSMC). In part III cytotoxic effects of ganciclovir (0.05–5000 μg/mL) were studied (HUVEC, HCAEC, and HCMSMC).
Results
Ganciclovir caused slight but significant inhibitory effects on expression of ICAM-1 in HUVEC, HCAEC, and HCMSMC. In all three cell types studied strong dose depending significant antiproliferative effects of ganciclovir were detected. Partially, the antiproliferative effects of ganciclovir were caused by cytotoxic effects.
Conclusions
SI/MPL-ratio’s >1 in HCAEC and HCMSMC indicate that the inhibitory effects of gancliclovir on ICAM-1-expression and cell proliferation may only be expected in vivo following local high dose administration e.g. in drug eluting stents (DES).
doi:10.12659/MSM.881310
PMCID: PMC3524678  PMID: 21169918
Ganciclovir; adhesion molecule ICAM-1; cell proliferation; Coronary Restenosis; drug eluting stents
7.  Assessment of myocardial perfusion for detection of coronary artery stenoses by steady‐state, free‐precession magnetic resonance first‐pass imaging 
Heart  2007;93(11):1381-1385.
Objective
To evaluate the diagnostic impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) first‐pass perfusion using steady‐state, free‐precession (SSFP) sequences with parallel imaging (SENSE) for detection of coronary stenoses.
Design
Prospective observational study.
Setting
University hospital, cardiac MRI and catheterisation laboratories.
Patients and methods
228 patients were examined with coronary angiography and MRI (1.5 T Intera CV). A three‐slice, short‐axis SSFP perfusion scan with a saturation prepulse was performed during infusion of adenosine and at rest followed by myocardial scar (late enhancement) imaging. Gadolinium‐DTPA was given at 0.1 mmol/kg body weight. Perfusion images were visually assessed. Analysis for myocardial hypoperfusion was done according to patient group and according to vessel.
Results
Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI first‐pass perfusion for detection of a coronary artery stenosis (>50% luminal narrowing) in the total patient group were 93.0%, 85.7%, 91.2% and for a significant lesion (>70% luminal narrowing) 96.1%, 72.0%, 88.2%, respectively. Based on 536 coronary artery territories without myocardial scar, the sensitivity of MRI perfusion analysis for detection of a significant lesion was for the left anterior descending artery 91.4%, for the circumflex artery 81.6% and for the right coronary artery 65.1% (p<0.001).
Conclusions
MRI first‐pass perfusion analysis using an SSFP sequence with three myocardial slices was a highly accurate diagnostic method for detection of coronary artery stenoses. This MRI technique can be included in daily practice and has the potential to guide the indication for invasive coronary angiography.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.104232
PMCID: PMC2016921  PMID: 17488772
magnetic resonance imaging; myocardial perfusion; coronary angiography; coronary stenosis; SSFP
8.  Dual stack black blood carotid artery CMR at 3T: Application to wall thickness visualization 
Background
The increasing understanding of atherosclerosis as an important risk factor for the development of acute ischemic events like ischemic stroke has stimulated increasing interest in non-invasive assessment of the structure, composition and burden of plaque depositions in the carotid artery wall. Vessel wall imaging by means of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is conventionally done by 2D dual inversion recovery (DIR) techniques, which often fail in covering large volumes of interest as required in plaque burden assessment. Although the technique has been extended to 2D multislice imaging, its straight extension to 3D protocols is still limited by the prolonged acquisition times and incomplete blood suppression. A novel approach for rapid overview imaging of large sections of the carotid artery wall at isotropic spatial resolutions is presented, which omits excitation of the epiglottis. By the interleaved acquisition of two 3D stacks with the proposed motion sensitized segmented steady-state black-blood gradient echo technique (MSDS) the coverage of the carotid artery trees on both sides in reasonable scan times is enabled.
Results
10 patients were investigated with the proposed technique and compared to conventional transversal DIR turbo spin and gradient echo approaches centered at the height of the carotid bifurcation. In all MSDS experiments sufficient black-blood contrast could be obtained over the entire covered volumes. The contrast to noise ratio between vessel and suppressed blood was improved by 73% applying the motion sensitizing technique. In all patients the suspicious areas of vessel wall thickening could be clearly identified and validated by the conventional local imaging approach. The average assessable vessel wall segment length was evaluated to be 18 cm. While in 50% of the cases motion artifacts could be appreciated in the conventional images, none were detected for the MSDS technique.
Conclusion
The proposed technique enables the time efficient coverage of large areas of the carotid arteries without compromising wall-lumen CNR to get an overview about detrimental alterations of the vessel wall. Thickening of the vessel wall can be identified and the suspicious segments can be targeted for subsequent high-resolution CMR. The exclusion of the epiglottis may further facilitate reduction of swallowing induced motion artifacts.
doi:10.1186/1532-429X-11-45
PMCID: PMC2777858  PMID: 19903348
9.  Current variables, definitions and endpoints of the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Registry 
Background
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) is increasingly used in daily clinical practice. However, little is known about its clinical utility such as image quality, safety and impact on patient management. In addition, there is limited information about the potential of CMR to acquire prognostic information.
Methods
The European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Registry (EuroCMR Registry) will consist of two parts: 1) Multicenter registry with consecutive enrolment of patients scanned in all participating European CMR centres using web based online case record forms. 2) Prospective clinical follow up of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) every 12 months after enrolment to assess prognostic data.
Conclusion
The EuroCMR Registry offers an opportunity to provide information about the clinical utility of routine CMR in a large number of cases and a diverse population. Furthermore it has the potential to gather information about the prognostic value of CMR in specific patient populations.
doi:10.1186/1532-429X-11-43
PMCID: PMC2779181  PMID: 19891768
10.  Electrocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as predictors of a worse outcome in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy 
European Heart Journal  2009;30(16):2011-2018.
Aims
Clinical parameters are weak predictors of outcome in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). We assessed the prognostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) parameters in addition to conventional clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics.
Methods and results
One hundred and forty-one IDC patients were studied. QRS and QTc intervals were measured in 12-lead surface electrocardiogram. Patients were followed for median 1339 days, including 483 patient-years. The primary endpoint—cardiac death or sudden death—occurred in 25 (18%) patients, including 16 patients with cardiac death, 3 patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD), and 6 patients with ICD shock. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was detected in 36 patients (26%). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis displayed QRS >110 ms (P = 0.010), the presence of LGE (P = 0.037), and diabetes mellitus (P < 0.001) as significant parameters for a worse outcome. Multivariable analysis revealed cardiac index (P < 0.001), right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVI) (P = 0.006) derived from CMR imaging, the presence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.006), and QRS >110 ms (P = 0.045) as significant predictors for the primary endpoint.
Conclusion
Cardiac index and RVEDVI derived from CMR imaging in addition to QRS duration >110 ms from conventional surface ECG and diabetes mellitus provide prognostic impact for cardiac death and SCD in patients with IDC.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehp293
PMCID: PMC2726960  PMID: 19633015
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy; Magnetic resonance imaging; Late gadolinium enhancement; Prognosis
11.  HCMV-infection in a human arterial organ culture model: effects on cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia 
BMC Microbiology  2007;7:68.
Background
The impact of infections with the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) for the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis is still unclear. Both a clear correlation and no correlation at all have been reported in clinical, mostly serological studies. In our study we employed a human non-injury ex vivo organ culture model to investigate the effect of an in vitro permissive HCMV-infection on cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia for a period of 56 days.
Results
During routine-nephrectomies parts of renal arteries from 71 patients were obtained and prepared as human organ cultures. Cell free HCMV infection was performed with the fibroblast adapted HCMV strain AD169, the endotheliotropic strain TB40E, and a clinical isolate (AN 365). After 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 56 days in culture staining of HCMV-antigens was carried out and reactive cell proliferation and neointimal thickening were analysed. Successful HCMV-infection was accomplished with all three virus strains studied. During the first 21 days in organ culture no cell proliferation or neointimal hyperplasia was detected. At day 35 and day 56 moderate cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia was found both in HCMV-infected segments and mock infected controls. Neointimal hyperplasia in productively HCMV-infected segments was lower than in non infected at day 35 and day 56, but relatively higher after infection with the endotheliotropic TB40E in comparison with the two other strains.
Conclusion
The data do not support the hypothesis that HCMV-infection triggers restenosis via a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in comparison to non infected controls. Interestingly however, even after lytic infection, a virus strain specific difference was observed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-7-68
PMCID: PMC1950876  PMID: 17659083
12.  Sirolimus inhibits key events of restenosis in vitro/ex vivo: evaluation of the clinical relevance of the data by SI/MPL- and SI/DES-ratio's 
Background
Sirolimus (SRL, Rapamycin) has been used successfully to inhibit restenosis both in drug eluting stents (DES) and after systemic application. The current study reports on the effects of SRL in various human in vitro/ex vivo models and evaluates the theoretical clinical relevance of the data by SI/MPL- and SI/DES-ratio's.
Methods
Definition of the SI/MPL-ratio: relation between significant inhibitory effects in vitro/ex vivo and the maximal plasma level after systemic administration in vivo (6.4 ng/ml for SRL). Definition of the SI/DES-ratio: relation between significant inhibitory effects in vitro/ex vivo and the drug concentration in DES (7.5 mg/ml in the ISAR drug-eluting stent platform). Part I of the study investigated in cytoflow studies the effect of SRL (0.01–1000 ng/ml) on TNF-α induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and human coronary smooth muscle cells (HCMSMC). Part II of the study analysed the effect of SRL (0.01–1000 ng/ml) on cell migration of HCMSMC. In part III, IV, and V of the study ex vivo angioplasty (9 bar) was carried out in a human organ culture model (HOC-model). SRL (50 ng/ml) was added for a period of 21 days, after 21 and 56 days cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neointimal hyperplasia was studied.
Results
Expression of ICAM-1 was significantly inhibited both in HCAEC (SRL ≥ 0.01 ng/ml) and HCMSMC (SRL ≥ 10 ng/ml). SRL in concentrations ≥ 0.1 ng/ml significantly inhibited migration of HCMSMC. Cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia was inhibited at day 21 and day 56, significance (p < 0.01) was achieved for the inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in the media at day 21. The number of apoptotic cells was always below 1%.
Conclusion
SI/MPL-ratio's ≤ 1 (ICAM-1 expression, cell migration) characterize inhibitory effects of SRL that can be theoretically expected both after systemic and local high dose administration, a SI/MPL-ratio of 7.81 (cell proliferation) represents an effect that was achieved with drug concentrations 7.81-times the MPL. SI/DES-ratio's between 10-6 and 10-8 indicate that the described inhibitory effects of SRL have been detected with micro to nano parts of the SRL concentration in the ISAR drug-eluting stent platform. Drug concentrations in DES will be a central issue in the future.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-7-15
PMCID: PMC1878500  PMID: 17498286
13.  Edge restenosis: impact of low dose irradiation on cell proliferation and ICAM-1 expression 
Background
Low dose irradiation (LDI) of uninjured segments is the consequence of the suggestion of many authors to extend the irradiation area in vascular brachytherapy to minimize the edge effect. Atherosclerosis is a general disease and the uninjured segment close to the intervention area is often atherosclerotic as well, consisting of neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) and quiescent monocytes (MC). The current study imitates this complex situation in vitro and investigates the effect of LDI on proliferation of SMC and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in MC.
Methods
Plaque tissue from advanced primary stenosing lesions of human coronary arteries (9 patients, age: 61 ± 7 years) was extracted by local or extensive thrombendarterectomy. SMC were isolated and identified by positive reaction with smooth muscle α-actin. MC were isolated from buffy coat leukocytes using the MACS cell isolation kit. For identification of MC flow-cytometry analysis of FITC-conjugated CD68 and CD14 (FACScan) was applied. SMC and MC were irradiated using megavoltage photon irradiation (CLINAC2300 C/D, VARIAN, USA) of 6 mV at a focus-surface distance of 100 cm and a dose rate of 6 Gy min-1 with single doses of 1 Gy, 4 Gy, and 10 Gy. The effect on proliferation of SMC was analysed at day 10, 15, and 20. Secondly, total RNA of MC was isolated 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h after irradiation and 5 μg of RNA was used in standard Northern blot analysis with ICAM-1 cDNA-probes.
Results
Both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were detected after irradiation of SMC with a dose of 1 Gy. At day 10 and 15 a significant antiproliferative effect was found; at day 20 after irradiation cell proliferation was significantly stimulated. Irradiation with 4 Gy and 10 Gy caused dose dependent inhibitory effects at day 10, 15, and 20. Expression of ICAM-1 in human MC was neihter inhibited nor stimulated by LDI.
Conclusion
Thus, the stimulatory effect of LDI on SMC proliferation at day 20 days after irradiation may be the in vitro equivalent of a beginning edge effect. Extending the irradiation area in vascular brachytherapy in vivo may therefore merely postpone and not inhibit the edge effect. The data do not indicate that expression of ICAM-1 in quiescent MC is involved in the process.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-6-32
PMCID: PMC1526455  PMID: 16827927
14.  Effects of abciximab on key pattern of human coronary restenosis in vitro: impact of the SI/MPL-ratio 
Background
The significant reduction of angiographic restenosis rates in the ISAR-SWEET study (intracoronary stenting and antithrombotic regimen: is abciximab a superior way to eliminate elevated thrombotic risk in diabetes) raises the question of whether abciximab acts on clopidogrel-independent mechanisms in suppressing neointimal hyperplasia. The current study investigates the direct effect of abciximab on ICAM-1 expression, migration and proliferation.
Methods
ICAM-1: Part I of the study investigates in cytoflow studies the effect of abciximab (0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 μg/ml) on TNF-α induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Migration: Part II of the study explored the effect of abciximab (0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 μg/ml) on migration of HCMSMC over a period of 24 h. Proliferation: Part III of the study investigated the effect of abciximab (0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 μg/ml) on proliferation of HUVEC, HCAEC, and HCMSMC after an incubation period of 5 days.
Results
ICAM-1: In human venous endothelial cells (HUVEC), human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and human coronary medial smooth muscle cells (HCMSMC) no inhibitory or stimulatory effect on expression of ICAM-1 was detected. Migration: After incubation of HCMSMC with abciximab in concentrations of 0.0002 – 2 μg/ml a stimulatory effect on cell migration was detected, statistical significance was achieved after incubation with 0.002 μg/ml (p < 0.05), 0.002 μg/ml (p < 0.001), and 0.2 μg/ml (p < 0.05). Proliferation: Small but statistically significant antiproliferative effects of abciximab were detected after incubation of HUVEC (0.02 and 2.0 μg/ml; p = 0.01 and p < 0.01), HCAEC (2.0 and 20.0 μg/ml; p < 0.05 and p < 0,01), and HCMSMC (2.0 and 20.0 μg/ml; p < 0.05 and p < 0.05). The significant inhibition (SI) of cell proliferation found in HCAEC and HCMSMC was achieved with drug concentrations more than 10 times beyond the maximal plasma level (MPL), resulting in a SI/MPL-ratio > 1.
Conclusion
Thus, the anti-restenotic effects of systemically administered abciximab reported in the ISAR-SWEET-study were not caused by a direct inhibitory effect on ICAM-1 expression, migration or proliferation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-6-14
PMCID: PMC1475639  PMID: 16595000
15.  Detection of Erythropoietin in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Nonhypoxic Subjects Using a Multiplex Bead Array 
Mediators of Inflammation  2006;2006(5):18061.
As a noninvasive method, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has gained importance to improve monitoring of lung diseases and to detect biomarkers. The aim of the study was to investigate, whether erythropoietin (EPO) is detectable in EBC. EBC was collected from 22 consecutive patients as well as from healthy individuals. Using a multiplex fluorescent bead immunoassay, we detected EPO in EBC, as well as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in 13 out of 22 patients simultaneously (EPO 0.21 ± 0.03 in U/mL and TNF-α 34.6 ± 4.2 in pg/mL, mean ± SEM). No significant differences for EPO levels or correlation between EPO and TNF-α were found but TNF-α was significantly higher in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than in non-COPD (obstructive sleep apnoea, OSA, and lung healthy patients). This is the first report of detection of EPO in EBC. Due to the small study size more data is needed to clarify the role of EPO in EBC.
doi:10.1155/MI/2006/18061
PMCID: PMC1657081  PMID: 17392570
16.  Effects of mycophenolate mofetil on key pattern of coronary restenosis: a cascade of in vitro and ex vivo models 
Background
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), the prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA), is a rationally designed immunosuppressive drug. The current study investigates the effect of MMF on key pattern of restenosis in a cascade of in vitro and ex vivo models.
Methods
Part I of the study investigated in northern blot and cytoflow studies the effect of MMF (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 μg/mL) on TNF-α induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and human coronary medial smooth muscle cells (HCMSMC). Part II of the study applied a human coronary 3D model of leukocyte attack, the 3DLA-model. HCAEC and HCMSMC were cultured on both sides of a polycarbonate filters, mimicking the internal elastic membrane. Leukocyte attack (LA) was carried out by adding human monocytes (MC) on the endothelial side. The effect of MMF (50 μg/mL) on adhesion and chemotaxis (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 h after LA) and the effect on proliferation of co-cultured HCMSMC (24 h after LA) was studied. In part III of the study a porcine coronary organ culture model of restenosis (POC-model) was used. After ex vivo ballooning MMF (50 μg/mL) was added to the cultures for a period of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. The effect on reactive cell proliferation and neointimal thickening was studied at day 7 and day 28 after ballooning.
Results
Expression of ICAM-1 in northern blot and cytoflow studies was neither clearly inhibited nor stimulated after administration of MMF in the clinical relevant concentration of 50 μg/mL. In the 3DLA-model 50 μg/mL of MMF caused a significant antiproliferative effect (p < 0.001) in co-cultured HCMSMC but had no effect on MC-adhesion and MC-chemotaxis. In the ex vivo POC-model neighter reactive cell proliferation at day 7 nor neointimal hyperplasia at day 28 were significantly inhibited by MMF (50 μg/mL).
Conclusion
Thus, the data demonstrate a significant antiproliferative effect of clinical relevant levels of MMF (50 μg/mL) in the 3DLA-model. The antiproliferative effect was a direct antiproliferative effect that was not triggered via reduced expression of ICAM-1 or via an inhibition of MC-adhesion and chemotaxis. Probably due to technical limitations (as e.g. the missing of perfusion) the antiproliferative effect of MMF (50 μg/mL) could not be reproduced in the coronary organ culture model. A cascade of focused in vitro and ex vivo models may help to gather informations on drug effects before large experimental studies are initiated.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-5-9
PMCID: PMC1156877  PMID: 15890069
17.  Simultaneous intra/extravascular administration of antiproliferative agents as a new strategy to inhibit restenosis: The peak of reactive cell proliferation as a hallmark for the duration of the treatment 
Background
Strictly intravascular approaches for the treatment of postangioplasty restenosis are effective in the intima and the inner parts of the media but may be insufficient to control redundant pathways in the more outer parts of the media and the adventitia. An inverse situation may occur subsequently to a strictly extravascular approach, like the recently suggested pericardial approach in pigs. We hypothesized that simultaneous intra/extravascular administration of anti-restenotic agents inhibits restenosis by blocking all stimulatory pathways in the entire arterial wall.
Methods
Fresh hearts of 25 domestic pigs were obtained from a local slaughterhouse. Left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD) were harvested, cut into cylindric 5 mm segments, and cultured as ex vivo porcine organ cultures (POCs). After 9 bar ballooning simultaneous intra/extravascular administration of high dose diltiazem (50 μg/mL) was carried out for a period of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. At day 7 and 28 proliferative activity (BrdU), neointimal thickening, and staining against smooth muscle α-actin and vWF was analysed.
Results
7 days after ballooning administration of diltiazem for 4, 5, 6, and 7 days inhibited reactive cell proliferation by more than 50% (n.s.) as compared to control, 28 days after ballooning administration for 6 and 7 days inhibited neointimal thickening by more than 75% (p < 0.05). Simultaneous intra/extravascular administration of high dose diltiazem did not affect the expression of vWF in endothelial cells or smooth muscle α-actin in smooth muscle cells.
Conclusions
Simultaneous intra/extravascular administration of high dose diltiazem (50 μg/mL) has to be maintained for at least 6 days to achieve a significant inhibition of neointimal thickening. The data demonstrate the importance of the maximal reactive cell proliferation (= day 7 in the POC-model) for the calculation of the duration of the treatment period.
PMCID: PMC65511  PMID: 11825339
18.  Different effects of antisense RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 oligonucleotides on the nuclear factor-κB mediated expression of ICAM-1 in human coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cells 
Background
Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is one of the key events in early atherosclerosis and restenosis. We hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced and NF-κB mediated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) can be inhibited by antisense RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 oligonucleotides (RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50).
Results
Smooth muscle cells (SMC) from human coronary plaque material (HCPSMC, plaque material of 52 patients), SMC from the human coronary media (HCMSMC), human endothelial cells (EC) from umbilical veins (HUVEC), and human coronary EC (HCAEC) were successfully isolated (HCPSMC, HUVEC), identified and cultured (HCPSMC, HCMSMC, HUVEC, HCAEC). 12 hrs prior to TNF-α stimulus (20 ng/mL, 6 hrs) RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 (1, 2, 4, 10, 20, and 30 μM) and controls were added for a period of 18 hrs. In HUVEC and HCAEC there was a dose dependent inhibition of ICAM-1 expression after adding of both RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50. No inhibitory effect was seen after incubation of HCMSMC with RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50. A moderate inhibition of ICAM-1 expression was found after simultaneous addition of RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 to HCPSMC, no inhibitory effect was detected after individual addition of RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50.
Conclusions
The data point out that differences exist in the NF-κB mediated expression of ICAM-1 between EC and SMC. Experimental antisense strategies directed against RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 in early atherosclerosis and restenosis are promising in HCAEC but will be confronted with redundant pathways in HCMSMC and HCPSMC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-2-7
PMCID: PMC48145  PMID: 11532196

Results 1-18 (18)