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1.  TRF2 is recruited to the pre-initiation complex as a testis-specific subunit of TFIIA/ALF to promote haploid cell gene expression 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:32069.
Mammalian genomes encode two genes related to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP), TBP-related factors 2 and 3 (TRF2 and TRF3). Male Trf2−/− mice are sterile and characterized by arrested spermatogenesis at the transition from late haploid spermatids to early elongating spermatids. Despite this characterization, the molecular function of murine Trf2 remains poorly characterized and no direct evidence exists to show that it acts as a bona fide chromatin-bound transcription factor. We show here that Trf2 forms a stable complex with TFIIA or the testis expressed paralogue ALF chaperoned in the cytoplasm by heat shock proteins. We demonstrate for the first time that Trf2 is recruited to active haploid cell promoters together with Tbp, Taf7l and RNA polymerase II. RNA-seq analysis identifies a set of genes activated in haploid spermatids during the first wave of spermatogenesis whose expression is down-regulated by Trf2 inactivation. We therefore propose that Trf2 is recruited to the preinitiation complex as a testis-specific subunit of TFIIA/ALF that cooperates with Tbp and Taf7l to promote haploid cell gene expression.
doi:10.1038/srep32069
PMCID: PMC5006001  PMID: 27576952
2.  Essential role of the TFIID subunit TAF4 in murine embryogenesis and embryonic stem cell differentiation 
Nature Communications  2016;7:11063.
TAF4 (TATA-binding protein-associated factor 4) and its paralogue TAF4b are components of the TFIID core module. We inactivated the murine Taf4a gene to address Taf4 function during embryogenesis. Here we show that Taf4a−/− embryos survive until E9.5 where primary germ layers and many embryonic structures are identified showing Taf4 is dispensable for their specification. In contrast, Taf4 is required for correct patterning of the trunk and anterior structures, ventral morphogenesis and proper heart positioning. Overlapping expression of Taf4a and Taf4b during embryogenesis suggests their redundancy at early stages. In agreement with this, Taf4a−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are viable and comprise Taf4b-containing TFIID. Nevertheless, Taf4a−/− ESCs do not complete differentiation into glutamatergic neurons and cardiomyocytes in vitro due to impaired preinitiation complex formation at the promoters of critical differentiation genes. We define an essential role of a core TFIID TAF in differentiation events during mammalian embryogenesis.
The role of TFIID core module TAFs (TATA-binding protein-associated factors) in embryogenesis is unknown. Here, the authors show that Taf4 is essential at mid-gestation and for complete neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells, but that Taf4a and Taf4b are redundant at early embryonic stages.
doi:10.1038/ncomms11063
PMCID: PMC4820908  PMID: 27026076
3.  TRIM33 switches off Ifnb1 gene transcription during the late phase of macrophage activation 
Nature Communications  2015;6:8900.
Despite its importance during viral or bacterial infections, transcriptional regulation of the interferon-β gene (Ifnb1) in activated macrophages is only partially understood. Here we report that TRIM33 deficiency results in high, sustained expression of Ifnb1 at late stages of toll-like receptor-mediated activation in macrophages but not in fibroblasts. In macrophages, TRIM33 is recruited by PU.1 to a conserved region, the Ifnb1 Control Element (ICE), located 15 kb upstream of the Ifnb1 transcription start site. ICE constitutively interacts with Ifnb1 through a TRIM33-independent chromatin loop. At late phases of lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages, TRIM33 is bound to ICE, regulates Ifnb1 enhanceosome loading, controls Ifnb1 chromatin structure and represses Ifnb1 gene transcription by preventing recruitment of CBP/p300. These results characterize a previously unknown mechanism of macrophage-specific regulation of Ifnb1 transcription whereby TRIM33 is critical for Ifnb1 gene transcription shutdown.
Transcriptional regulation of the interferon-β gene (Ifnb1) in macrophages is a critical immune event. Here, Ferri et al. show that, at late phases of macrophages activation, TRIM33 bound to a distal repressor element suppresses Ifnb1 transcription by preventing recruitment of CBP/p300.
doi:10.1038/ncomms9900
PMCID: PMC4673826  PMID: 26592194
4.  MITF and c-Jun antagonism interconnects melanoma dedifferentiation with pro-inflammatory cytokine responsiveness and myeloid cell recruitment 
Nature Communications  2015;6:8755.
Inflammation promotes phenotypic plasticity in melanoma, a source of non-genetic heterogeneity, but the molecular framework is poorly understood. Here we use functional genomic approaches and identify a reciprocal antagonism between the melanocyte lineage transcription factor MITF and c-Jun, which interconnects inflammation-induced dedifferentiation with pro-inflammatory cytokine responsiveness of melanoma cells favouring myeloid cell recruitment. We show that pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α instigate gradual suppression of MITF expression through c-Jun. MITF itself binds to the c-Jun regulatory genomic region and its reduction increases c-Jun expression that in turn amplifies TNF-stimulated cytokine expression with further MITF suppression. This feed-forward mechanism turns poor peak-like transcriptional responses to TNF-α into progressive and persistent cytokine and chemokine induction. Consistently, inflammatory MITFlow/c-Junhigh syngeneic mouse melanomas recruit myeloid immune cells into the tumour microenvironment as recapitulated by their human counterparts. Our study suggests myeloid cell-directed therapies may be useful for MITFlow/c-Junhigh melanomas to counteract their growth-promoting and immunosuppressive functions.
The c-Jun transcription factor can mediate a cell's response to TNFa. Here, Riesenberg et al. show in melanoma cells that c-Jun has an inverse relationship with the key melanocyte transcription factor MITF and that high c-Jun levels contribute to melanoma heterogeneity and an inflammatory microenvironment.
doi:10.1038/ncomms9755
PMCID: PMC4659938  PMID: 26530832
5.  Chromatin-Remodelling Complex NURF Is Essential for Differentiation of Adult Melanocyte Stem Cells 
PLoS Genetics  2015;11(10):e1005555.
MIcrophthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) regulates melanocyte and melanoma physiology. We show that MITF associates the NURF chromatin-remodelling factor in melanoma cells. ShRNA-mediated silencing of the NURF subunit BPTF revealed its essential role in several melanoma cell lines and in untransformed melanocytes in vitro. Comparative RNA-seq shows that MITF and BPTF co-regulate overlapping gene expression programs in cell lines in vitro. Somatic and specific inactivation of Bptf in developing murine melanoblasts in vivo shows that Bptf regulates their proliferation, migration and morphology. Once born, Bptf-mutant mice display premature greying where the second post-natal coat is white. This second coat is normally pigmented by differentiated melanocytes derived from the adult melanocyte stem cell (MSC) population that is stimulated to proliferate and differentiate at anagen. An MSC population is established and maintained throughout the life of the Bptf-mutant mice, but these MSCs are abnormal and at anagen, give rise to reduced numbers of transient amplifying cells (TACs) that do not express melanocyte markers and fail to differentiate into mature melanin producing melanocytes. MSCs display a transcriptionally repressed chromatin state and Bptf is essential for reactivation of the melanocyte gene expression program at anagen, the subsequent normal proliferation of TACs and their differentiation into mature melanocytes.
Author Summary
The melanocytes pigmenting the coat of adult mice derive from the melanocyte stem cell population residing in the permanent bulge area of the hair follicle. At each angen phase, melanocyte stem cells are stimulated to generate proliferative transient amplifying cells that migrate to the bulb of the follicle where they differentiate into mature melanin producing melanocytes, a processes involving MIcrophthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) the master regulator of the melanocyte lineage. We show that MITF associates with the NURF chromatin-remodelling factor in melanoma cells. NURF acts downstream of MITF in melanocytes and melanoma cells co-regulating gene expression in vitro. In vivo, mice lacking the NURF subunit Bptf in the melanocyte lineage show premature greying as they are unable to generate mature melanocytes from the adult stem cell population. We find that the melanocyte stem cells from these animals are abnormal and that once they are stimulated at anagen, Bptf is required to ensure the expression of melanocyte markers and their differentiation into mature adult melanocytes. Chromatin remodelling by NURF therefore appears to be essential for the transition of the transcriptionally quiescent stem cell to the differentiated state.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005555
PMCID: PMC4595011  PMID: 26440048
6.  Retinoic Acid Receptors Control Spermatogonia Cell-Fate and Induce Expression of the SALL4A Transcription Factor 
PLoS Genetics  2015;11(10):e1005501.
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is instrumental to male germ cell differentiation, but its mechanism of action remains elusive. To address this question, we have analyzed the phenotypes of mice lacking, in spermatogonia, all rexinoid receptors (RXRA, RXRB and RXRG) or all ATRA receptors (RARA, RARB and RARG). We demonstrate that the combined ablation of RXRA and RXRB in spermatogonia recapitulates the set of defects observed both upon ablation of RAR in spermatogonia. We also show that ATRA activates RAR and RXR bound to a conserved regulatory region to increase expression of the SALL4A transcription factor in spermatogonia. Our results reveal that this major pluripotency gene is a target of ATRA signaling and that RAR/RXR heterodimers are the functional units driving its expression in spermatogonia. They add to the mechanisms through which ATRA promote expression of the KIT tyrosine kinase receptor to trigger a critical step in spermatogonia differentiation. Importantly, they indicate also that meiosis eventually occurs in the absence of a RAR/RXR pathway within germ cells and suggest that instructing this process is either ATRA-independent or requires an ATRA signal originating from Sertoli cells.
Author Summary
Differentiation of spermatozoa from immature germ cells, called spermatogonia, critically depends on retinoic acid (ATRA), the active metabolite of vitamin A that acts though binding to nuclear receptors called RXR and RAR. To understand the mechanism by which ATRA control germ cell differentiation, we generated mice simultaneously lacking all RXR or all RAR specifically in spermatogonia. From their phenotypic analysis, we demonstrate that meiosis does not require a RAR/RXR-dependent pathway in germ cells and propose that this process is either ATRA-independent or requires an ATRA signal originating from somatic cells. We also show that RXR, in the form of dimers with RAR, can drive spermatogonia differentiation through binding to a regulatory region located in the Sall4 gene. This finding is significant, as the transcription factor encoded by Sall4 is known to regulate the expression of KIT, a key tyrosine kinase receptor which is frequently deregulated in testicular cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005501
PMCID: PMC4591280  PMID: 26427057
7.  Transcription factor MITF and remodeller BRG1 define chromatin organisation at regulatory elements in melanoma cells 
eLife  null;4:e06857.
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is the master regulator of the melanocyte lineage. To understand how MITF regulates transcription, we used tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to define a comprehensive MITF interactome identifying novel cofactors involved in transcription, DNA replication and repair, and chromatin organisation. We show that MITF interacts with a PBAF chromatin remodelling complex comprising BRG1 and CHD7. BRG1 is essential for melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and for normal melanocyte development in vivo. MITF and SOX10 actively recruit BRG1 to a set of MITF-associated regulatory elements (MAREs) at active enhancers. Combinations of MITF, SOX10, TFAP2A, and YY1 bind between two BRG1-occupied nucleosomes thus defining both a signature of transcription factors essential for the melanocyte lineage and a specific chromatin organisation of the regulatory elements they occupy. BRG1 also regulates the dynamics of MITF genomic occupancy. MITF-BRG1 interplay thus plays an essential role in transcription regulation in melanoma.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06857.001
eLife digest
Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells found primarily in the skin. Many of the genes that help these cells to develop are also thought to affect the development of melanomas: an aggressive form of skin cancer that originates in these cells. One such gene encodes a protein called MITF. This protein binds to DNA and regulates genes that control the development, survival, and spread of melanocytes; it is also linked to the invasive properties of melanomas.
The MITF protein works together with partner proteins to control numerous genes, activating some while inhibiting others, by binding to nearby stretches of DNA that act as regulatory elements. Its interactions are therefore widespread and complex. Now, Laurette, Strub et al. have used techniques called tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify the proteins that interact with MITF. This investigation found many new protein partners for MITF, including proteins involved in DNA damage, repair, and replication. MITF also associates with two proteins—one of which is called BRG1—that are involved in modifying how tightly DNA is packaged inside cells. DNA wrapped around proteins is known as chromatin, and if chromatin is tightly packed, the genes in that stretch of DNA cannot be easily accessed or activated.
Removing BRG1 from melanocytes and melanoma cells caused the cells to die or stop growing. When BRG1 was removed from developing mouse embryos, melanocytes failed to form. Further investigation revealed that MITF, together with another protein, localize BRG1 to sites in the melanocyte's DNA to open up the chromatin and regulate nearby genes. Furthermore, Laurette, Strub et al. report that BRG1 binds to many such elements in a characteristic manner, in which two BRG1 proteins flank the stretch of DNA bound by MITF and several other key DNA-binding proteins that together regulate many aspects of melanocyte and melanoma cell physiology.
Laurette, Strub et al. have therefore revealed many details about the molecules that activate genes in melanomas and melanocyte cells, as well as the interactions between these molecules. The results could also help researchers to understand how the BRG1 protein organises chromatin packing in other cell types.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06857.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.06857
PMCID: PMC4407272  PMID: 25803486
chromatin remodelling; SOX10; CHD7; YY1; TFAP2A; enhancer; human; mouse
8.  Structural Basis of Natural Promoter Recognition by the Retinoid X Nuclear Receptor 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:8216.
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) act as homodimers or heterodimerisation partners of class II nuclear receptors. RXR homo- and heterodimers bind direct repeats of the half-site (A/G)G(G/T)TCA separated by 1 nucleotide (DR1). We present a structural characterization of RXR-DNA binding domain (DBD) homodimers on several natural DR1s and an idealized symmetric DR1. Homodimers displayed asymmetric binding, with critical high-affinity interactions accounting for the 3′ positioning of RXR in heterodimers on DR1s. Differing half-site and spacer DNA sequence induce changes in RXR-DBD homodimer conformation notably in the dimerization interface such that natural DR1s are bound with higher affinity than an idealized symmetric DR1. Subtle changes in the consensus DR1 DNA sequence therefore specify binding affinity through altered RXR-DBD-DNA contacts and changes in DBD conformation suggesting a general model whereby preferential half-site recognition determines polarity of heterodimer binding to response elements.
doi:10.1038/srep08216
PMCID: PMC4314640  PMID: 25645674
9.  TAF4, a subunit of transcription factor II D, directs promoter occupancy of nuclear receptor HNF4A during post-natal hepatocyte differentiation 
eLife  null;3:e03613.
The functions of the TAF subunits of mammalian TFIID in physiological processes remain poorly characterised. In this study, we describe a novel function of TAFs in directing genomic occupancy of a transcriptional activator. Using liver-specific inactivation in mice, we show that the TAF4 subunit of TFIID is required for post-natal hepatocyte maturation. TAF4 promotes pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation at post-natal expressed liver function genes and down-regulates a subset of embryonic expressed genes by increased RNA polymerase II pausing. The TAF4–TAF12 heterodimer interacts directly with HNF4A and in vivo TAF4 is necessary to maintain HNF4A-directed embryonic gene expression at post-natal stages and promotes HNF4A occupancy of functional cis-regulatory elements adjacent to the transcription start sites of post-natal expressed genes. Stable HNF4A occupancy of these regulatory elements requires TAF4-dependent PIC formation highlighting that these are mutually dependent events. Local promoter-proximal HNF4A–TFIID interactions therefore act as instructive signals for post-natal hepatocyte differentiation.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03613.001
eLife digest
To decode the information contained within a gene, a number of processes need to occur. For example, the DNA sequence that makes up the gene needs to be copied to make a molecule of RNA, which is then translated to build the corresponding protein. The first steps in the manufacture of RNA involve a structure called a ‘pre-initiation complex’ moving an enzyme called RNA polymerase II to the start of the gene that needs to be copied.
The pre-initiation complex is made up of many types of protein, including a set of proteins called TAFs. However, the way that these proteins work in mammals is not well understood. There are good reasons for this: proteins are often studied by seeing what happens when the protein is removed, but many TAFs are so important that removing them is lethal.
Alpern et al. have now studied the function of TAF4 by removing this protein from mouse liver cells. This causes severe hypoglycemia (that is, a drop in sugar levels in the blood). Moreover, it seems as if these cells start dying before they become fully mature. In liver cells lacking TAF4, some 1408 genes that are normally turned on just after birth are not properly switched on; these genes are necessary for the metabolic functions of the liver. Furthermore, 776 genes that are normally turned off after birth continue to be expressed. It seems that the absence of TAF4 sometimes disrupts the formation of the pre-initiation complex, which would slow down the production of RNA. However, it can also have the opposite effect by increasing the activity of RNA polymerase II, hence making too many copies of RNA from some genes.
Alpern et al. also find that TAF4 is needed to allow a protein called HNF4A, which is important in the development of the liver and in controlling metabolism, to interact with over 7000 important DNA sequences. Mutations in HNF4A are responsible for a syndrome known as Maturity Onset of Diabetes in the Young. The next stage in this work will be to explore if these mutations influence the interaction between HNF4A and TAF4, and if they do, whether these changes contribute to this form of diabetes.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03613.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.03613
PMCID: PMC4359380  PMID: 25209997
developmental biology; genomics; bioinformatics; mouse
10.  Regulatory and Functional Connection of Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor and Anti-Metastatic Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor in Melanoma1 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2014;16(6):529-542.
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily, has potent anti-metastatic effects in cutaneous melanoma through its direct actions on endothelial and melanoma cells. Here we show that PEDF expression positively correlates with microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in melanoma cell lines and human samples. High PEDF and MITF expression is characteristic of low aggressive melanomas classified according to molecular and pathological criteria, whereas both factors are decreased in senescent melanocytes and naevi. Importantly, MITF silencing down-regulates PEDF expression in melanoma cell lines and primary melanocytes, suggesting that the correlation in the expression reflects a causal relationship. In agreement, analysis of Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) data sets revealed three MITF binding regions within the first intron of SERPINF1, and reporter assays demonstrated that the binding of MITF to these regions is sufficient to drive transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that exogenous PEDF expression efficiently halts in vitro migration and invasion, as well as in vivo dissemination of melanoma cells induced by MITF silencing. In summary, these results identify PEDF as a novel transcriptional target of MITF and support a relevant functional role for the MITF-PEDF axis in the biology of melanoma.
doi:10.1016/j.neo.2014.06.001
PMCID: PMC4198745  PMID: 25030625
Abbreviations; PEDF, pigment epithelium-derived factor; MITF, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor; RGP, radial growth phase of melanoma; VGP, vertical growth phase of melanoma; CM, cutaneous metastasis of melanoma; VM, visceral metastasis of melanoma; BRAF, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B; NRAS, neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog; OIS, oncogene induced senescence; hnRNA, heterogeneous nuclear RNA
11.  SIRT1 promotes proliferation and inhibits the senescence-like phenotype in human melanoma cells 
Oncotarget  2014;5(8):2085-2095.
SIRT1 operates as both a tumor suppressor and oncogenic factor depending on the cell context. Whether SIRT1 plays a role in melanoma biology remained poorly elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT1 is a critical regulator of melanoma cell proliferation. SIRT1 suppression by genetic or pharmacological approaches induces cell cycle arrest and a senescence-like phenotype. Gain and loss of function experiments show that M-MITF regulates SIRT1 expression, thereby revealing a melanocyte-specific control of SIRT1. SIRT1 over-expression relieves the senescence-like phenotype and the proliferation arrest caused by MITF suppression, demonstrating that SIRT1 is an effector of MITF-induced proliferation in melanoma cells. Interestingly, SIRT1 level and activity are enhanced in the PLX4032-resistant BRAFV600E-mutated melanoma cells compared with their sensitive counterpart. SIRT1 inhibition decreases melanoma cell growth and rescues the sensibility to PLX4032 of PLX4032-resistant BRAFV600E-mutated melanoma cells. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence that inhibition of SIRT1 warrants consideration as an anti-melanoma therapeutic option.
PMCID: PMC4039147  PMID: 24742694
melanoma; MITF; SIRT1; PLX4032; treatment
12.  TAF4 Inactivation Reveals the 3 Dimensional Growth Promoting Activities of Collagen 6A3 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e87365.
Collagen 6A3 (Col6a3), a component of extracellular matrix, is often up-regulated in tumours and is believed to play a pro-oncogenic role. However the mechanisms of its tumorigenic activity are poorly understood. We show here that Col6a3 is highly expressed in densely growing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In MEFs where the TAF4 subunit of general transcription factor IID (TFIID) has been inactivated, elevated Col6a3 expression prevents contact inhibition promoting their 3 dimensional growth as foci and fibrospheres. Analyses of gene expression in densely growing Taf4−/− MEFs revealed repression of the Hippo pathway and activation of Wnt signalling. The Hippo activator Kibra/Wwc1 is repressed under dense conditions in Taf4−/− MEFs, leading to nuclear accumulation of the proliferation factor YAP1 in the cells forming 3D foci. At the same time, Wnt9a is activated and the Sfrp2 antagonist of Wnt signalling is repressed. Surprisingly, treatment of Taf4−/− MEFs with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) restores contact inhibition suppressing 3D growth. ATRA represses Col6a3 expression independently of TAF4 expression and Col6a3 silencing is sufficient to restore contact inhibition in Taf4−/− MEFs and to suppress 3D growth by reactivating Kibra expression to induce Hippo signalling and by inducing Sfrp2 expression to antagonize Wnt signalling. All together, these results reveal a critical role for Col6a3 in regulating both Hippo and Wnt signalling to promote 3D growth, and show that the TFIID subunit TAF4 is essential to restrain the growth promoting properties of Col6a3. Our data provide new insight into the role of extra cellular matrix components in regulating cell growth.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087365
PMCID: PMC3911972  PMID: 24498316
13.  Unique Aspects of Transcription Regulation in Male Germ Cells 
Spermatogenesis is a complex and ordered differentiation process in which the spermatogonial stem cell population gives rise to primary spermatocytes that undergo two successive meiotic divisions followed by a major biochemical and structural reorganization of the haploid cells to generate mature elongate spermatids. The transcriptional regulatory programs that orchestrate this process have been intensively studied in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and mouse. Genetic and biochemical approaches have identified the factors involved and revealed mechanisms of action that are unique to male germ cells. In a well-studied example, cofactors and pathways distinct from those used in somatic tissues mediate the action of CREM in male germ cells. But perhaps the most striking feature concerns the paralogs of somatically expressed transcription factors and of components of the general transcription machinery that act in distinct regulatory mechanisms in both Drosophila and murine spermatogenesis.
Distinct regulatory mechanisms in Drosophila and murine spermatogenesis have been identified involving paralogs of somatically expressed transcription factors and components of the general transcription machinery (e.g., TAF proteins).
doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a002626
PMCID: PMC3119912  PMID: 21555408
14.  Phosphorylation of BRN2 Modulates Its Interaction with the Pax3 Promoter To Control Melanocyte Migration and Proliferation 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2012;32(7):1237-1247.
MITF-M and PAX3 are proteins central to the establishment and transformation of the melanocyte lineage. They control various cellular mechanisms, including migration and proliferation. BRN2 is a POU domain transcription factor expressed in melanoma cell lines and is involved in proliferation and invasion, at least in part by regulating the expression of MITF-M and PAX3. The T361 and S362 residues of BRN2, both in the POU domain, are conserved throughout the POU protein family and are targets for phosphorylation, but their roles in vivo remain unknown. To examine the role of this phosphorylation, we generated mutant BRN2 in which these two residues were replaced with alanines (BRN2TS→BRN2AA). When expressed in melanocytes in vitro or in the melanocyte lineage in transgenic mice, BRN2TS induced proliferation and repressed migration, whereas BRN2AA repressed both proliferation and migration. BRN2TS and BRN2AA bound and repressed the MITF-M promoter, whereas PAX3 transcription was induced by BRN2TS but repressed by BRN2AA. Expression of the BRN2AA transgene in a Mitf heterozygous background and in a Pax3 mutant background enhanced the coat color phenotype. Our findings show that melanocyte migration and proliferation are controlled both through the regulation of PAX3 by nonphosphorylated BRN2 and through the regulation of MITF-M by the overall BRN2 level.
doi:10.1128/MCB.06257-11
PMCID: PMC3302439  PMID: 22290434
15.  Thymine DNA Glycosylase Is Essential for Active DNA Demethylation by Linked Deamination-Base Excision Repair 
Cell  2011;146(1):67-79.
Summary
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing. While methyltransferases mediate cytosine methylation, it is less clear how unmethylated regions in mammalian genomes are protected from de novo methylation and whether an active demethylating activity is involved. Here we show that either knockout or catalytic inactivation of the DNA repair enzyme Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) leads to embryonic lethality in mice. TDG is necessary for recruiting p300 to retinoic acid (RA)-regulated promoters, protection of CpG islands from hypermethylation, and active demethylation of tissue-specific, developmentally- and hormonally-regulated promoters and enhancers. TDG interacts with the deaminase AID and the damage-response protein GADD45a. These findings highlight a dual role for TDG in promoting proper epigenetic states during development and suggest a two-step mechanism for DNA demethylation in mammals, whereby 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine are first deaminated by AID to thymine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil, respectively, followed by TDG-mediated thymine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil excision repair.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.020
PMCID: PMC3230223  PMID: 21722948
embryonic lethality; base excision repair; CpG dinucleotides; DNA demethylation; promoter methylation profiles
16.  Interconversion between active and inactive TATA-binding protein transcription complexes in the mouse genome 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(4):1446-1459.
The TATA binding protein (TBP) plays a pivotal role in RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through incorporation into the TFIID and B-TFIID complexes. The role of mammalian B-TFIID composed of TBP and B-TAF1 is poorly understood. Using a complementation system in genetically modified mouse cells where endogenous TBP can be conditionally inactivated and replaced by exogenous mutant TBP coupled to tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify two TBP mutations, R188E and K243E, that disrupt the TBP–BTAF1 interaction and B-TFIID complex formation. Transcriptome and ChIP-seq analyses show that loss of B-TFIID does not generally alter gene expression or genomic distribution of TBP, but positively or negatively affects TBP and/or Pol II recruitment to a subset of promoters. We identify promoters where wild-type TBP assembles a partial inactive preinitiation complex comprising B-TFIID, TFIIB and Mediator complex, but lacking TFIID, TFIIE and Pol II. Exchange of B-TFIID in wild-type cells for TFIID in R188E and K243E mutant cells at these primed promoters completes preinitiation complex formation and recruits Pol II to activate their expression. We propose a novel regulatory mechanism involving formation of a partial preinitiation complex comprising B-TFIID that primes the promoter for productive preinitiation complex formation in mammalian cells.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr802
PMCID: PMC3287176  PMID: 22013162
17.  The TIF1α-related TRIM cofactors couple chromatin modifications to transcriptional regulation, signaling and tumor suppression 
Transcription  2011;2(5):231-236.
TRIM24 (TIF1α), TRIM28 (TIF1β) and TRIM33 (TIF1γ) are related cofactors defining a subgroup of the tripartite motif (TRIM) superfamily comprising an N-terminal RING finger E3 ligase and a C-terminal PHD-Bromodomain chromatin interacting module. Increasing evidence highlights the important roles of these proteins as modulators of multiple signaling pathways during normal development and as tumor suppressors. The finding that they interact to form a multiprotein complex suggests new mechanisms to integrate multiple signaling pathways for tumor suppression.
doi:10.4161/trns.2.5.17725
PMCID: PMC3265781  PMID: 22231120
retinoic acid; transcriptional repression; hematopoeisis; TGFβ; SMAD4
18.  seqMINER: an integrated ChIP-seq data interpretation platform 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(6):e35.
In a single experiment, chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) provides genome-wide information about a given covalent histone modification or transcription factor occupancy. However, time efficient bioinformatics resources for extracting biological meaning out of these gigabyte-scale datasets are often a limiting factor for data interpretation by biologists. We created an integrated portable ChIP-seq data interpretation platform called seqMINER, with optimized performances for efficient handling of multiple genome-wide datasets. seqMINER allows comparison and integration of multiple ChIP-seq datasets and extraction of qualitative as well as quantitative information. seqMINER can handle the biological complexity of most experimental situations and proposes methods to the user for data classification according to the analysed features. In addition, through multiple graphical representations, seqMINER allows visualization and modelling of general as well as specific patterns in a given dataset. To demonstrate the efficiency of seqMINER, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of genome-wide chromatin modification data in mouse embryonic stem cells to understand the global epigenetic landscape and its change through cellular differentiation.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1287
PMCID: PMC3064796  PMID: 21177645
19.  Cell-specific occupancy of an extended repertoire of CREM and CREB binding loci in male germ cells 
BMC Genomics  2010;11:530.
Background
CREB and CREM are closely related factors that regulate transcription in response to various stress, metabolic and developmental signals. The CREMτ activator isoform is selectively expressed in haploid spermatids and plays an essential role in murine spermiogenesis.
Results
We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to sequencing (ChIP-seq) to map CREM and CREB target loci in round spermatids from adult mouse testis and spermatogonia derived GC1-spg cells respectively. We identify more than 9000 genomic loci most of which are cell-specifically occupied. Despite the fact that round spermatids correspond to a highly specialised differentiated state, our results show that they have a remarkably accessible chromatin environment as CREM occupies more than 6700 target loci corresponding not only to the promoters of genes selectively expressed in spermiogenesis, but also of genes involved in functions specific to other cell types. The expression of only a small subset of these target genes are affected in the round spermatids of CREM knockout animals. We also identify a set of intergenic binding loci some of which are associated with H3K4 trimethylation and elongating RNA polymerase II suggesting the existence of novel CREB and CREM regulated transcripts.
Conclusions
We demonstrate that CREM and CREB occupy a large number of promoters in highly cell specific manner. This is the first study of CREM target promoters directly in a physiologically relevant tissue in vivo and represents the most comprehensive experimental analysis of CREB/CREM regulatory potential to date.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-530
PMCID: PMC3091680  PMID: 20920259
20.  Cell-Specific Interaction of Retinoic Acid Receptors with Target Genes in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts and Embryonic Stem Cells▿ †  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2009;30(1):231-244.
All-trans retinoic acid (RA) induces transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-dependent autocrine growth of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation to map 354 RA receptor (RAR) binding loci in MEFs, most of which were similarly occupied by the RARα and RARγ receptors. Only a subset of the genes associated with these loci are regulated by RA, among which are several critical components of the TGF-β pathway. We also show RAR binding to a novel series of target genes involved in cell cycle regulation, transformation, and metastasis, suggesting new pathways by which RA may regulate proliferation and cancer. Few of the RAR binding loci contained consensus direct-repeat (DR)-type elements. The majority comprised either degenerate DRs or no identifiable DRs but anomalously spaced half sites. Furthermore, we identify 462 RAR target loci in embryonic stem (ES) cells and show that their occupancy is cell type specific. Our results also show that differences in the chromatin landscape regulate the accessibility of a subset of more than 700 identified loci to RARs, thus modulating the repertoire of target genes that can be regulated and the biological effects of RA.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00756-09
PMCID: PMC2798310  PMID: 19884340
21.  Abnormal Sperm in Mice Lacking the Taf7l Gene▿ †  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;27(7):2582-2589.
TFIID is a general transcription factor required for transcription of most protein-coding genes by RNA polymerase II. TAF7L is an X-linked germ cell-specific paralogue of TAF7, which is a generally expressed component of TFIID. Here, we report the generation of Taf7l mutant mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells by using the Cre-loxP strategy. While spermatogenesis was completed in Taf7l−/Y mice, the weight of Taf7l−/Y testis decreased and the amount of sperm in the epididymides was sharply reduced. Mutant epididymal sperm exhibited abnormal morphology, including folded tails. Sperm motility was significantly reduced, and Taf7l−/Y males were fertile with reduced litter size. Microarray profiling revealed that the abundance of six gene transcripts (including Fscn1) in Taf7l−/Y testes decreased more than twofold. In particular, FSCN1 is an F-action-bundling protein and thus may be critical for normal sperm morphology and sperm motility. Although deficiency of Taf7l may be compensated in part by Taf7, Taf7l has apparently evolved new specialized functions in the gene-selective transcription in male germ cell differentiation. Our mouse studies suggest that mutations in the human TAF7L gene might be implicated in X-linked oligozoospermia in men.
doi:10.1128/MCB.01722-06
PMCID: PMC1899882  PMID: 17242199
22.  Pericentric heterochromatin reprogramming by new histone variants during mouse spermiogenesis 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2007;176(3):283-294.
During male germ cell postmeiotic maturation, dramatic chromatin reorganization occurs, which is driven by completely unknown mechanisms. For the first time, we describe a specific reprogramming of mouse pericentric heterochromatin. Initiated when histones undergo global acetylation in early elongating spermatids, this process leads to the establishment of new DNA packaging structures organizing the pericentric regions in condensing spermatids. Five new histone variants were discovered, which are expressed in late spermiogenic cells. Two of them, which we named H2AL1 and H2AL2, specifically mark the pericentric regions in condensing spermatids and participate in the formation of new nucleoprotein structures. Moreover, our investigations also suggest that TH2B, an already identified testis-specific H2B variant of unknown function, could provide a platform for the structural transitions accompanying the incorporation of these new histone variants.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200604141
PMCID: PMC2063955  PMID: 17261847
23.  Functional interaction between the homeoprotein CDX1 and the transcriptional machinery containing the TATA-binding protein 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;35(1):175-185.
We have previously reported that the CDX1 homeoprotein interacts with the TATA-box binding protein (TBP) on the promoter of the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) gene. We show here that CDX1 interacts with TBP via the homeodomain and that the transcriptional activity additionally requires the N-terminal domain upstream of the homeodomain. CDX1 interacting with TBP is connected to members of the TFIID and Mediator complexes, two major elements of the general transcriptional machinery. Transcription luciferase assays performed using an altered-specificity mutant of TBP provide evidence for the functionality of the interaction between CDX1 and TBP. Unlike CDX1, CDX2 does not interact with TBP nor does it transactivate the G6Pase promoter. Swapping experiments between the domains of CDX1 and CDX2 indicate that, despite opposite functional effects of the homeoproteins on the G6Pase promoter, the N-terminal domains and homeodomains of both CDX1 and CDX2 have the intrinsic ability to activate transcription and to interact with TBP. However, the carboxy domains define the specificity of CDX1 and CDX2. Thus, intra-molecular interactions control the activity and partner recruitment of CDX1 and CDX2, leading to different molecular functions.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkl1034
PMCID: PMC1802564  PMID: 17158164
24.  Cell-specific Nucleolar Localization of TBP-related Factor 2D⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2004;15(10):4356-4368.
TATA-binding protein (TBP)-related factor 2 (TRF2) is one of four closely related RNA polymerase II transcription factors. We compared the intracellular localizations of TBP and TRF2 during the cell cycle and mitosis in HeLa cells. We show that during interphase, endogenous or exogenously expressed TRF2 is located almost exclusively in the nucleolus in HeLa or Cos cells. TRF2 localization is not affected by stress or mitotic stimuli, but TRF2 is rapidly released from the nucleolus upon inhibition of pol I transcription or treatment by RNase. These results suggest that localization of HeLa TRF2 requires a nucleolar-associated RNA species. In contrast, in 3T3 fibroblast cells, exogenously expressed TRF2 localizes to the nucleoplasm. Constitutive expression of ectopic TRF2 in 3T3 cells leads to a prolonged S phase of the cell cycle and reduced proliferation. Together with previous data, our results highlight the cell-specific localization and functions of TRF2. Furthermore, we show that during cell division, HeLa TRF2 and TBP are localized in the mitotic cytoplasm and TRF2 relocalizes into the nascent nucleoli immediately after mitosis, whereas TBP reassociates with the chromatin. Although partially contradictory results have been reported, our data are consistent with a model where only small proportion of the cellular TBP remains associated with specific promoter loci during mitosis.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-02-0138
PMCID: PMC519132  PMID: 15269281
25.  Distinct Mutations in Yeast TAFII25 Differentially Affect the Composition of TFIID and SAGA Complexes as Well as Global Gene Expression Patterns 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2002;22(9):3178-3193.
The RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIID, composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAFIIs), nucleates preinitiation complex formation at protein-coding gene promoters. SAGA, a second TAFII-containing multiprotein complex, is involved in transcription regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the essential protein components common to SAGA and TFIID is yTAFII25. We define a minimal evolutionarily conserved 91-amino-acid region of TAFII25 containing a histone fold domain that is necessary and sufficient for growth in vivo. Different temperature-sensitive mutations of yTAFII25 or chimeras with the human homologue TAFII30 arrested cell growth at either the G1 or G2/M cell cycle phase and displayed distinct phenotypic changes and gene expression patterns. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that TAFII25 mutation-dependent gene expression and phenotypic changes correlated at least partially with the integrity of SAGA and TFIID. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed that the five TAFII25 temperature-sensitive mutant alleles individually affect the expression of between 18 and 33% of genes, whereas taken together they affect 64% of all class II genes. Thus, different yTAFII25 mutations induce distinct phenotypes and affect the regulation of different subsets of genes, demonstrating that no individual TAFII mutant allele reflects the full range of its normal functions.
doi:10.1128/MCB.22.9.3178-3193.2002
PMCID: PMC133751  PMID: 11940675

Results 1-25 (32)