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author:("Chen, xuegan")
1.  P53 Is Involved in a Three-Dimensional Architecture-Mediated Decrease in Chemosensitivity in Colon Cancer 
Journal of Cancer  2016;7(8):900-909.
Three-dimensional (3D) culture models represent a better approximation of solid tumor tissue architecture, especially cell adhesion, in vivo than two-dimensional (2D) cultures do. Here, we explored the role of architecture in chemosensitivity to platinum in colon cancer. Under the 3D culture condition, colon cancer cells formed multicellular spheroids, consisting of layers of cells. 3D cultures displayed significantly decreased sensitivity to platinum compared with 2D cultures. Platinum increased p53 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. There was no detectable difference in basal p53 levels between 3D cultures and 2D cultures but cisplatin induced less p53 in both HCT116 3D cultures and LoVo 3D cultures. It was not due to cisplatin concentration because cisplatin induced similar γ-H2AX in 3D vs 2D. Knockdown of p53 significantly decreased sensitivity to platinum in 3D cultures. Knockdown of p53 decreased cleaved caspase 3 and apoptosis induced by cisplatin. These findings indicate that 3D architecture confers decreased chemosensitivity to platinum and p53 is involved in the mechanism. Knockdown of p53 decreased cisplatin's induction of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) activation, whereas inhibition of JNK1/2 activation increased chemosensitivity. Inhibition of p38 activation decreased cisplatin's induction of p53, but no difference in p38 activation by cisplatin was observed between 2D cultures and 3D cultures. Taken together, our results suggest that p53 is involved in a 3D architecture-mediated decrease in chemosensitivity to platinum in colon cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK1/2 and p38) do not play a dominant role in the mechanism.
doi:10.7150/jca.14506
PMCID: PMC4910581  PMID: 27313779
p53; platinum; three-dimensional culture; colorectal cancer cells.
2.  MicroRNA-330-3p functions as an oncogene in human esophageal cancer by targeting programmed cell death 4 
American Journal of Cancer Research  2015;5(3):1062-1075.
MicroRNAs comprise a family of small non-coding RNA molecules that have emerged as key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Aberrant miRNA expression has been linked to various human tumors. This study was aimed to identify novel miRNAs involved in the carcinogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and their potential functions. We performed miRNA microarray and found that miR-330-3p was highly expressed in ESCC tumor tissues. qRT-PCR further confirmed the result in other 35 pairs of ESCC tumor tissues and ESCC cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-330-3p significantly promoted ESCC cell proliferation, survival, migration, invasion in vitro and stimulated tumor formation in nude mice. Knockdown of miR-330-3p leaded to the opposite effects. The luciferase assay confirmed that miR-330-3p directly interacted with the PDCD4 mRNA 3’ un-translated region (UTR). Moreover, expression of PDCD4 was inversely associated with miR-330-3p in ESCC tissues. Silencing of PDCD4 significantly promoted cell growth, cell migration, invasion and inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ESCC cells. This study suggested that miR-330-3p might play an oncogenic role in the development of ESCC partially via suppression of PDCD4 expression.
PMCID: PMC4449435  PMID: 26045986
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; miR-330-3p; cell proliferation; cell invasion; PDCD4
3.  Expression and Splice Variant Analysis of Human TCF4 Transcription Factor in Esophageal Cancer 
Journal of Cancer  2015;6(4):333-341.
Objective: The human T cell transcription factor-4 (TCF4) interacts functionally with β-catenin in the Wnt signaling pathway, whose deregulation is involved in the tumorigenesis of various types of cancers. Recent studies showed that TCF4 mRNAs were subject to alternative splicing, which was proposed to be important in regulating transactivational properties of the corresponding protein isoforms. Here we investigated the splicing isoforms and the roles of TCF4 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Methods: RT-PCR and subsequent cloning and sequencing were applied to identify the splicing isoforms. Western blotting and realtime PCR were used to analyze the expression of TCF4. Knockdown of TCF4 was achieved with siRNA and stable transfection of expression vectors was performed.
Results: Our results showed there were a lot of different isoforms of TCF4 mRNA both in human esophageal cancers and cell line. Further, knockdown of TCF4E isoform expression in EC109 cells inhibited the cell growth, while overexpression of TCF4M isoform did not alter its transcription activity. Moreover, sixteen potential binding proteins of TCF4 were preliminarily identified by mass spectrometry.
Conclusions: Our data suggested that deregulation of TCF4 isoforms may contribute to the tumorigenesis of ESCC.
doi:10.7150/jca.10565
PMCID: PMC4349873  PMID: 25767603
TCF4; colon cancer; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; alternative splicing; tumorigenesis
4.  Transcriptional activation of microRNA-34a by NF-kappa B in human esophageal cancer cells 
Background
miR-34a functions as an important tumor suppressor during the process of carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism of miR-34a dysregulation in human malignancies has not been well elucidated. Our study aimed to further investigate the regulation mechanism of miR-34a.
Results
We found that overexpression of NF-kappa B p65 subunit could increase miR-34a levels in EC109, an esophageal squamous cancer cell line, while ectopic expression of DN IkappaB leaded to a significant reduction of miR-34a expression. Bioinformatics analysis suggested three putative KB sites in promoter region of miR-34a gene. Mutation two of these KB sites impaired p65 induced miR-34a transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays both showed that NF-kappaB could specifically bind to the third KB site located in miR-34a promoter. In addition, we found that overexpression of NF-kappaB p65 could not successfully induce miR-34a expression in esophageal cancer cell lines with mutant p53 or decreased p53. Reporter assay further showed that NF-kappaB-induced miR-34a transcriptional activity was reduced by p53 impairment. Nevertheless, CHIP analysis suggested binding of NF-kappaB to miR-34a promoter was not affected in cells with mutant p53.
Conclusions
Our work indicates a novel mechanism of miR-34a regulation that NF-kappaB could elevate miR-34a expression levels through directly binding to its promoter. And wildtype p53 is responsible for NF-kappaB-mediated miR-34a transcriptional activity but not for NF-kappaB binding. These findings might be helpful in understanding miR-34a abnormality in human malignancies and open new perspectives for the roles of miR-34a and NF-kappaB in tumor progression.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-13-4
PMCID: PMC3311059  PMID: 22292433
miR-34a; NF-kappa B; p53; gene expression regulation

Results 1-4 (4)