The paired box gene 6 (PAX6) is an essential transcription factor for eye formation. Genetic alterations in PAX6 can lead to various ocular malformations including aniridia. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic defects as the underlying cause of familial ocular coloboma in a large Chinese family.
After linkage analysis was carried out in this family, all exons of PAX6 in the proband were sequenced by the Sanger sequencing technique. Then the genome of the proband was evaluated by a microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to verify the abnormal aCGH findings.
All patients presented bilateral partial coloboma of iris, severe congenital nystagmus, hyperpresbyopia and congenital posterior polar cataracts. Two-point linkage analysis in the autosomal dominant family showed loss of heterozygosity at the D11S914 locus. There was no pathogenic mutation in the exons of PAX6. The aCGH analysis revealed a 681 kb heterozygous deletion on chromosome 11p13. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the deletion in the patients and further confirmed this deletion cosegregation with the ocular coloboma phenotype in the family.
The 681 kb large deletion of chromosome 11p13 downstream of PAX6 is the genetic cause of the familial ocular coloboma in this large Chinese family. aCGH should be applied if there is a negative result for the mutation detection of PAX6 in patients with ocular coloboma.
Molecular imaging plays a key role in personalized medicine and tumor diagnosis. Quantum dots with near-infrared emission spectra demonstrate excellent tissue penetration and photostability, and have recently emerged as important tools for in vivo tumor imaging. Integrin αvβ3 has been shown to be highly and specifically expressed in endothelial cells of tumor angiogenic vessels in almost all types of tumors, and specifically binds to the peptide containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD). In this study, we conjugated RGD with quantum dots with emission wavelength of 800 nm (QD800) to generate QD800-RGD, and used it via intravenous injection as a probe to image tumors in nude mice bearing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Twelve hours after the injection, the mice were still alive and were sacrificed to isolate tumors and ten major organs for ex vivo analysis to localize the probe in these tissues. The results showed that QD800-RGD was specifically targeted to integrin αvβ3 in vitro and in vivo, producing clear tumor fluorescence images after the intravenous injection. The tumor-to-background ratio and size of tumor image were highest within 6 hours of the injection and declined significantly at 9 hours after the injection, but there was still a clearly visible tumor image at 12 hours. The greatest amount of QD800-RGD was found in liver and spleen, followed by tumor and lung, and a weak fluorescence signal was seen in tibia. No detectable signal of QD800-RGD was found in brain, heart, kidney, testis, stomach, or intestine. Our study demonstrated that using integrin αvβ3 as target, it is possible to use intravenously injected QD800-RGD to generate high quality images of HNSCC, and the technique offers great potential in the diagnosis and personalized therapy for HNSCC.
nanotechnology; near-infrared fluorescence; tumor angiogenic vessel; head and neck cancer; in vivo imaging
Neither HBV DNA nor HBsAg positivity at birth is an accurate marker for HBV infection of infants. No data is available for continuous changes of HBV markers in newborns to HBsAg(+) mothers. This prospective, multi-centers study aims at observing the dynamic changes of HBV markers and exploring an early diagnostic marker for mother-infant infection.
One hundred forty-eight HBsAg(+) mothers and their newborns were enrolled after mothers signed the informed consent forms. Those infants were received combination immunoprophylaxis (hepatitis B immunoglobulin [HBIG] and hepatitis B vaccine) at birth, and then followed up to 12 months. Venous blood of the infants (0, 1, 7, and 12 months of age) was collected to test for HBV DNA and HBV markers.
Of the 148 infants enrolled in our study, 41 and 24 infants were detected as HBsAg(+) and HBV DNA(+) at birth, respectively. Nine were diagnosed with HBV infection after 7 mo follow-up. Dynamic observation of the HBV markers showed that HBV DNA and HBsAg decreased gradually and eventually sero-converted to negativity in the non-infected infants, whereas in the infected infants, HBV DNA and HBsAg were persistently positive, or higher at the end of follow-up. At 1 mo, the infants with anti-HBs(+), despite positivity for HBsAg or HBV DNA at birth, were resolved after 12 mo follow-up, whereas all the nine infants with anti-HBs(−) were diagnosed with HBV infection. Anti-HBs(−) at 1 mo showed a higher positive likelihood ratio for HBV mother-infant infection than HBV DNA and/or HBsAg at birth.
Negativity for anti-HBs at 1 mo can be considered as a sensitive and early diagnostic indictor for HBV infection in the infants with positive HBV DNA and HBsAg at birth, especially for those infants with low levels of HBV DNA load and HBsAg titer.
Stem cell factor–dependent KIT activation is an essential process for mast cell homeostasis. The two major splice variants of KIT differ by the presence or absence of four amino acids (GNNK) at the juxta-membrane region of the extracellular domain. We hypothesized that the expression pattern of these variants differs in systemic mastocytosis and that transcripts containing the KIT D816V mutation segregate preferentially to one GNNK variant. A quantitative real-time PCR assay to assess GNNK− and GNNK+ transcripts from bone marrow mononuclear cells was developed. The GNNK−/GNNK+ copy number ratio showed a trend toward a positive correlation with the percentage of neoplastic mast cell involvement, and KIT D816V containing transcripts displayed a significantly elevated GNNK−/GNNK+ copy number ratio. Relative expression of only the GNNK− variant correlated with increasing percentage of neoplastic mast cell involvement. A mast cell transfection system revealed that the GNNK− isoform of wild type KIT was associated with increased granule formation, histamine content, and growth. When accompanying the KIT D816V mutation, the GNNK− isoform enhanced cytokine-free metabolism and moderately reduced sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PKC412. These data suggest that neoplastic mast cells favor a GNNK− variant predominance, which in turn enhances the activating potential of the KIT D816V mutation and thus could influence therapeutic sensitivity in systemic mastocytosis.
We selected 180 clinical isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from patients in China and performed comparative sequence analysis of the mpt64 gene after amplification. From the results, we found that polymorphisms of the mpt64 gene in the MTBC may be the reason for changes in the antigen produced, which may in turn cause alterations of related functions, thereby allowing immune evasion.
Metabolic profiling is the unbiased detection and quantification of low molecular-weight metabolites in a living system. It is rapidly developing in biological and translational research, contributing to disease mechanism elucidation, environmental chemical surveillance, biomarker detection, and health outcome prediction. Recent developments in experimental and computational technology allow more and more known metabolites to be detected and quantified from complex samples. As the coverage of the metabolic network improves, it has become feasible to examine metabolic profiling data from a systems perspective, i.e. interpreting the data and performing statistical inference in the context of pathways and genome-scale metabolic networks. Recently a number of methods have been developed in this area, and much improvement in algorithms and databases are still needed. In this review, we survey some methods for the analysis of metabolic profiling data based on metabolic networks.
Activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, most notably KIT D816V, are commonly observed in patients with systemic mastocytosis. Thus, inhibition of KIT has been a major focus for treatment of this disorder. Here we investigated a novel approach to such inhibition. Utilizing rational drug design, we targeted the switch pocket (SP) of KIT which regulates its catalytic conformation. Two SP inhibitors thus identified, DP-2976 and DP-4851, were examined for effects on neoplastic mast cell proliferation and mast cell activation. Autophosphorylation of both wild type (WT) and, where also examined, KIT D816V was blocked by these compounds in transfected 293T cells, HMC 1.1 and 1.2 human mast cell lines; and in CD34+-derived human mast cells activated by stem cell factor (SCF). Both inhibitors induced apoptosis in the neoplastic mast cell lines and reduced survival of primary bone marrow mast cells from patients with mastocytosis. Moreover, the SP inhibitors more selectively blocked SCF potentiation of FcεRI-mediated degranulation. Overall, SP inhibitors represent an innovative mechanism of KIT inhibition whose dual suppression of KIT D816V neoplastic mast cell proliferation and SCF enhanced mast cell activation may provide significant therapeutic benefits.
mastocytosis; switch pocket; KIT; KIT D816V; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; mast cell
The 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) messenger RNA stimulates viral translation by an undetermined mechanism. We identified a high affinity interaction, conserved among different HCV genotypes, between the HCV 3′UTR and the host ribosome. The 3′UTR interacts with 40S ribosomal subunit proteins residing primarily in a localized region on the 40S solvent-accessible surface near the messenger RNA entry and exit sites. This region partially overlaps with the site where the HCV internal ribosome entry site was found to bind, with the internal ribosome entry site-40S subunit interaction being dominant. Despite its ability to bind to 40S subunits independently, the HCV 3′UTR only stimulates translation in cis, without affecting the first round translation rate. These observations support a model in which the HCV 3′UTR retains ribosome complexes during translation termination to facilitate efficient initiation of subsequent rounds of translation.
To investigate the effects of genetic factors on idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and genetic modes through genetic epidemiological survey on IS in Chongqing City, China, and to determine whether SH3GL1, GADD45B, and FGF22 in the chromosome 19p13.3 are the pathogenic genes of IS through genetic sequence analysis.
214 nuclear families were investigated to analyse the age incidence, familial aggregation, and heritability. SH3GL1, GADD45B, and FGF22 were chosen as candidate genes for mutation screening in 56 IS patients of 214 families. The sequence alignment analysis was performed to determine mutations and predict the protein structure.
The average age of onset of 10.8 years suggests that IS is a early onset disease. Incidences of IS in first-, second-, third-degree relatives and the overall incidence in families (5.68%) were also significantly higher than that of the general population (1.04%). The U test indicated a significant difference, suggesting that IS has a familial aggregation. The heritability of first-degree relatives (77.68 ±10.39%), second-degree relatives (69.89 ±3.14%), and third-degree relatives (62.14 ±11.92%) illustrated that genetic factors play an important role in IS pathogenesis. The incidence of first-degree relatives (10.01%), second-degree relatives (2.55%) and third-degree relatives (1.76%) illustrated that IS is not in simple accord with monogenic Mendel’s law but manifests as traits of multifactorial hereditary diseases. Sequence alignment of exons of SH3GL1, GADD45B, and FGF22 showed 17 base mutations, of which 16 mutations do not induce open reading frame (ORF) shift or amino acid changes whereas one mutation (C→T)occurred in SH3GL1 results in formation of the termination codon, which induces variation of protein reading frame. Prediction analysis of protein sequence showed that the SH3GL1 mutant encoded a truncated protein, thus affecting the protein structure.
IS is a multifactorial genetic disease and SH3GL1 may be one of the pathogenic genes for IS.
Zymomonas mobilis ZM401 is a flocculating strain which can be self-immobilized within fermentors for a high-cell-density culture to improve ethanol productivity, as well as high-gravity fermentation to increase ethanol titer, due to its improved ethanol tolerance associated with the morphological change. Here, we report its draft genome sequence.
CD274, one of two co-stimulatory ligands for programmed death 1 and widely expressed in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), may co-stimulate T cells and regulates inflammatory responses. However, changes in CD274 gene expression and the underlying molecular mechanism are poorly understood during inflammatory responses. Therefore, delineation of the complex mechanisms regulating CD274 expression is critical to understand this immunoregulatory system during inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to assess the molecular mechanisms regulating CD274 expression in an in vitro monocyte model of inflammatory response. Firstly, CD274 expression levels in human primary monocytes after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment were observed and correlated with NF-κB activation. Secondly, based on the distribution of putative NF-κB binding sites, 5′ truncated human CD274 promoter reporters were constructed, transfected into U937 cells and critical promoter regions for basal (nt −570 to +94) and LPS-induced (nt −1735 to −570) transcription were identified by dual luciferase assays. Finally, a key NF-κB binding site (nt −610 to −601) for LPS-inducible CD274 transcriptional activity was characterized by point mutation analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis assays (ChIP). Thus, the present study establishes a molecular basis to understand the mechanisms governing CD274 expression in certain infections and inflammatory disorders.
The recent development of antibodies specific for the major hotspot mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), L858R and E746_A750del, may provide an opportunity to use immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a screening test for EGFR gene mutations. This study was designed to optimize the IHC protocol and the criteria for interpretation of the results using DNA sequencing as the gold-standard.
Tumor sections from fifty lung adenocarcinoma specimens from Chinese patients were immunostained using L858R and E746_A750del-specific antibodies using three different antigen retrieval solutions, and the results were evaluated using three different sets of criteria. The same specimens were used for DNA purification and analysis of EGFR gene mutations.
In this study the optimal buffer for antigen retrieval was EDTA (pH 8.0), and the optimal scoring method was to call positive results when there was moderate to strong staining of membrane and/or cytoplasm in >10% of the tumor cells. Using the optimized protocol, L858R-specific IHC showed a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 97%, and E746_A750del-specific IHC showed a sensitivity of 59% and a specificity of 100%, both compared with direct DNA analysis. Additionally, the mutant proteins as assessed by IHC showed a more homogeneous than heterogeneous pattern of expression.
Our data demonstrate that mutation-specific IHC, using optimized procedures, is a reliable prescreening test for detecting EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinoma.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2059012601872392
Lung adenocarcinoma; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Mutation; Immunohistochemistry
Some recent clinical reports have shown that the combination of oxymatrine, a phyto-derived drug, with lamivudine (3TC) could improve its curative effect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the experimental data in support of this combination strategy are lacking. In this study, we investigated the anti-HBV activity of the combination of 3TC and either oxymatrine or matrine on HepG2 2.2.15 in vitro. The activities of the combination and the solo compound, each in different concentrations, were compared on the 3rd, 6th, and 9th experimental days. The cytotoxicity results showed that the nontoxic concentrations of both oxymatrine and matrine to HepG2 2.2.15 cells were 800 μg/mL. We found that the single use of oxymatrine below 100 μg/ml, matrine below 200 μg/ml, and 3TC below 30 μg/ml showed weak inhibitory effects on the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and HBV-DNA in culture media; the combination of 3TC (30 μg/ml) with oxymatrine (100 μg/ml) or matrine (100 μg/ml) showed significant inhibitory effects that were higher than or equivalent to the single use of 3TC at 100 μg/ml. The results provide a new impetus to develop novel, multicomponent anti-HBV drugs through the combination of natural products with nucleoside analogs to enhance their activity.
Background: Rab37 encodes a Rab GTPase which regulates the vesicular transport of exocytosis. But the different findings in two types of cancers made its roles in oncology more confused. In this study, a clinical research on genetic polymorphisms was performed to evaluate the association between Rab37 and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
Methods: The mRNA expression was tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in four ESCC cell lines. A case-control study including 212 ESCC patients and 213 cancer-free controls was genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test, association analysis and haplotype analysis were performed with SPSS and SHEsis software respectively.
Rab37 mRNA could be specifically detected in two ESCC cell lines, EC109 and EC9706, but not in KYS150 and KYS450. The allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of rs9904078G>A, rs2034310T>C and rs5018106T>C, located in Rab37, did not significantly differ between the patients and the controls. No association between the polymorphisms and the TNM stages of patients was found.
Rab37 mRNA was specifically expressed in some ESCC cell lines but its genetic polymorphisms were not associated with ESCC.
Rab37; Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Polymorphisms; Case-control study.
Analyzing gene expression data at the gene set level greatly improves feature extraction and data interpretation. Currently most efforts in gene set analysis are focused on differential expression analysis – finding gene sets whose genes show first-order relationship with the clinical outcome. However the regulation of the biological system is complex, and much of the change in gene expression dynamics do not manifest in the form of differential expression. At the gene set level, capturing the change in expression dynamics is difficult due to the complexity and heterogeneity of the gene sets. Here we report a systematic approach to detect gene sets that show differential coordination patterns with the rest of the transcriptome, as well as pairs of gene sets that are differentially coordinated with each other. We demonstrate that the method can identify biologically relevant gene sets, many of which do not show first-order relationship with the clinical outcome.
gene set analysis; gene expression; microarray
Down syndrome (DS) is caused by triplication of Human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and associated with an array of deleterious phenotypes, including mental retardation, heart defects and immunodeficiency. Genome-wide expression patterns of uncultured peripheral blood cells are useful to understanding of DS-associated immune dysfunction. We used a Human Exon microarray to characterize gene expression in uncultured peripheral blood cells derived from DS individuals and age-matched controls from two age groups: neonate (N) and child (C). A total of 174 transcript clusters (gene-level) with eight located on Hsa21 in N group and 383 transcript clusters including 56 on Hsa21 in C group were significantly dysregulated in DS individuals. Microarray data were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Functional analysis revealed that the dysregulated genes in DS were significantly enriched in two and six KEGG pathways in N and C group, respectively. These pathways included leukocyte trans-endothelial migration, B cell receptor signaling pathway and primary immunodeficiency, etc., which causally implicated dysfunctional immunity in DS. Our results provided a comprehensive picture of gene expression patterns in DS at the two developmental stages and pointed towards candidate genes and molecular pathways potentially associated with the immune dysfunction in DS.
Translation of Hepatitis C viral proteins requires an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located in the 5′ untranslated region of the viral mRNA. The core domain of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES contains a four-way helical junction that is integrated within a predicted pseudoknot. This domain is required for positioning the mRNA start codon correctly on the 40S ribosomal subunit during translation initiation. Here we present the crystal structure of this RNA, revealing a complex double-pseudoknot fold that establishes the alignment of two helical elements on either side of the four-helix junction. The conformation of this core domain constrains the open reading frame’s orientation for positioning on the 40S ribosomal subunit. This structure, representing the last major domain of HCV-like IRESs to be determined at near-atomic resolution, provides the basis for a comprehensive cryo-electron microscopy-guided model of the intact HCV IRES and its interaction with 40S ribosomal subunits.
A variety of studies have evaluated the associations between polymorphisms in the promoter regions of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cancer metastasis. However, the results remain inconclusive. To better understand the roles of MMP polymorphisms in metastasis, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis.
Electronic databases were searched (from January 2000 to June 2011) for any MMP genetic association studies in metastasis. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the associations between MMP polymorphisms and metastasis. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.0 and STATA11.0.
Thirty-three studies addressing five MMP polymorphisms were analyzed among 10,516 cancer cases (4,059 metastasis-positive cases and 6,457 metastasis-negative cases). For MMP1 (−1607)1G/2G, genotype 2G/2G increased the overall risk of metastasis under the recessive model (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.05–1.98). In subgroup analysis based on cancer type, associations were found in head/neck and breast cancer under the recessive model, and also in breast cancer under the dominant model. For MMP3 (−1171) 5A/6A, the polymorphism decreased the overall risk of metastasis under two genetic models (recessive: OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.64–0.99, dominant: OR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.56–0.93). The polymorphisms of MMP7 (−181) A/G and MMP9 (−1562) C/T increased metastatic risk. However, no association was observed between MMP2 (−1306) C/T and metastasis.
Our investigations demonstrate that polymorphisms in the promoter regions of MMP1, 3, 7 and 9 might be associated with metastasis in some cancers. Further studies with large sample size for MMP2 should be conducted.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide with demonstrated immunosuppressive and neuroprotective activities. It has been shown to inhibit Amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration by indirectly suppressing the production and release of a variety of inflammatory and neurotoxic factors by activated microglia. We demonstrated that VIP markedly increased microglial phagocytosis of fibrillar Aβ42 and that this enhanced phagocytotic activity depended on activation of the Protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. In addition, VIP suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide(NO) from microglia activated by combined treatment with fibrillar Aβ42 and low dose interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We utilized an adenovirus-mediated gene delivery method to overexpress VIP constitutively in the hippocampus of APPswPS1 transgenic mice. The Aβ load was significantly reduced in the hippocampus of this animal model of Alzheimer's disease, possibly due to the accumulation and activation of cd11b-immunoactive microglial cells. The modulation of microglial activation, phagocytosis, and secretion by VIP is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD).
Poly(A) polymerases (PAPs) are found in most living organisms and have important roles in RNA function and metabolism. Here we report the crystal structure of human PAPD1, a noncanonical PAP that can polyadenylate RNAs in the mitochondria (also known as mtPAP) and oligouridylate histone mRNAs (TUTase1). The overall structure of the palm and fingers domains is similar to that in the canonical PAPs. The active site is located at the interface between the two domains, with a large pocket that can accommodate the substrates. The structure reveals the presence of a previously unrecognized domain in the N-terminal region of PAPD1, with a backbone-fold that is similar to that of RNP-type RNA binding domains. This domain (named the RL domain), together with a β-arm insertion in the palm domain, contributes to dimerization of PAPD1. Surprisingly, our mutagenesis and biochemical studies show that dimerization is required for the catalytic activity of PAPD1.
miR-34a functions as an important tumor suppressor during the process of carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism of miR-34a dysregulation in human malignancies has not been well elucidated. Our study aimed to further investigate the regulation mechanism of miR-34a.
We found that overexpression of NF-kappa B p65 subunit could increase miR-34a levels in EC109, an esophageal squamous cancer cell line, while ectopic expression of DN IkappaB leaded to a significant reduction of miR-34a expression. Bioinformatics analysis suggested three putative KB sites in promoter region of miR-34a gene. Mutation two of these KB sites impaired p65 induced miR-34a transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays both showed that NF-kappaB could specifically bind to the third KB site located in miR-34a promoter. In addition, we found that overexpression of NF-kappaB p65 could not successfully induce miR-34a expression in esophageal cancer cell lines with mutant p53 or decreased p53. Reporter assay further showed that NF-kappaB-induced miR-34a transcriptional activity was reduced by p53 impairment. Nevertheless, CHIP analysis suggested binding of NF-kappaB to miR-34a promoter was not affected in cells with mutant p53.
Our work indicates a novel mechanism of miR-34a regulation that NF-kappaB could elevate miR-34a expression levels through directly binding to its promoter. And wildtype p53 is responsible for NF-kappaB-mediated miR-34a transcriptional activity but not for NF-kappaB binding. These findings might be helpful in understanding miR-34a abnormality in human malignancies and open new perspectives for the roles of miR-34a and NF-kappaB in tumor progression.
miR-34a; NF-kappa B; p53; gene expression regulation
Lysosomal exocytosis and fusion to cellular membrane is critical in the oxidative stress formation of endothelium under apoptotic stimulus. We investigated the role therein of it in hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. The lysosome-membrane fusion was shown by the expression of lamp1, the lysosomal membrane marker, on cellular membrane and the transportation of lysosomal symbolic enzymes into cultural medium. We also examined the ceramide production, lipid rafts (LRs) clustering, colocalization of gp91phox, a NADPH oxidase subunit (NOX) to LRs clusters, superoxide (O2.-) formation and nitric oxide (NO) content in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the endothelium-dependent NO-mediated vasodilation in isolated rat aorta. As compared to normal glucose (5.6 mmol/l, Ctrl) incubation, high glucose (22 mmol/l, HG) exposure facilitated the lysosome-membrane fusion in HUVEC shown by significantly increased quantity of lamp1 protein on cellular membrane and enhanced activity of lysosomal symbolized enzymes in cultural medium. HG incubation also elicited ceramide generation, LRs clustering and gp91phox colocalization to LRs clusters which were proved to mediate the HG induced O2.- formation and NO depletion in HUVEC. Functionally, the endothelium-dependent NO-mediated vasodilation in aorta was blunted substantially after HG incubation. Moreover, the HG-induced effect including ceramide production, LRs clustering, gp91phox colocalization to LRs clusters, O2.- formation and endothelial dysfunction could be blocked significantly by the inhibition of lysosome-membrane fusion. We propose that hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial impairment is closely related to the lysosome-membrane fusion and the following LRs clustering, LRs-NOX platforms formation and O2.- production.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in cancer by activating downstream signals important in growth and survival. Inhibitors of EGFR are frequently selected as treatment for cancer including lung cancer. We performed an unbiased and comprehensive search for EGFR phosphorylation events related to somatic activating mutations and EGFR inhibitor (erlotinib) sensitivity. EGFR immunoprecipitation combined with high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and label free quantitation characterized EGFR phosphorylation. Thirty (30) phosphorylation sites were identified including 12 tyrosine (pY), 12 serine (pS), and 6 threonine (pT). Site-specific phosphorylation was monitored by comparing ion signals from the corresponding unmodified peptide. Phosphorylation sites related to activating mutations in EGFR as well as sensitivity to erlotinib were identified using 31 lung cancer cell lines. We identified three sites (pY1092, pY1110, pY1172) correlating with activating mutations while three sites (pY1110, pY1172, pY1197) correlated with erlotinib sensitivity. Five sites (pT693, pY1092, pY1110, pY1172 and pY1197) were inhibited by erlotinib in concentration-dependent manner. Erlotinib sensitivity was confirmed using liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) and quantitative western blotting. This LC-MS/MS strategy can quantitatively assess site-specific EGFR phosphorylation and can identify relationships between somatic mutations or drug sensitivity and protein phosphorylation.
epidermal growth factor receptor; tyrosine phosphorylation; mass spectrometry; proteomics; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; erlotinib; lung cancer
Background. Limited data exist on the immunogenicity of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccine among immunocompromised persons, including those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
Methods. We compared the immunogenicity and tolerability of a single dose of the monovalent 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccine (strain A/California/7/2009H1N1) between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults 18–50 years of age. The primary end point was an antibody titer of ≥1:40 at day 28 after vaccination in those with a prevaccination level of ≤1:10, as measured by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. Geometric mean titers, influenza-like illnesses, and tolerability were also evaluated.
Results. One hundred thirty-one participants were evaluated (65 HIV-infected and 66 HIV-uninfected patients), with a median age of 35 years (interquartile range, 27–42 years). HIV-infected persons had a median CD4 cell count of 581 cells/mm3 (interquartile range, 476–814 cells/mm3) , and 82% were receiving antiretroviral medications. At baseline, 35 patients (27%) had antibody titers of >1:10. HIV-infected patients (29 [56%] of 52), compared with HIV-uninfected persons (35 [80%] of 44), were significantly less likely to develop an antibody response (odds ratio, .20; P = .003). Changes in the median geometric mean titer from baseline to day 28 were also significantly lower in HIV-infected patients than in HIV-uninfected persons (75 vs 153; P = .001). Five influenza-like illnesses occurred (2 cases in HIV-infected persons), but none was attributable to the 2009 influenza H1N1 virus. The vaccine was well tolerated in both groups.
Conclusions. Despite high CD4 cell counts and receipt of antiretroviral medications, HIV-infected adults generated significantly poorer antibody responses, compared with HIV-uninfected persons. Future studies evaluating a 2-dose series or more-immunogenic influenza A (H1N1) vaccines among HIV-infected adults are needed (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00996970).
Objective: The critical illness of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection may be associated with relatively poor outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe clinical features and factors associated with the deaths of critical patients. Methods: Medical records of 26 critical patients with H1N1 infection admitted from Sept. 1 to Dec. 31, 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was established by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Results: The mean age of the patients was (40.4±18.4) years and 73.1% of them were male. Clinical manifestations included fever, cough, and sputum production. The laboratory findings included leukocytosis, lymphopenia, C-reaction protein, and lactic dehydrogenase elevation. In this series, 17 subjects survived and 9 died. The parameters between the deaths and survivors were compared, which included acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores (23.8±10.1 vs. 14.3±6.6, P<0.05), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (13.3±3.0 vs. 6.6±3.3, P<0.05), and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) scores (7.4±2.5 vs. 3.3±1.7, P<0.05). The cases of deaths had higher incidences of cardiovascular failure (100% vs. 41.2%, P<0.05), renal failure (55.6% vs. 11.7%, P<0.05), encephalopathy (44.4% vs. 5.9%, P<0.05), hepatic failure (33.3% vs. 5.9%, P<0.05), and septic shock (33.3% vs. 17.6%, P<0.05). Conclusions: The critical patients with H1N1 infection have high APACHE II, SOFA, and MODS scores, which may be associated with an increased risk of death and complex clinical courses.
Critical illness; H1N1; Infection; Influenza A virus; Mortality