Long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at risk for cardiopulmonary complications and CNS stroke, although neurocognitive function has not been previously examined. The aim of this study was to examine neurocognitive and brain imaging outcomes in adult survivors of childhood HL.
Patients and Methods
In all, 62 adult survivors (mean age, 42.2 years; standard deviation [SD], 4.77; mean age at diagnosis, 15.1 years; SD, 3.30) were identified by stratified random selection from a large cohort treated with either high-dose (≥ 30 Gy) thoracic radiation (n = 38) or lower-dose (< 30 Gy) thoracic radiation combined with anthracycline (n = 24). Patients underwent neurocognitive evaluations, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), echocardiograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical examinations.
Compared with national age-adjusted norms, HL survivors demonstrated lower performance on sustained attention (P = .004), short-term memory (P = .001), long-term memory (P = .006), working memory (P < .001), naming speed (P < .001), and cognitive fluency (P = .007). MRI revealed leukoencephalopathy in 53% of survivors, and 37% had evidence of cerebrovascular injury. Higher thoracic radiation dose was associated with impaired cardiac diastolic function (E/E′; ratio of peak mitral flow velocity of early rapid filling [E] to early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus [E′]; P = .003), impaired pulmonary function (diffusing capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide [DLcocorr; P = .04), and leukoencephalopathy (P = .02). Survivors with leukoencephalopathy demonstrated reduced cognitive fluency (P = .001). Working memory impairment was associated with E/E′, although impaired sustained attention and naming speed were associated with DLcocorr. Neurocognitive performance was associated with academic and vocational functioning.
These results suggest that adult long-term survivors of childhood HL are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, which is associated with radiologic indices suggestive of reduced brain integrity and which occurs in the presence of symptoms of cardiopulmonary dysfunction.
The signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway plays important roles in oncogenesis, angiogenesis, immunity, and tumor cell invasion. In the present study, we investigated the association of interleukin (IL)-6/STAT3 signaling pathway with T lymphocytes and clinical implication in patients with gastric cancer.
Seventy one patients who underwent gastrectomy due to gastric adenocarcinoma were studied. Blood samples were collected before and after surgical gastrectomy to quantify the levels of IL-6, IL-10 and VEGF using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, as well as T lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+) and natural killer (NK) cells by a flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of IL-6, survivin, STAT3, STAT3 phosphorylation (p-STAT3), and VEGF were determined in human gastric cancer and adjacent normal mucosa through Western blot and immunohistochemistry.
Postoperative levels of IL-6, IL-10 and VEGF in serum were significantly lower than preoperative levels. Percentages of T-cell subsets and NK cells in blood were significantly increased after postoperative-week 1 as compared to preoperative group, which was further augmented at 1 month after gastrectomy. In addition, the expression of IL-6, survivin, STAT3, p-STAT3, and VEGF were increased in human gastric cancer tissues as compared to adjacent normal mucosa. Their expression was associated with TNM stage of gastric cancer. The level of STAT3 activation in clinical samples was correlated with IL-6 expression. All gastric tumor samples, which expressed p-STAT3, also expressed IL-6 with weak expression detected in adjacent normal mucosa.
Increased IL-6-induced activation of STAT3 was observed in neoplastic gastric tissue, which positively correlated with tumor progression. Moreover, IL-6 and STAT3 downstream signals such as IL-10 and VEGF were reduced in patients after removal of gastric cancer as compared to pre-operation. Therefore, inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway may provide a new therapeutic strategy against gastric cancer.
Stringent control of the type I interferon signaling pathway is important for maintaining host immune responses and homeostasis, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible for its tight regulation are still poorly understood. Here we report that the pattern-recognition receptor NLRP4 regulated the activation of type I interferon mediated by double-stranded RNA or DNA by targeting the kinase TBK1 for degradation. NLRP4 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase DTX4 to TBK1 for Lys48 (K48)-linked polyubiquitination at Lys670, which led to degradation of TBK1. Knockdown of either DTX4 or NLRP4 abrogated K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of TBK1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3. Our results identify a previously unrecognized role for NLRP4 in the regulation of type I interferon signaling and provide molecular insight into the mechanisms by which NLRP4-DTX4 targets TBK1 for degradation.
Macrolide resistance rates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the Beijing population were as high as 68.9%, 90.0%, 98.4%, 95.4%, and 97.0% in the years 2008 to 2012, respectively. Common macrolide-resistant mobile genetic elements were not detected with any isolate. These macrolide-resistant isolates came from multiple clones rather than the same clone. No massive aggregation of a particular clone was found in a specific period.
A total of 201 Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates from Beijing, China, isolated from 2008 to 2011, were clustered into 16 multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types, of which 6 new MLVA types have never been reported previously. Type 1 isolates based on p1 gene genotyping were mainly MLVA types E, J, P, U, and X. There was no correlation between macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae and their MLVA type.
Current technologies for measuring protein expression across a tissue section are based on mass spectrometry or in situ detection such as immunohistochemistry. However, due to the inherent molecular complexity of tissue samples and the large dynamic range of protein expression in cells, current approaches are often unable to measure moderate- and low-abundant proteins. In addition, they do not provide information on the physico- chemical properties of the proteins studied. To address these problems, we are developing a new pre-analytic methodology termed Layered Electrophoretic Transfer (LET) that selectively separates and processes proteins from an intact tissue section without compromising important two-dimensional histological information. LET offers two potential advantages over standard techniques: 1) A reduced complexity of the tissue proteome for subsequent analysis; 2) An opportunity to assess the biochemical status of proteins as they exist in situ. As an initial proof-of-concept, we demonstrate here that the protein content from a mixture of molecular weight standards, human tissue lysates, and tissue sections can be successfully transferred and separated using LET, and further demonstrate that the method can be coupled with immunoblotting or mass spectrometry for downstream measurements. LET technology represents a new pre-analytic tool for interrogating the proteome in tissue sections while preserving valuable spatial information.
2D protein separation; layered electrophoretic transfer; tissue protein mapping; proteomics
To determine whether unique groups of adult childhood cancer survivors could be defined on the basis of modifiable cognitive, affective and motivation indicators. Secondary objectives were to examine to what extent group membership covaried with more static variables (e.g., demographics, disease, and treatment) and predicted intent for subsequent medical follow-up.
Using latent class analysis of data from 978 participants (ages 18–52 years; mean, 31; SD, 8) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we classified survivors according to their worries about health, perceived need for follow-up care, health motivation, and background variables. Intent to participate in medical follow-up, as a function of class membership, was tested using equality of proportions.
The best-fitting model (BIC=18,540.67, BLMRT=<0.001) was characterized by three distinctive survivor classes (worried, 19%; self-controlling, 26%; collaborative, 55%) and three significant class covariates (gender, perceptions of health and severity of late effects). A smaller proportion of survivors in the self-controlling group [81%] than in the worried [90%] (P=0.015) and collaborative [88%] (P=0.015) groups intended to obtain a routine medical checkup. A smaller proportion of survivors in the self-controlling group [32%] than in the collaborative [65%] (P=<0.001) and worried [86%] (P=<0.001) groups planned a cancer-related check-up. A smaller proportion of survivors in the collaborative group [65%] than in the worried group [86%] (P=<0.001) were likely to obtain a cancer-related check-up.
Childhood cancer survivors can be classified according to modifiable indicators. The classification is distinctive, predicts intent for future medical follow-up, and can inform tailored interventions.
childhood cancer; survivorship; late effects; medical follow-up; pediatric oncology
Orosomucoid 1-like 3 (ORMDL3) gene was strongly linked with the development of asthma in genetic association studies, and its expression could be significantly induced by allergen in airway epithelial cells of mice. However, the expression mechanism of ORMDL3 was still unclear. Here we have identified and characterized the mouse ORMDL3 gene promoter. Deletion constructs of the 5′ ﬂanking region were fused to a luciferase reporter gene. After transient transfection in mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3, a CRE (−27/−20) binding CREB was identified in the core promoter region. Deletion or mutation of the CRE consensus sequence resulted in a significant loss of the promoter activity. EMSA and ChIP assays demonstrated the binding of CREB to the core promoter. Knocking down endogenous CREB led to a reduction in ORMDL3 expression. Conversely, overexpression of CREB up-regulated ORMDL3 expression. Moreover, forskolin, a PKA activator, could facilitate the phosphorylation of CREB, which in turn heightens ORMDL3 expression. H-89, a PKA-specific inhibitor, could significantly inhibit ORMDL3 expression. This study delineates the characterization of mouse ORMDL3 gene promoter and shows signaling pathway cAMP/PKA/CREB plays an important role in regulating ORMDL3 expression, which will be helpful for future animal model studies regarding the regulation or function of ORMDL3 gene.
Although whole lung irradiation (WLI) is used to treat pulmonary metastases of pediatric solid malignancies, few studies have addressed its long-term pulmonary consequences.
We conducted a retrospective study of longitudinal changes in 171 pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and their relationship with clinical features in 48 survivors of pediatric malignant solid tumors treated with WLI.
Although active respiratory symptoms were seen in only 9 (18.8%) patients, abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC; 58.3%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; 64.6%), total lung capacity (TLC; 72.9%), and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin (DLCOcorr; 70.8%) were common. At a median follow-up of 9.7 years after WLI, FVC, FEV1, and TLC significantly declined longitudinally (P = .04, .03, and .02, respectively). Focal pulmonary boost irradiation was significantly associated with abnormal FEV1/FVC (P = .03), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% forced vital capacity (FEF25%–75%; P = .005), residual volume (RV; P = .005), and RV/TLC (P = .002). Ten patients had baseline PFTs, and FVC, FEV1, TLC and DLCOcorr worsened immediately after radiation, followed by transient improvement but subsequent decline. Thirteen of 32 (40.6%) patients over the age of 18 were smokers.
Pulmonary dysfunction, especially in lung volumes, was prevalent after WLI and worsened over time although most patients were asymptomatic. Boost irradiation impaired pulmonary function, and a significant proportion of patients were smokers. Further studies are planned to assess the predictors and clinical consequences of progressive PFT abnormalities and to evaluate educational interventions.
pulmonary function tests; solid tumor; whole lung irradiation; pediatric cancer; follow-up
An isolated strain Streptomyces sp. HJC-D1 was applied to inhibit the growth of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905. The effect of Streptomyces sp. HJC-D1 culture broth on the cell integrity and physiological characteristics of M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 was investigated using the ﬂow cytometry (FCM), enzyme activity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Results showed that the growth of M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 was significantly inhibited, and the percentage of live cells depended on the culture broth concentration and exposure time. The activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased with exposure concentration and exposure time, and the significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to the disruption of the subcellular structure of M. aeruginosa FACHB-905, and caused the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA). Furthermore, TEM observation suggested the presence of three stages (cell breakage, organelle release and cell death) for the cyanobactericidal process of Streptomyces sp. HJC-D1. Therefore, Streptomyces sp. HJC-D1 not only affected antioxidant enzyme activities and ROS level, but also destroyed the subcellular structure of M. aeruginosa FACHB-905, demonstrating excellent cyanobactericidal properties.
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) regulates cell-cell adhesion and cell migration through activating the APC-stimulated guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF; Asef), which is usually autoinhibited through the binding between its Src homology 3 (SH3) and Dbl homology (DH) domains. The APC-activated Asef stimulates the small GTPase Cdc42, which leads to decreased cell-cell adherence and enhanced cell migration. In colorectal cancers, truncated APC constitutively activates Asef and promotes cancer cell migration and angiogenesis. Here, we report crystal structures of the human APC/Asef complex. We find that the armadillo repeat domain of APC uses a highly conserved surface groove to recognize the APC-binding region (ABR) of Asef, conformation of which changes dramatically upon binding to APC. Key residues on APC and Asef for the complex formation were mutated and their importance was demonstrated by binding and activity assays. Structural superimposition of the APC/Asef complex with autoinhibited Asef suggests that the binding between APC and Asef might create a steric clash between Asef-DH domain and APC, which possibly leads to a conformational change in Asef that stimulates its GEF activity. Our structures thus elucidate the molecular mechanism of Asef recognition by APC, as well as provide a potential target for pharmaceutical intervention against cancers.
APC; Asef; cell adhesion and cell migration; cancer; armadillo repeat domain
Many Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) participants are at increased risk for obesity. The etiology of their obesity is likely multifactorial but not well understood.
Patients and Methods
We evaluated the potential contribution of demographic, lifestyle, treatment, and intrapersonal factors and self-reported pharmaceutical use to obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) among 9,284 adult (> 18 years of age) CCSS participants. Independent predictors were identified using multivariable regression models. Interrelationships were determined using structural equation modeling (SEM).
Independent risk factors for obesity included cancer diagnosed at 5 to 9 years of age (relative risk [RR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.24; P = .03), abnormal Short Form–36 physical function (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33; P < .001), hypothalamic/pituitary radiation doses of 20 to 30 Gy (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.30; P = .01), and paroxetine use (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.54; P = .01). Meeting US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for vigorous physical activity (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97; P = .01) and a medium amount of anxiety (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99; P = .04) reduced the risk of obesity. Results of SEM (N = 8,244; comparative fit index = 0.999; Tucker Lewis index = 0.999; root mean square error of approximation = 0.014; weighted root mean square residual = 0.749) described the hierarchical impact of the direct predictors, moderators, and mediators of obesity.
Treatment, lifestyle, and intrapersonal factors, as well as the use of specific antidepressants, may contribute to obesity among survivors. A multifaceted intervention, including alternative drug and other therapies for depression and anxiety, may be required to reduce risk.
Adult survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings are compared on one of the most salient developmental milestones of adulthood, the ability to live independently.
Adult survivors of childhood cancers (n=6,047) and siblings (n=2,326), all 25 years of age and older, completed a long-term follow-up questionnaire that assessed adaptive, neurocognitive, and psychological functioning, as well as demographic and health status. Multivariable logistic regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to identify predictors of independent living.
Compared to siblings (n=206, 8.7%), survivors (n=1063; 17.7%) were more than twice as likely to live dependently (OR 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77–2.42). Survivors diagnosed with CNS tumors (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.10–0.18) or leukemia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.23–0.27) were significantly less likely to live independently compared to those diagnosed with Hodgkin Lymphoma. Other risk factors for reduced independent living included cranial radiation (≤24Gy OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62–0.93; >24Gy OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.24–0.41), use of neuroleptic, anticonvulsant, or psychostimulant medication (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.24–0.43), attention and processing speed problems (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47–0.71), poor physical functioning (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.38–0.63), depression (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.88), and racial/ethnic minority status (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.30–0.51). SEM demonstrated that neurocognitive functioning had both direct effects on independent living status, and indirect effects through use of neurologically-directed medication, depression, and poor mental health.
Adult survivors of childhood cancer who experience neurocognitive, psychological or physical late effects are less likely to live independently as adults.
Pediatric oncology; psychosocial; late effects; outcomes research
Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) sometimes have clinical features that suggest Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), though few studies have examined specific symptoms in survivors.
Long-term survivors of childhood ALL (n=161) received a neurological examination, while parents completed rating scales to establish formal criteria for ADHD. Symptom profiles were generated and compared across demographic and treatment characteristics, as well as medical tests associated with brain pathology.
Prevalence rates of ADHD were similar in survivors (10.5%) compared to those reported in the general population (7–10%). However, 25.5% of survivors reported symptoms that impair functioning in multiple settings, with attention problems being most common. These symptoms were associated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) (mean inattentive symptoms [SD] = 3.6 [3.19] for group treated with CRT vs. 1.6 [2.40] for non-CRT group, p=0.0006), and survivors who demonstrated impaired anti-saccades during the neurologic exam (mean inattentive symptoms [SD] = 3.4 [3.29] for those with impaired anti-saccades vs. 1.4 [2.41] for those with normal anti-saccades; p = 0.0004).
The presence of a neurologically-based phenotype of attention problems in survivors of leukemia that is not fully captured by the syndrome of ADHD suggests that treatments specific to childhood ALL should be explored.
ALL; long-term survivor; Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
AIM: To compare fluoroscopic, endoscopic and guide wire assistance with ultraslim gastroscopy for placement of nasojejunal feeding tubes.
METHODS: The information regarding nasojejunal tube placement procedures was retrieved using the gastrointestinal tract database at Tongji Hospital affiliated to Tongji Medical College. Records from 81 patients who underwent nasojejunal tubes placement by different techniques between 2004 and 2011 were reviewed for procedure success and tube-related outcomes.
RESULTS: Nasojejunal feeding tubes were successfully placed in 78 (96.3%) of 81 patients. The success rate by fluoroscopy was 92% (23 of 25), by endoscopic technique 96.3% (26 of 27), and by guide wire assistance (whether via transnasal or transoral insertion) 100% (23/23, 6/6). The average time for successful placement was 14.9 ± 2.9 min for fluoroscopic placement, 14.8 ± 4.9 min for endoscopic placement, 11.1 ± 2.2 min for guide wire assistance with transnasal gastroscopic placement, and 14.7 ± 1.2 min for transoral gastroscopic placement. Statistically, the duration for the third method was significantly different (P < 0.05) compared with the other three methods. Transnasal placement over a guidewire was significantly faster (P < 0.05) than any of the other approaches.
CONCLUSION: Guide wire assistance with transnasal insertion of nasojejunal feeding tubes represents a safe, quick and effective method for providing enteral nutrition.
Enteral nutrition; Nasojejunal feeding tube; Guide wire assistance; Fluoroscopy; Endoscopy
The coordination of signalling pathways within the cell is vital for normal human development and post-natal tissue homeostasis. Gene expression and function is therefore tightly controlled at a number of levels. We investigated the role that post-translational modifications play during human hepatocyte differentiation. In particular, we examined the role of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins in this process. We used a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based model of hepatocyte differentiation to follow changes in protein SUMOylation. Moreover, to confirm the results derived from our cell-based system, we performed in vitro conjugation assays to characterise SUMO modification of a key liver-enriched transcription factor, HNF4α. Our analyses indicate that SUMOylation plays an important role during hepatocellular differentiation and this is mediated, in part, through regulation of the stability of HNF4α in a ubiquitin-dependent manner. Our study provides a better understanding of SUMOylation during human hepatocyte differentiation and maturation. Moreover, we believe the results will stimulate interest in the differentiation and phenotypic regulation of other somatic cell types.
SUMO; HNF4α; Hepatocyte; hESCs; Liver; Cell-based modelling; p450; Transthyretin; Ubiquitin
Tight regulation of NF-κB signaling is essential for innate and adaptive immune responses, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible for its negative regulation are not completely understood. Here we report that NLRX1, a NOD-like receptor family member, negatively regulates Toll-like receptor-mediated NF-κB activation. NLRX1 interacts with TRAF6 or IκB kinase (IKK) in an activation signal-dependent fashion. Upon LPS stimulation, NLRX1 is rapidly ubiquitinated, disassociates from TRAF6 and then binds to the IKK complex, resulting in inhibition of IKKα/β phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. Knockdown of NLRX1 in various cell types markedly enhances IKK phosphorylation and the production of NF-κB-responsive cytokines after LPS stimulation. We further provide in vivo evidence that NLRX1 knockdown in mice markedly enhances susceptibility to LPS-induced septic shock and plasma IL-6 level. Our study identifies a previously unrecognized role for NLRX1 in the negative regulation of TLR-induced NF-κB activation by dynamically interacting with TRAF6 and the IKK complex.
Innate Immunity; NF-κB signaling; NOD-like receptors; IKK
Since the late 1970's, time-space clusters of sudden unexplained death (SUD) in northwest Yunnan, China have alarmed the public and health authorities. From 2006–2009, we initiated enhanced surveillance for SUD to identify a cause, and we warned villagers to avoid eating unfamiliar mushrooms.
We established surveillance for SUD, defined as follows: sudden onset of serious, unexplained physical impairment followed by death in <24 hours. A mild case was onset of any illness in a member of the family or close socially related group of a SUD victim within 1 week of a SUD. We interviewed witnesses of SUD and mild case-persons to identify exposures to potentially toxic substances. We tested blood from mild cases, villagers, and for standard biochemical, enzyme, and electrolyte markers of disease.
We identified 33 SUD, a 73% decline from 2002–2005, distributed among 21 villages of 11 counties. We found a previously undescribed mushroom, Trogia venenata, was eaten by 5 of 7 families with SUD clusters compared to 0 of 31 other control-families from the same villages. In T. venenata–exposed persons SUD was characterized by sudden loss of consciousness during normal activities. This mushroom grew nearby 75% of 61 villages that had time-space SUD clusters from 1975 to 2009 compared to 17% of 18 villages with only single SUD (p<0.001, Fisher's exact test).
Epidemiologic data has implicated T. venenata as a probable cause of clusters of SUD in northwestern Yunnan Province. Warnings to villagers about eating this mushroom should continue.
Human stem cells are scalable cell populations capable of cellular differentiation. This makes them a very attractive in vitro cellular resource and in theory provides unlimited amounts of primary cells. Such an approach has the potential to improve our understanding of human biology and treating disease. In the future it may be possible to deploy novel stem cell-based approaches to treat human liver diseases. In recent years, efficient hepatic differentiation from human stem cells has been achieved by several research groups including our own. In this review we provide an overview of the field and discuss the future potential and limitations of stem cell technology.
Differentiation; Pluripotent stem cells; Hepatocyte-like cells; Liver development; Polymer chemistry; Regenerative medicine; Transplantation; Bio-artificial liver
Most Sphingomonas species synthesize the yellow carotenoid nostoxanthin. However, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of these species remains unclear. In this study, we cloned and characterized a carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster containing four carotenogenic genes (crtG, crtY, crtI and crtB) and a β-carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ) located outside the cluster, from the gellan-gum producing bacterium Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. Each of these genes was inactivated, and the biochemical function of each gene was confirmed based on chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of the intermediates accumulated in the knockout mutants. Moreover, the crtG gene encoding the 2,2′-β-hydroxylase and the crtZ gene encoding the β-carotene hydroxylase, both responsible for hydroxylation of β-carotene, were confirmed by complementation studies using Escherichia coli producing different carotenoids. Expression of crtG in zeaxanthin and β-carotene accumulating E. coli cells resulted in the formation of nostoxanthin and 2,2′-dihydroxy-β-carotene, respectively. Based on these results, a biochemical pathway for synthesis of nostoxanthin in S. elodea ATCC 31461 is proposed.
Response gene to complement-32 (RGC-32) is comprehensively expressed in many kinds of tissues and has been reported to be expressed abnormally in different kinds of human tumors. However, the role of RGC-32 in cancer remains controversial and no reports have described the effect of RGC-32 in pancreatic cancer. The present study investigated the expression of RGC-32 in pancreatic cancer tissues and explored the role of RGC-32 in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3.
Immunohistochemical staining of RGC-32 and E-cadherin was performed on specimens from 42 patients with pancreatic cancer, 12 with chronic pancreatitis and 8 with normal pancreas. To evaluate the role of RGC-32 in TGF-β-induced EMT in pancreatic cancer cells, BxPC-3 cells were treated with TGF-β1, and RGC-32 siRNA silencing and gene overexpression were performed as well. The mRNA expression and protein expression of RGC-32 and EMT markers such E-cadherin and vimentin were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot respectively. Finally, migration ability of BxPC-3 cells treated with TGF-β and RGC-32 siRNA transfection was examined by transwell cell migration assay.
We found stronger expression of RGC-32 and higher abnormal expression rate of E-cadherin in pancreatic cancer tissues than those in chronic pancreatitis tissues and normal pancreatic tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both RGC-32 positive expression and E-cadherin abnormal expression in pancreatic cancer were correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM staging. In addition, a significant and positive correlation was found between positive expression of RGC-32 and abnormal expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, in vitro, we found sustained TGF-β stimuli induced EMT and up-regulated RGC-32 expression in BxPC-3 cells. By means of siRNA silencing and gene overexpression, we further demonstrated that RGC-32 mediated TGF-β-induced EMT and migration in BxPC-3 cells.
The results above indicated that RGC-32 might be a novel metastasis promoting gene in pancreatic cancer and it enhances metastatic phenotype by mediating TGF-β-induced EMT in human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3.
Response gene to complement-32; Pancreatic cancer; Transforming growth factor -β; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; Migration
The recent increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics has promoted the exploration of novel antibacterial materials. As a result, many researchers are undertaking work to identify new lantibiotics because of their potent antimicrobial activities. The objective of this study was to provide details of a lantibiotic-like gene cluster in Paenibacillus elgii B69 and to produce the antibacterial substances coded by this gene cluster based on culture screening.
Analysis of the P. elgii B69 genome sequence revealed the presence of a lantibiotic-like gene cluster composed of five open reading frames (elgT1, elgC, elgT2, elgB, and elgA). Screening of culture extracts for active substances possessing the predicted properties of the encoded product led to the isolation of four novel peptides (elgicins AI, AII, B, and C) with a broad inhibitory spectrum. The molecular weights of these peptides were 4536, 4593, 4706, and 4820 Da, respectively. The N-terminal sequence of elgicin B was Leu-Gly-Asp-Tyr, which corresponded to the partial sequence of the peptide ElgA encoded by elgA. Edman degradation suggested that the product elgicin B is derived from ElgA. By correlating the results of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analyses of elgicins AI, AII, and C, these peptides are deduced to have originated from the same precursor, ElgA.
A novel lantibiotic-like gene cluster was shown to be present in P. elgii B69. Four new lantibiotics with a broad inhibitory spectrum were isolated, and these appear to be promising antibacterial agents.
Infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in community-settings, especially with strains carrying the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes, have increased markedly in recent years. Colonization with S.aureus is a risk factor for infection. However, there are few studies that examine colonization and infection with PVL-positive strains of MRSA in cancer patients.
The epidemiology of colonization and infection with MRSA was studied in children with cancer during two time periods: 2000/2001 and 2006/2007. PVL genes were screened and spa typing performed on the isolates.
The prevalence of colonization with MRSA increased from 0.6% in 2000/2001 to 2.9% in 2006/2007(p=0.0003). MRSA colonization at admission was associated with infection (p<0.0001; RR 38.32; 95% CI: 23.36 - 62.84). The prevalence of infection increased from 0.99% in 2000/2001 to 3.78% in 2006-2007 (p=0.0002). Of the 32 colonized patients, 18 (56%) had infection. None of the 14 colonized but non-infected patients had dual colonization of nares and rectum, while 8 of the 18 infected patients had colonization of both of these sites (p=0.004). Ten patients (31%) were colonized with PVL-positive strains. Patients colonized with PVL-positive strains were more likely to be colonized both in the nares and rectum (p=0.005), and more likely to have infection (p=0.001). Recurrent MRSA infections were seen in 22% of patients.
An increasing prevalence of colonization with MRSA was observed in children with cancer at our institution. Colonization with MRSA especially with PVL-positive strains was associated with infection.
Colonization; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Children; Cancer; Panton-Valentine Leukocidin
To investigate the association between neck circumference and central obesity, overweight, and metabolic syndrome in Chinese individuals with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 3,182 diabetic subjects (aged 20–80 years) were recruited from 15 community health centers in Beijing using a multistage random sampling approach.
Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for neck circumference and central obesity was 0.77 for men and 0.75 for women (P < 0.001). Furthermore, a neck circumference of ≥38 cm for men and ≥35 cm for women was the best cutoff point for determining overweight subjects. A neck circumference of ≥39 cm for men and ≥35 cm for women was the best cutoff point to determine subjects with metabolic syndrome.
In the present study, neck circumference is positively related with BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic syndrome in Chinese individuals with type 2 diabetes.