PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-9 (9)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Efficacy of Rifaximin Vaginal Tablets in Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: a Molecular Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota 
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder characterized by an alteration of the vaginal bacterial morphotypes, associated with sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different doses of rifaximin vaginal tablets (100 mg/day for 5 days, 25 mg/day for 5 days, and 100 mg/day for 2 days) on the vaginal microbiota of 102 European patients with BV enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. An integrated molecular approach based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to investigate the effects of vaginal tablets containing the antibiotic. An increase in members of the genus Lactobacillus and a decrease in the BV-related bacterial groups after the antibiotic treatment were demonstrated by qPCR. PCR-DGGE profiles confirmed the capability of rifaximin to modulate the composition of the vaginal microbial communities and to reduce their complexity. This molecular analysis supported the clinical observation that rifaximin at 25 mg/day for 5 days represents an effective treatment to be used in future pivotal studies for the treatment of BV.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00061-12
PMCID: PMC3421556  PMID: 22585228
2.  Dietary supplementation with probiotics during late pregnancy: outcome on vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion 
BMC Microbiology  2012;12:236.
Background
The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the genus Lactobacillus. The activity of lactobacilli helps to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal microbiota. This role is particularly important during pregnancy because vaginal dismicrobism is one of the most important mechanisms for preterm birth and perinatal complications. In the present study, we characterized the impact of a dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, a mixture of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus strains, on the vaginal microbiota and immunological profiles of healthy women during late pregnancy.
Results
An association between the oral intake of the probiotic VSL#3 and changes in the composition of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was revealed by PCR-DGGE population profiling. Despite no significant changes were found in the amounts of the principal vaginal bacterial populations in women administered with VSL#3, qPCR results suggested a potential role of the probiotic product in counteracting the decrease of Bifidobacterium and the increase of Atopobium, that occurred in control women during late pregnancy. The modulation of the vaginal microbiota was associated with significant changes in some vaginal cytokines. In particular, the decrease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was observed only in control women but not in women supplemented with VSL#3. In addition, the probiotic consumption induced the decrease of the pro-inflammatory chemokine Eotaxin, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect on the vaginal immunity.
Conclusion
Dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3 during the last trimester of pregnancy was associated to a modulation of the vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion, with potential implications in preventing preterm birth.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01367470
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-236
PMCID: PMC3493352  PMID: 23078375
3.  Oxalate-Degrading Activity in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis: Impact of Acidic Conditions on the Transcriptional Levels of the Oxalyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Decarboxylase and Formyl-CoA Transferase Genes ▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2010;76(16):5609-5620.
Oxalic acid occurs extensively in nature and plays diverse roles, especially in pathological processes. Due to its highly oxidizing effects, hyperabsorption or abnormal synthesis of oxalate can cause serious acute disorders in mammals and can be lethal in extreme cases. Intestinal oxalate-degrading bacteria could therefore be pivotal in maintaining oxalate homeostasis and reducing the risk of kidney stone development. In this study, the oxalate-degrading activities of 14 bifidobacterial strains were measured by a capillary electrophoresis technique. The oxc gene, encoding oxalyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase, a key enzyme in oxalate catabolism, was isolated by probing a genomic library of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BI07, which was one of the most active strains in the preliminary screening. The genetic and transcriptional organization of oxc flanking regions was determined, unraveling the presence of two other independently transcribed open reading frames, potentially responsible for the ability of B. animalis subsp. lactis to degrade oxalate. pH-controlled batch fermentations revealed that acidic conditions were a prerequisite for a significant oxalate degradation rate, which dramatically increased in cells first adapted to subinhibitory concentrations of oxalate and then exposed to pH 4.5. Oxalate-preadapted cells also showed a strong induction of the genes potentially involved in oxalate catabolism, as demonstrated by a transcriptional analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. These findings provide new insights into the characterization of oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria and may support the use of B. animalis subsp. lactis as a promising adjunct for the prophylaxis and management of oxalate-related kidney disease.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00844-10
PMCID: PMC2918965  PMID: 20601517
4.  High taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota by Ligase Detection Reaction - Universal Array approach 
BMC Microbiology  2010;10:116.
Background
Affecting the core functional microbiome, peculiar high level taxonomic unbalances of the human intestinal microbiota have been recently associated with specific diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal inflammation.
Results
In order to specifically monitor microbiota unbalances that impact human physiology, here we develop and validate an original DNA-microarray (HTF-Microbi.Array) for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota. Based on the Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA) approach, the HTF-Microbi.Array enables specific detection and approximate relative quantification of 16S rRNAs from 30 phylogenetically related groups of the human intestinal microbiota. The HTF-Microbi.Array was used in a pilot study of the faecal microbiota of eight young adults. Cluster analysis revealed the good reproducibility of the high level taxonomic microbiota fingerprint obtained for each of the subject.
Conclusion
The HTF-Microbi.Array is a fast and sensitive tool for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota in terms of presence/absence of the principal groups. Moreover, analysis of the relative fluorescence intensity for each probe pair of our LDR-UA platform can provide estimation of the relative abundance of the microbial target groups within each samples. Focusing the phylogenetic resolution at division, order and cluster levels, the HTF-Microbi.Array is blind with respect to the inter-individual variability at the species level.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-116
PMCID: PMC2873488  PMID: 20398430
5.  Antibiotics and probiotics in chronic pouchitis: A comparative proteomic approach 
AIM: To profile protein expression in mucosal biopsies from patients with chronic refractory pouchitis following antibiotic or probiotic treatment, using a comparative proteomic approach.
METHODS: Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were used to characterize the changes related to antibiotic therapy in the protein expression profiles of biopsy samples from patients with chronic refractory pouchitis. The same proteomic approach was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins in the non-inflamed pouch before and after probiotic administration.
RESULTS: In the first set of 2D gels, 26 different proteins with at least 2-fold changes in their expression levels between the pouchitis condition and antibiotic-induced remission were identified. In the second set of analysis, the comparison between mucosal biopsy proteomes in the normal and probiotic-treated pouch resulted in 17 significantly differently expressed proteins. Of these, 8 exhibited the same pattern of deregulation as in the pouchitis/pouch remission group.
CONCLUSION: For the first time, 2D protein maps of mucosal biopsies from patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were provided, and differentially expressed proteins following antibiotic/probiotic treatment were identified.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i1.30
PMCID: PMC2799914  PMID: 20039446
Chronic disease; Pouchitis; Antibiotics; Probiotics; Proteins; Gene expression
6.  Impact of a synbiotic food on the gut microbial ecology and metabolic profiles 
BMC Microbiology  2010;10:4.
Background
The human gut harbors a diverse community of microorganisms which serve numerous important functions for the host wellbeing. Functional foods are commonly used to modulate the composition of the gut microbiota contributing to the maintenance of the host health or prevention of disease. In the present study, we characterized the impact of one month intake of a synbiotic food, containing fructooligosaccharides and the probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus Bar13 and Bifidobacterium longum Bar33, on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic profiles of 20 healthy subjects.
Results
The synbiotic food did not modify the overall structure of the gut microbiome, as indicated by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The ability of the probiotic L. helveticus and B. longum strains to pass through the gastrointestinal tract was hypothesized on the basis of real-time PCR data. In spite of a stable microbiota, the intake of the synbiotic food resulted in a shift of the fecal metabolic profiles, highlighted by the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (GC-MS/SPME) analysis. The extent of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), ketones, carbon disulfide and methyl acetate was significantly affected by the synbiotic food consumption. Furthermore, the Canonical discriminant Analysis of Principal coordinates (CAP) of GC-MS/SPME profiles allowed a separation of the stool samples recovered before and after the consumption of the functional food.
Conclusion
In this study we investigated the global impact of a dietary intervention on the gut ecology and metabolism in healthy humans. We demonstrated that the intake of a synbiotic food leads to a modulation of the gut metabolic activities with a maintenance of the gut biostructure. In particular, the significant increase of SCFA, ketones, carbon disulfide and methyl acetate following the feeding period suggests potential health promoting effects of the synbiotic food.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-4
PMCID: PMC2806344  PMID: 20055983
7.  Dynamics of Vaginal Bacterial Communities in Women Developing Bacterial Vaginosis, Candidiasis, or No Infection, Analyzed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Real-Time PCR▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2007;73(18):5731-5741.
The microbial flora of the vagina plays a major role in preventing genital infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis (CA). An integrated approach based on PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR was used to study the structure and dynamics of bacterial communities in vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients developing BV and CA. Universal eubacterial primers and Lactobacillus genus-specific primers, both targeted at 16S rRNA genes, were used in DGGE and real-time PCR analysis, respectively. The DGGE profiles revealed that the vaginal flora was dominated by Lactobacillus species under healthy conditions, whereas several potentially pathogenic bacteria were present in the flora of women with BV. Lactobacilli were the predominant bacterial population in the vagina for patients affected by CA, but changes in the composition of Lactobacillus species were observed. Real-time PCR analysis allowed the quantitative estimation of variations in lactobacilli associated with BV and CA diseases. A statistically significant decrease in the relative abundance of lactobacilli was found in vaginal fluids of patients with BV compared to the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients with CA.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01251-07
PMCID: PMC2074899  PMID: 17644631
8.  Binding of Human Plasminogen to Bifidobacterium▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2007;189(16):5929-5936.
Bifidobacteria constitute up to 3% of the total microbiota and represent one of the most important health-promoting bacterial groups of the human intestinal microflora. The presence of Bifidobacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract has been directly related to several health-promoting activities; however, to date, no information about the specific mechanisms of interaction with the host is available. In order to provide some insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction with the host, we investigated whether Bifidobacterium was able to capture human plasminogen on the cell surface. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated a dose-dependent human plasminogen-binding activity for four strains belonging to three bifidobacterial species: Bifidobacterium lactis, B. bifidum, and B. longum. The binding of human plasminogen to Bifidobacterium was dependent on lysine residues of surface protein receptors. By using a proteomic approach, we identified five putative plasminogen-binding proteins in the cell wall fraction of the model strain B. lactis BI07. The data suggest that plasminogen binding to B. lactis is due to the concerted action of a number of proteins located on the bacterial cell surface, some of which are highly conserved cytoplasmic proteins which have other essential cellular functions. Our findings represent a step forward in understanding the mechanisms involved in the Bifidobacterium-host interaction.
doi:10.1128/JB.00159-07
PMCID: PMC1952040  PMID: 17557824
9.  Characterization and Heterologous Expression of the Oxalyl Coenzyme A Decarboxylase Gene from Bifidobacterium lactis 
Oxalyl coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase (Oxc) is a key enzyme in the catabolism of the highly toxic compound oxalate, catalyzing the decarboxylation of oxalyl-CoA to formyl-CoA. The gene encoding a novel oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase from Bifidobacterium lactis DSM 10140 (oxc) was identified and characterized. This strain, isolated from yogurt, showed the highest oxalate-degrading activity in a preliminary screening with 12 strains belonging to Bifidobacterium, an anaerobic intestinal bacterial group largely used in probiotic products. The oxc gene was isolated by probing a B. lactis genomic library with a probe obtained by amplification of the oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase gene from Oxalobacter formigenes, an anaerobic bacterium of the human intestinal microflora. The oxc DNA sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,773 bp encoding a deduced 590-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of about 63 kDa. Analysis of amino acid sequence showed a significant homology (47%) with oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase of O. formigenes and a typical thiamine pyrophosphate-binding site that has been reported for several decarboxylase enzymes. Primer extension experiments with oxc performed by using RNA isolated from B. lactis identified the transcriptional start site 28 bp upstream of the ATG start codon, immediately adjacent to a presumed promoter region. The protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli cross-reacted with an anti-O. formigenes oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase antibody. Enzymatic activity, when evaluated by capillary electrophoresis analysis, demonstrated that the consumption substrate oxalyl-CoA was regulated by a product inhibition of the enzyme. These findings suggest a potential role for Bifidobacterium in the intestinal degradation of oxalate.
doi:10.1128/AEM.70.9.5066-5073.2004
PMCID: PMC520889  PMID: 15345383

Results 1-9 (9)