Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions.
fMRI; SENSE; EPI; parallel MRI; brain
A photo-excited organic layer on a metal thin film with a corrugated substrate was used to generate surface plasmon grating coupled emissions (SPGCEs). Directional emissions corresponded to the resonant condition of surface plasmon modes on the Au/air interface. In experimental comparisons of the effects of different pitch sizes on the plasmonic band-gap, the obtained SPGCEs were highly directional, with intensity increases as large as 10.38-fold. The FWHM emission spectrum was less than 70 nm. This method is easily applicable to detecting refractive index changes by using SP-coupled fluorophores in which wavelength emissions vary by viewing angle. The measurements and calculations in this study confirmed that the color wavelength of the SPGCE changed from 545.3 nm to 615.4 nm at certain viewing angles, while the concentration of contacting glucose increased from 10 to 40 wt%, which corresponded to a refractive index increase from 1.3484 to 1.3968. The organic plasmon-emitting diode exhibits a wider linearity range and a resolution of the experimental is 1.056 × 10−3 RIU. The sensitivity of the detection limit for naked eye of the experimental is 0.6 wt%. At a certain viewing angle, a large spectral shift is clearly distinguishable by the naked eye unaided by optoelectronic devices. These experimental results confirm the potential applications of the organic plasmon-emitting diodes in a low-cost, integrated, and disposable refractive-index sensor.
surface plasmon grating coupled emission (SPGCE); directional; plasmonic band-gap; refractive-index sensor
This study proposed a fast and fully automatic calibration system to suppress the dark banding artifacts in balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at 3.0 T.
Twenty-one healthy volunteers (18 men, 3 women; mean age 24.9 years) participated in this study after providing institutionally approved consent. The optimal frequency was obtained using sweep scans of transition-band low flip-angle bSSFP (bSSFP-L), performed with three conditions: breath-hold plus electrocardiography (ECG) triggering (BH + ECG), breath-hold only (BH), and free breathing (FB). A real-time feedback system was implemented to allow the performing of bSSFP-L calibration scanning and conventional cine bSSFP within one breath-hold. For each scan condition, the optimal phase was estimated using 20-point and 10-point spline fitting.
Linear regression analysis indicated high correlation between the optimal phases obtained using BH and FB and those obtained using BH + ECG (R2 = 0.91 to 0.98, n = 21). The optimal phases obtained using 10-point datasets showed high correlation with the 20-point BH + ECG datasets (R2 = 0.92 to 0.99, n = 21); although the within-subject coefficient of variation (wsCV) was larger using 10-point fitting. The variation of repeated measurements was largest with FB acquisition and smallest with BH + ECG acquisition. The optimal frequency obtained by offline calculation and by real-time feedback calibration significantly reduced dark-band artifacts in cine bSSFP images (both p < .01).
The proposed real-time feedback calibration method for bSSFP imaging is rapid and fully automatic. This method could greatly reduce dark-band artifacts in bSSFP images and facilitate clinical CMR at 3.0 T.
To evaluate the effect of different treatment plans for whole-pelvic irradiation on small-bowel volumes (SBVs) in patients with gynecologic malignancies, 40 patients were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography (CT) simulations were performed, and the small bowel of each patient was outlined manually. Treatment plans with equal-weighted (EW) and non-equal-weighted (NEW) (70% in bilateral directions) techniques of four-field and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were performed. The V10–V100 represented the volume (cm3) at different levels of the prescribed doses (10–100%). The V10–V100 was compared among the different treatment planning techniques, and patients who were suitable for IMRT or NEW were identified. IMRT and NEW significantly reduced the V50–V100 and V40–V60 levels compared with EW, respectively. NEW caused a significant reduction in the V30–V60 levels in patients with a BMI ≥26 kg/m2. Patients with IMRT demonstrated lower V70–V100 levels compared with those with NEW. In patients with a BMI ≥26 kg/m2 or an age ≥55 years, lower V20–V50 levels were noted using NEW compared with IMRT. Treatment planning with larger weighting in the bilateral directions in four-field radiotherapy reduces the low-dose SBV in patients with gynecologic malignancies, especially in those with a high BMI or the elderly. IMRT effectively reduces high-dose SBV, especially in patients with a low BMI.
BMI; small bowel; non-equal weighting; IMRT; four-field radiotherapy
A technique suitable for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at high field strengths is presented in this work. The method is based on a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) k-space trajectory using EPI as the signal readout module, and hence is dubbed PROPELLER EPI. The implementation of PROPELLER EPI included a series of correction schemes to reduce possible errors associated with the intrinsically higher sensitivity of EPI to off-resonance effects. Experimental results on a 3.0 Tesla MR system showed that the PROPELLER EPI images exhibit substantially reduced geometric distortions compared with single-shot EPI, at a much lower RF specific absorption rate (SAR) than the original version of the PROPELLER fast spin-echo (FSE) technique. For DTI, the self-navigated phase-correction capability of the PROPELLER EPI sequence was shown to be effective for in vivo imaging. A higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to single-shot EPI at an identical total scan time was achieved, which is advantageous for routine DTI applications in clinical practice.
PROPELLER imaging; EPI; geometric distortions; specific absorption rate; diffusion tensor imaging
Due to the different properties of the contrast agents, the lung perfusion maps as measured by 99mTc-labeled macroaggregated albumin perfusion scintigraphy (PS) are not uncommonly discrepant from those measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) using indicator-dilution analysis in complex pulmonary circulation. Since PS offers the pre-capillary perfusion of the first-pass transit, we hypothesized that an inflow-weighted perfusion model of DCE-MRI could simulate the result by PS.
22 patients underwent DCE-MRI at 1.5T and also PS. Relative perfusion contributed by the left lung was calculated by PS (PSL%), by DCE-MRI using conventional indicator dilution theory for pulmonary blood volume (PBVL%) and pulmonary blood flow (PBFL%) and using our proposed inflow-weighted pulmonary blood volume (PBViwL%). For PBViwL%, the optimal upper bound of the inflow-weighted integration range was determined by correlation coefficient analysis.
The time-to-peak of the normal lung parenchyma was the optimal upper bound in the inflow-weighted perfusion model. Using PSL% as a reference, PBVL% showed error of 49.24% to −40.37% (intraclass correlation coefficient RI = 0.55) and PBFL% had error of 34.87% to −27.76% (RI = 0.80). With the inflow-weighted model, PBViwL% had much less error of 12.28% to −11.20% (RI = 0.98) from PSL%.
The inflow-weighted DCE-MRI provides relative perfusion maps similar to that by PS. The discrepancy between conventional indicator-dilution and inflow-weighted analysis represents a mixed-flow component in which pathological flow such as shunting or collaterals might have participated.
Pulmonary perfusion; MRI; Pulmonary scintigraphy; Dynamic contrast enhancement-MRI
The import of certain proteins into chloroplasts is dependent on the age of the organelle, with age-dependent import being controlled by a specific motif within the signal peptide.
Gene-specific, age-dependent regulations are common at the transcriptional and translational levels, while protein transport into organelles is generally thought to be constitutive. Here we report a new level of differential age-dependent regulation and show that chloroplast proteins are divided into three age-selective groups: group I proteins have a higher import efficiency into younger chloroplasts, import of group II proteins is nearly independent of chloroplast age, and group III proteins are preferentially imported into older chloroplasts. The age-selective signal is located within the transit peptide of each protein. A group III protein with its transit peptide replaced by a group I transit peptide failed to complement its own mutation. Two consecutive positive charges define the necessary motif in group III signals for older chloroplast preference. We further show that different members of a gene family often belong to different age-selective groups because of sequence differences in their transit peptides. These results indicate that organelle-targeting signal peptides are part of cells' differential age-dependent regulation networks. The sequence diversity of some organelle-targeting peptides is not a result of the lack of selection pressure but has evolved to mediate regulation.
It is well known that some genes are preferentially transcribed in young tissues and others are specifically expressed in aging tissue, but protein import into organelles is generally thought to be constitutive and independent of age. In this study, we find that, contrary to expectation, in higher plants the import of proteins into chloroplasts is indeed dependent on the age of the organelle. We find that chloroplast precursor proteins can be divided into three age-selective groups, with each having a preference for chloroplasts of a different age. The age-selective signal is located within the signal peptide of each protein that controls organelle import, and we further identify a motif that is necessary to make a signal peptide target older chloroplasts preferentially. We show that different members of a gene family often belong to different age-selective groups, and that changing the sequence motifs within a protein's signal peptide can change its age selectivity. These results indicate that organelle-targeting signal peptides are one set of tools available to multicellular organisms for differential age-specific regulation.
Hospital-acquired infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are a significant challenge to patient safety. Numerous clinical isolates resistant to almost all commercially available antibiotics have emerged. Thus, novel antimicrobial agents, specifically those for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, are urgently needed. In the current study, we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and preliminary biological characterization of a new cationic lipopeptide antibiotic, battacin or octapeptin B5, produced from a Paenibacillus tianmuensis soil isolate. Battacin kills bacteria in vitro and has potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant clinical isolates. Hospital strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the pathogens most sensitive to battacin, with MICs of 2 to 4 μg/ml. The ability of battacin to disrupt the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is comparable to that of polymyxin B, the last-line therapy for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, the capacity of battacin to permeate bacterial plasma membranes is less extensive than that of polymyxin B. The bactericidal kinetics of battacin correlate with the depolarization of the cell membrane, suggesting that battacin kills bacteria by disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane. Other studies indicate that battacin is less acutely toxic than polymyxin B and has potent in vivo biological activity against E. coli. Based on the findings of the current study, battacin may be considered a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Phosphorylation of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs, which are also known as seven-transmembrane spanning receptors) by GPCR kinases (GRKs) plays essential roles in the regulation of receptor function by promoting interactions of the receptors with β-arrestins. These multifunctional adaptor proteins desensitize GPCRs, by reducing receptor coupling to G proteins and facilitating receptor internalization, and mediate GPCR signaling through β-arrestin–specific pathways. Detailed mapping of the phosphorylation sites on GPCRs targeted by individual GRKs and an understanding of how these sites regulate the specific functional consequences of β-arrestin engagement may aid in the discovery of therapeutic agents targeting individual β-arrestin functions. The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has many serine and threonine residues in the carboxyl-terminal tail and the intracellular loops, which are potential sites of phosphorylation. We monitored the phosphorylation of the β2AR at specific sites upon stimulation with an agonist that promotes signaling by both G protein–mediated and β-arrestin–mediated pathways or with a biased ligand that promotes signaling only through β-arrestin–mediated events in the presence of the full complement of GRKs or when either GRK2 or GRK6 was depleted. We correlated the specific and distinct patterns of receptor phosphorylation by individual GRKs with the functions of β-arrestins and propose that the distinct phosphorylation patterns established by different GRKs establish a “barcode” that imparts distinct conformations to the recruited β-arrestin, thus regulating its functional activities.
The recent increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics has promoted the exploration of novel antibacterial materials. As a result, many researchers are undertaking work to identify new lantibiotics because of their potent antimicrobial activities. The objective of this study was to provide details of a lantibiotic-like gene cluster in Paenibacillus elgii B69 and to produce the antibacterial substances coded by this gene cluster based on culture screening.
Analysis of the P. elgii B69 genome sequence revealed the presence of a lantibiotic-like gene cluster composed of five open reading frames (elgT1, elgC, elgT2, elgB, and elgA). Screening of culture extracts for active substances possessing the predicted properties of the encoded product led to the isolation of four novel peptides (elgicins AI, AII, B, and C) with a broad inhibitory spectrum. The molecular weights of these peptides were 4536, 4593, 4706, and 4820 Da, respectively. The N-terminal sequence of elgicin B was Leu-Gly-Asp-Tyr, which corresponded to the partial sequence of the peptide ElgA encoded by elgA. Edman degradation suggested that the product elgicin B is derived from ElgA. By correlating the results of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analyses of elgicins AI, AII, and C, these peptides are deduced to have originated from the same precursor, ElgA.
A novel lantibiotic-like gene cluster was shown to be present in P. elgii B69. Four new lantibiotics with a broad inhibitory spectrum were isolated, and these appear to be promising antibacterial agents.
The renin-angiotensin system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, on the metabolic syndrome of fructose-fed rats.
Material and methods
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 for each group). Group Con: rats were fed a standard chow diet for 8 weeks, group Fru: rats were fed a high fructose diet (60% fructose) for 8 weeks, group FruA: rats were fed a high fructose diet and were co-infused with aliskiren (100 mg/kg/day), and group FruB: rats were treated as group Fru, but aliskiren was administered 4 weeks later. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood profiles were measured.
By the end of week 4 and 8 of a high fructose diet, SBP had increased significantly from 111 ±5 to 142 ±4 and 139 ±5 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. A high fructose diet significantly increased HOMA-IR from baseline (6.15 ±1.59) to 21.25 ±2.08 and 21.28 ±3.1 (p < 0.05) at week 4 and 8, respectively, and significantly induced metabolic syndrome. Concurrent aliskiren treatment prevented the development of hypertension and metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed rats. When fructose-induced hypertension was established, subsequent aliskiren treatment for 4 weeks reversed the elevated SBP and ameliorated metabolic syndrome. There were no significant differences in food, water intake, urine flow or body weight gain among groups.
Aliskiren not only prevents but also ameliorates metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed rats.
aliskiren; direct renin inhibitor; fructose; hypertension; metabolic syndrome
In comparison to bottom-up proteomics approaches, whereby peptides derived from proteolytic digestion are analyzed, top-down approaches, involving direct analysis of intact proteins, provides higher specificity for protein identification and are better-suited for the characterization of sequence variants. However, top-down protein characterization usually requires more sophisticated instrumentation and methodologies to deal with the more complex tandem mass spectra derived from dissociation of high mass multiply charged intact proteins. Gas-phase ion/ion reactions are universally applicable and have proved to be useful in mixture analysis and top-down biomolecule characterization. The coupling of the ion/ion proton transfer reaction (PTR) in the context of tandem mass spectrometry has been demonstrated to expand informing power in top-down protein characterization, particularly with platforms that employ electrodynamic ion trap and time-of-flight mass analysis. In addition, probing protein primary structure using ion/ion electron transfer dissociation (ETD) usually provides extensive structurally informative fragmentation and also allows for the localization of labile post-translational modifications. Here, the performance of the widely used quadrupole/time-of-flight platform, equipped with ion/ion reaction functionality, for top-down protein characterization is summarized, and various methodologies employing ion/ion reactions are reviewed.
top-down; ion/ion reaction; proton transfer reaction; electron transfer dissociation; quadrupole/time-of-flight
A strategy is described and demonstrated for the formation of reagent anions via electrospray ionization (ESI) for electron transfer dissociation (ETD). To circumvent difficulties associated with formation of high mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) reagent anions, it is desirable to form ETD reagents via means other than those that require reagent molecule vaporization. ESI is a candidate method but anions that are generally generated efficiently by ESI tend to react with multiply protonated polypeptides via proton transfer. The strategy described herein involves the use of a precursor reagent molecule that ionizes efficiently via electrospray ionization and that can subsequently be converted to an ETD reagent via gas-phase dissociation. The approach is demonstrated with arene carboxylic acids that yield strong signals associated with the deprotonated molecule and that subsequently undergo collision-induced dissociation (CID) by loss of CO2. In the present work, triply protonated KGAILKGAILR served as a test substrate for the CID product ions to give rise to ETD. Several precursor molecules were shown to be capable of generating ETD reagents via ESI followed by CID. These included 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid, 2-fluoro-5-iodobenzoic acid, and 2-(fluoranthene-8-carbonyl)-benzoic acid. The latter molecule has the most attractive set of characteristics as a precursor for a relatively high m/z ratio ETD reagent.
electron transfer dissociation; nanoelectrospray ionization; ion/ion reaction
The exposure of electrospray droplets to acid vapors can significantly affect protein charge state distributions (CSDs) derived from unbuffered solutions. Such experiments have been conducted by leaking acidic vapors into the counter-current nitrogen drying gas of an electrospray interface. Based on changes in protein CSDs, protein folding and unfolding phenomena are implicated in these studies. Additionally, non-covalently-bound complexes are preserved and transient intermediates observed, such as high charge state ions of holomyoglobin. CSDs of proteins containing disulfide bonds shift slightly, if at all, with acid vapor leak-in, but when these disulfide bonds are reduced in solution, charge states higher than the number of basic sites (Lys, Arg, His and N-terminus) are observed. Since there is no observed change in the CSD of buffered proteins exposed to acidic vapors, this novel multiple charging phenomenon is attributed to a pH effect. Thus, this acid vapor leak-in approach can be used to reverse ‘wrong-way-round’ nanoelectrospray conditions by altering solution pH in the charged droplets relative to the pH in bulk solution. In general, the exposure of electrospray droplets to acidic vapors provides means for altering protein CSDs independent of bulk unbuffered solution pH.
Multiple Charging; Electrospray Ionization and pH; Charged Droplets
Ganoderma lucidum-derived polysaccharide (PS-G) can rapidly and effectively promote the activation and maturation of immature dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that PS-G possesses the capacity to regulate immune responses. This study aimed to clarify the immunologic effect of PS-G on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) from asthmatic children allergic to house dust mites. The MD-DCs were stimulated for 24 h with the related allergen, Der p 1, in the presence or absence of PS-G. Cell surface markers and phagocytic capacity were assessed by FACS analysis, and key polarizing cytokines (IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, IL-6, IL-23, and IL-10) were quantified. The subsequent regulatory effect of pulsed MD-DCs on naïve T cells was evaluated by determining the T-cell cytokine profile.
PS-G induced the maturation of MD-DCs and decreased phagocytic capacity, even if pulsed with Der p 1. After incubation with PS-G and Der p 1, MD-DCs produced higher amounts of IL-12 p70, IL-12 p40, IL-6, IL-23, and IL10 than Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Furthermore, type 1 helper T (Th1) cell cytokine (INF-γ) production was highly increased when naïve autologous T cells were co-cultured with Der p 1-pulsed MD-DCs. Naïve T cells stimulated by MD-DCs pulsed with Der p 1 failed to produce proliferation of T-cells, whereas the addition of PS-G to Der p 1 induced a significant proliferation of T-cells similar to that observed with PS-G alone.
The presence of PS-G in an allergen pulse promoted allergic MD-DCs to produce IL-12 p70, IL-12 p40, IL-6, IL-23, and IL-10, and exerted an effect on shifting the immune balance towards Th1 in children with allergic asthma.
dendritic cells; Th1/Th2 cells; PS-G; asthma
Ion chemistry has long played an important role in molecular mass spectrometry (MS), as it is central to the use of MS as a structural characterization tool. With the advent of ionization methods capable of producing gaseous ions from large biomolecules, the chemistry of gaseous bioions has become a highly active area of research. Gas-phase biomolecule-ion reactions are usually driven by interactions with neutral molecules, photons, electrons, ions, or surfaces. Ion dissociation or transformation into different ion types can be achieved. The types of reaction products observed depend on the characteristics of the ions, the transformation methods, and the time frame of observation. This review focuses on the gas-phase chemistries of ions derived from the electrospray ionization of peptides, proteins, and oligonucleotides, with particular emphasis on their utility in bioanalysis. Various ion-transformation strategies, which further facilitate structural interrogation by converting ions from one type to another, are also summarized.
tandem mass spectrometry; electrospray ionization; multiply charged biomolecules; dissociation; ion transformation; ion/ion reaction
Gas-phase ion/ion reactions are emerging as flexible means for probing and manipulating analyte ions with particular utility in bioanalysis.
Simultaneous transmission mode collision-induced dissociation (CID) and ion/ion proton transfer reactions have been implemented on a quadrupole/time-of-flight (TOF) tandem mass spectrometer. Reagent anions were trapped in a pressurized quadrupole collision cell by applying appropriate DC voltages while multiply protonated protein precursor ions were injected into the collision cell at energies sufficient to give rise to CID. Intact precursor ions as well as fragment ions underwent ion/ion proton transfer reactions during their passage through the collision cell and on to an orthogonal acceleration TOF mass analyzer. The resulting product ion spectrum was then submitted to deconvolution to yield a “zero-charge” spectrum, which was then matched against in silico produced spectra derived from a protein database. Dramatic improvements in the scores associated with correct matches were obtained relative to CID data without benefit of ion/ion reactions for proteins as large as carbonic anhydrase (29 kDa). The parameters that most affect the extent of ion/ion proton transfer during transmission through the instrument include the number of anions stored in the collision cell, the amplitude of the radio-frequency trapping voltage, the voltage of the LINAC potential associated with the collision cell, and the collision gas pressure. This work demonstrates that it is possible to effect whole protein tandem mass spectrometry with simultaneous CID, ion/ion reactions, and mass analysis for high duty cycle top-down protein characterization.
Beam-type CID; Ion/Ion Reactions; Top-down Proteomics; Deconvolution; Duty Cycle
The identification and characterization of a priori unknown proteins from an Escherichia coli (E. coli) soluble protein lysate using ion trap collision-induced dissociation of intact protein ions followed by ion/ion reactions in a quadrupole/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer is illustrated. The procedure involved the submission of uninterpreted product ion spectra to a peak picking program and then to ProSightPTM for searching against an E. coli database. Examples are provided for the identification and characterization of both modified and unmodified unknown proteins with masses up to ∼28 kDa. The availability of protein intact mass along with sequence information makes possible the characterization of proteins with post translational modifications, such as disulfide linkages, as well as protein isoforms whose sequences are absent from a database, provided that a related form of the gene product is present in the database. This work demonstrates that the quadrupole/time-of-flight platform, in conjunction with ion-ion proton transfer reactions, can be adapted to obtain primary structure information from entire protein ions, rather than simply N- or C-terminal information from low mass-to-charge products, for proteins as large as several tens of kilodaltons.
Top-down proteomics; ion trap CID; ion/ion reactions; quadrupole/time-of-flight; E. coli protein mixture
The effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height, stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO2 concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 μl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem, 11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO2 concentration, N concentration, and CO2×N interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO2. However, at 20 mmol N/L, elevated CO2 had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO2 concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios. Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO2 concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO2 condition.
Carbon dioxide (CO2); Brassica alboglabra; Nitrogen (N); Growth; Bolting stem; Aliphatic glucosinolates; Indolyl glucosinolates; Carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N); Nitrogen/sulfur ratio (N/S)